Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Cardanol is a constituent of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid that presents larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. The isolation of cardanol is somewhat troublesome, however, in this work we describe an efficient and inexpensive method to obtain it as a pure material. The compound was used as starting material to make chemical transformation leading to saturated cardanol, epoxides and, halohydrins. These derivatives were tested for toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae. The results showed that iodohydrins are very promising compounds for making commercial products to combat the vector mosquito larvae presenting a LC50 of 0.0023 ppm after 72 h of exposure.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A simple and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of furan and vinyl acetate (VA) in vapor phase of mainstream cigarette smoke with cold trap and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. A Cambridge filter pad (CFP) was placed in front of the impingers of smoking machine to remove the particle phase from cigarette smoke. Furan and VA in vapor phase of mainstream cigarette smoke were collected in two impingers connected in series by filled with methanol at -78°C. The solutions were added with deuterium-labeled furan-d4 and VA-d6 as internal standards and analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that the calibration curves for furan and VA were linear (r2 > 0.9995) over the studied concentration range. The intra- and inter-day precision values for furan and VA were <7.07% and <9.62%, respectively. The extraction recoveries of furan and VA were in the range of 94.5-97.7% and 92.3-94.9%, respectively. Moreover, the limits of detection for furan and VA were 0.028 µg mL-1 and 1.3 ng mL-1, respectively. The validated method has been successfully applied to determine the emissions of furan and VA in the vapor phase of mainstream cigarette smoke under International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) smoking regimen.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Water availability restrictions are already a reality in several countries. This issue is likely to worsen due to climate change, predicted for the upcoming decades. This study aims to estimate the impacts of climate change on groundwater system in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone. Global Climate Models (GCM) outputs were used as inputs to a water balance model, which produced recharge estimates for the groundwater model. Recharge was estimated across different land use types considering a control period from 2004 to 2014, and a future period from 2081 to 2099. Major changes in monthly rainfall means are expected to take place in dry seasons. Most of the analysed scenarios predict increase of more than 2 ºC in monthly mean temperatures. Comparing the control and future runs, our results showed a mean recharge change among scenarios that ranged from ~-80 to ~+60%, depending on the land use type. As a result of such decrease in recharge rates, the response given by the groundwater model indicates a lowering of the water table under most scenarios.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This paper presents a sedimentological and stratigraphical study of Quaternary (Middle to Late Pleistocene/Holocene) continental carbonates outcrops inside Pantanal Basin and its surroundings, especially in Serra da Bodoquena, Pantanal do Miranda and Corumbá/Ladário plateau, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, as well as in Serra das Araras, in the state of Mato Grosso. The aim is to understand the depositional paleoenvironments and analyse climate and tectonic influences in their genesis and evolution. The results show that the deposition of these continental carbonates started in the Middle to Late Pleistocene and have continued, with some interruptions, until the present days. Sedimentary successions were identified in the different areas, without complete correlation. Two sedimentary successions separated by an erosional surface were described in Serra da Bodoquena and Serra das Araras. In Corumbá and Pantanal do Miranda, only one succession was described. These successions were deposited in elongated lakes parallel to fault planes; small lakes, related plains and plateaus; springs related to cliffs produced by faulting; rivers conditioned by topographic variation. The climatic interpretation, without proper temporal resolution, obtained by the stable-isotope composition and stratigraphic interpretation, indicates alternation of dry and wet periods. The Neoproterozoic faults with their neotectonics and the subsidence of the Pantanal Basin, are the major control for carbonated water flow and development of depositional areas, gradually turning plateaus into slight tilted areas, allowing the evolution of depositional systems from lakes to rivers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT When considering the numerous events that have prohibited the development of scientific projects or caused destruction of outcrops, it is clear that there is rapidly increasing necessity to define a Brazilian Code of Conduct for geological fieldwork. In general, this destruction is attributed to lack of knowledge as to the relevance of geological sites. The aim of this Code of Conduct is to guide geologists to adopt good practices during geoscience activities. Proposed guidelines are based on Codes of Conduct from other countries, mainly Scotland and England, on situations described in papers and on the personal experience of the authors. In this paper 29 points are suggested, in order to guarantee that fieldwork is conducted in accordance with geoethics, geoconservation and sustainability values. The proposal is structured in three parts: (1) Behavior and practices in respect to local traditions and providing information to the population; (2) Measures to minimize degradation on outcrops; and (3) Safety. The proposal seeks to broaden the debate on the need for responsible behavior during fieldwork, in order to promote respect for geodiversity. Through this code, Brazilian geoscientists will be able to contribute to the conservation of geological heritage and of outcrops with special educational relevance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study investigated the anesthetic potential of the essential oil (EO) of Aloysia polystachya in juveniles of dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus). Fish were exposed to different concentrations of EO of A. polystachya to evaluate time of induction and recovery from anesthesia. In the second experiment, fish were divided into four groups: control, ethanol and 50 or 300 µL L−1 EO of A. polystachya, and each group was submitted to induction for 3.5 min and recovery for 5 or 10 min. The blood gases and glucose levels showed alterations as a function of the recovery times, but Na+ and K+ levels did not show any alteration. In conclusion, the EO from leaves of A. polystachya is an effective anesthetic for dusky grouper, because anesthesia was reached within the recommended time at EO concentrations of 300 and 400 µL L−1. However, most evaluated blood parameters showed compensatory responses due to EO exposure.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study investigated the antioxidant effect of a new class of quinoline derivatives (a-d) on assays in vitro. Lipid peroxidation, thiol peroxidase-like and free radical scavenging activities were determined to evaluate antioxidant activity of compounds. Thiol oxidase-like and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activities were performed as a toxicological parameter. A second objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo antinociceptive effect of the compound with better antioxidant effect and without toxic effects in a model of nociception induced by formalin in mice. In liver, at 100 µM, compound a reduced the lipid peroxidation to the control levels, while compounds c and d partially reduced it. In brain, only compound d partially reduced the lipid peroxidation at 50 and 100 µM. Compound b did not have an effect on the lipid peroxidation. Thiol peroxidase-like and free radical scavenging activities are not involved in the antioxidant mechanisms of these compounds. Compounds did not present thiol oxidase-like activity and effect on the δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase. In vivo experiments showed that compound a caused an inhibition of licking time in the first and second phases, and edema formation induced by formalin. In conclusion, quinoline derivative without selenium presented better in vitro antioxidant effect and in vivo antinociceptive activity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We studied the effects of particulate and dissolved optically active components on the attenuation of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) in a tropical lake. The temporal and spatial distribution of tripton, Chl-a and aCDOM(440) and their relative contribution to the diffuse PAR attenuation coefficient (Kd) was investigated at 21 sites (dry and wet seasons and two intermediate periods) and at monthly interval at 1 pelagic site. Higher values of Kd were observed during the mixing period, characterized by a higher concentration of tripton and Chl-a compared to the stratified rainy season. In the spatial sampling PAR attenuation was dominated by tripton absorption/scattering (average relative contribution of 79%), followed by Chl-a (average 11.6%). In the monthly sampling tripton and Chl-a accounted for most of the Kd with relative contributions of 47.8% and 35.6%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Chl-a and tripton in combination explained 97% of the monthly variation in Kd (p<0.001), but Chl-a had more influence (higher regression coefficient). Thus, although most of light attenuation was due to tripton, seasonal variations in phytoplankton abundance were responsible for most of the temporal fluctuations in Kd.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Biodiversity decline has been the focus of discussions in the last decade, especially on the amphibian species decline. After a scientometric analysis using international databases, we found that the number of peer-reviewed articles considering education practices related to the theme increased along with the number of ecological researches. However, the increase in ecological researches is much higher than the increase in publications of education practices. Studies suggest that conservation attitudes are important and that education practices are an important tool for improving human perceptions on this subject. In this sense, increase the publication of projects and programs results related to local education practices in international journals could help the dissemination of efficient methods for conservation, as well as facilitating access to information internationally, since species decline, especially for amphibians, is a global concern. Then, we suggest that educational practices, at least when related to conservation, should follow a more standardized protocol, and be published in international journals, as the efficiency of such practices should be evaluated and methods once published could help other nations to improve their ecological literacy.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the 516 G>T polymorphism of the CYP2B6 gene and evaluate its influence on central nervous system (CNS) side effect development in HIV-positive individuals undergoing Efavirenz (EFV) treatment in a population from southern Brazil. Additionally, we performed a survey on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of our sample. In addition to medical records evaluation, whole blood of 89 individuals was analyzed for viral load, T lymphocyte count (CD4+ and CD8+), and the polymorphism. Considering the side effects of the CNS reported by individuals but without considering the genetic variables, no statistically significant association was noted between the adverse effects and the antiretroviral treatment (including or not EFV). In addition, no statistically significant difference was noted for the influence of genotype on the viral load or the number of T lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+) among individuals undergoing EFV treatment. This is the first study that investigated the impact of the 516 G>T polymorphism of the CYP2B6 gene among HIV-positive individuals from southern Brazil. Its clinical significance indicates the need for prospective studies in this population.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (PNI) (Brazilian Southeast Region) was surveyed monthly for insect galls from February/2014 to December/ 2015. A total of 432 gall morphotypes were found. This number places the PNI as the richest Atlantic forest area in number of gall morphotypes. The galls were found on 47 plant families. Among them, Asteraceae were pointed out as the superhost. The gall richness in the lower part of the PNI is higher than that of the plateau. The insect galls were found in 154 native, 56 endemic and only one exotic plant species. Concerning the conservational status, the host plants include two vulnerable species with three morphotypes together. Several new botanical records were reported. Leaves were the most galled plant organ, followed by stems. Globoid, green, glabrous and one-chambered galls were the most frequent. Cecidomyiidae were the most common gallers. Parasitoids, successors and inquilines composed the associated fauna.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Peel extracts of litchi and rambutan, and that of tamarind seed coat were investigated in relation to their utility in skin-aging treatments. Standardized extracts of tamarind were significantly (p < 0.05) more efficient at O2 •- scavenging (IC50 = 27.44 ± 0.09) than those of litchi and rambutan (IC50 = 29.57 ± 0.30 and 39.49 ± 0.52 μg/ml, respectively) and the quercetin standard (IC50 = 31.88 ± 0.15 μg/ml). Litchi extract proved significantly (p < 0.05) more effective for elastase and collagenase inhibition (88.29 ± 0.25% and 79.46 ± 0.92%, respectively) than tamarind (35.43 ± 0.68% and 57.69 ± 5.97%) or rambutan (31.08 ± 0.38% and 53.99 ± 6.18%). All extracts were safe to human skin fibroblasts and inhibit MMP-2, with litchi extract showing significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced inhibition over the standard, vitamin C (23.75 ± 2.74% and 10.42 ± 5.91% at 0.05 mg/ml, respectively). Extracts suppress melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells through inhibition of tyrosinase and TRP-2, with litchi extract being the most potent, even more so than kojic acid (standard). These results highlight the potential for adding value to agro-industrial waste, as the basis for the sustainable production of innovative, safe, anti-aging cosmetic products.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and those non-diagnosed or misdiagnosed comprise a significant group compared to those diagnosed. Accumulated scientific evidence indicate that the current diagnostic markers (fasting glycemia, 2h glycemia after an oral glucose load and HbA1c) are indeed late diagnostic criteria when considering the incidence of diabetes-related complications and comorbidities, which are also at high risk in some groups among normoglycemic individuals. Additionally, the earlier identification of future risk of diabetes is desirable since it would allow better adherence to preventive actions such as lifestyle intervention, ultimately avoiding complications and minimizing the economic impact/burden on health care expenses. Insulin resistance and hyperhormonemia (insulin, amylin, glucagon) are non-disputable hallmarks of T2DM, which already takes place among these normoglycemic, otherwise health subjects, characterizing a state of subclinical diabetes. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia can be computed from fasting plasma insulin as an independent variable in normoglycemia. An overview of the current diagnostic criteria, disease onset, complications, comorbidities and perspectives on lifestyle interventions are presented. A proposal for early detection of subclinical diabetes from routine evaluation of fasting plasma insulin, which is affordable and robust and thus applicable for the general population, is further suggested.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The endothelium is fundamental for the regulation of vascular tone and structure. Under disease conditions, including the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, the endothelium loses its protective role and becomes a proatherosclerotic structure. In this article we searched for strategies from PUBMED and Science Direct databases using the following key words: endothelium, natural bioactive compounds, polyphenols and cardiovascular diseases. The search was restricted to english language papers. Studies have identified the contribution of diet to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. In this context, high intakes of fruit and vegetables are associated with the decrease of cardiovascular diseases. Thus the most important fruit/vegetables and bioactive compounds to prevent endothelial diseases are berries, apples, virgin olive oil, tomatoes, soybeans, and polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. The bioactive compounds from fruit and vegetables provide endothelial protection through the following mechanisms: improved eNOS/NO bioavailability, attenuates oxidative stress, inhibited NF-κB pathway and decreased cell adhesion molecules expression. In this article natural bioactive compound mechanisms of endothelium protection are thoroughly reviewed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The development of DBA/2J mouse strain embryos is nearly 12 h - or 6 somite pairs - delayed as compared to the outbred NMRI mouse embryos of the same age on gestation days (GD) 8-12. To evaluate inter-strain differences in susceptibility to teratogens, dams were treated with methylnitrosourea (MNU, 5 mg/kg body weight i.p.) on defined gestation days (NMRI: GD 9, 91/2 or 10; DBA/2J: GD 10 or 101/2). Skeletal anomalies produced by MNU on both mouse strains varied with the GD of treatment. The pattern of anomalies produced by MNU on a given GD markedly differed between the two mouse strains, yet they were similar -with a few exceptions- when exposures at equivalent embryonic stages are compared. Findings from this study indicated that strain-dependent differences in the developmental stage of mouse embryos of the same gestational age occur, a possibility that has been often neglected when inter-strain differences in susceptibility to developmental toxicants are interpreted.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Several molecules and events involved in cell response to radiation-induced damage have been investigated towards a personalized radiotherapy. Considering the importance of active caspase-3 in the proteolytic cascade that ensures radiation-induced apoptosis execution, this research was designed to evaluate the expression levels of this protein as a bioindicator of individual radiosensitivity. Peripheral blood samples of 10 healthy individuals were gamma-irradiated (cobalt-60 source) with 1, 2 and 4 Gy (control: non-irradiated samples), and active caspase-3 expression levels were measured in lymphocytes, by flow cytometry, ex vivo and after different times of in vitro incubation (24, 48 and 72 hours). Short-term incubation of 24 h was the most adequate condition to evidence correlations between dose radiation and active caspase-3 expression. For each radiation dose, it was observed a significant inter-individual variation in active caspase-3 expression intensity, suggesting that this parameter may be suitable for evidence individual radiosensitivity. The methodology presented and discussed in this work may help to predict healthy tissues response to radiation exposure toward the better patient outcome.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Mori folium, the leaf of Morus alba L. (Moraceae), has been traditionally used for various medicinal purposes from ancient times to the present. In this study, we examined the effects of water extract of Mori folium (WEMF) on the production of inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our data indicated that WEMF significantly suppressed the secretion of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages without any significant cytotoxicity. The protective effects were accompanied by a marked reduction in their regulatory gene expression at the transcription level. WEMF attenuated LPS-induced intracellular ROS production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. It inhibited the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-kappa B p65 subunit and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, WEMF reduced LPS-induced NO production and ROS accumulation in zebrafish. Although more efforts are needed to fully understand the critical role of WEMF in the inhibition of inflammation, the findings of the present study may provide insights into the approaches for Mori folium as a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory and antioxidant disorders.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The BK virus (BKV) produces a subclinical kidney infection in immunocompetent individuals. However, viremia may occur in kidney transplant patients with ongoing immunosuppression. BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVN) has no specific treatment and is a leading cause of organ transplant loss. In this study, we evaluated the predisposition and the clinical impact of BKV replication in kidney transplant patients during post-transplant monitoring in a reference institution in Brazil. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data generated during routine outpatient follow-up were retrospectively collected. BK viremia was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of the 553 participants, 7.4% (n = 41) presented BKV replication. Of these, 16 (39%) lost their kidney graft and interstitial nephritis was identified on kidney biopsy in 50% of the cases. Among the evaluated variables, only the use of the immunosuppressant mycophenolate sodium was identified as a risk factor for viremia (OR 7.96; 95% CI 2.35 to 26.98). The graft survival estimate in BKV-positive patients was significantly reduced (24.8% vs. 85.6%) after 10 years of transplantation. We concluded that defining predisposing factors remains an important challenge for the prevention and control of BKV activity following kidney transplantation, especially considering the development of BKVN and its strong effect on graft maintenance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Transrectal access still has some unsolved issues such as spatial orientation, infection, access and site closure. This study presents a simple technique to perform transcolonic access with survival in a swine model series. A new technique for NOTES perirectal access to perform retroperitoneoscopy, peritoneoscopy, liver and lymphnode biopsies was performed in 6 pigs, using Totally NOTES technique. The specimens were extracted transanally. The flexible endoscope was inserted through a posterior transmural incision and the retrorectal space. Cultures of bacteria were documented for the retroperitoneal space and intra abdominal cavity after 14 days. Rectal site was closed using non-absorbable sutures. There was no bowel cleansing, nor preoperative fasting. The procedures were performed in 6 pigs through transcolonic natural orifice access using available endoscopic flexible instruments. All animals survived 14 days without complications, and cultures were negative. Histopathologic examination of the rectal closure site showed adequate healing of suture line and no micro abscesses. The results of feasibility and safety of experimental Transcolonic NOTES potentially brings new frontiers and future wider applications for minimally invasive surgery. The treatment of colorectal, abdominal and retroperitoneal diseases through a flexible Perirectal NOTES Access (PNA) is a promising new approach.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Both the scientific community and society have shown interest in improving the content of amino acids, carbohydrates and mineral nutrients in maize because it represents an important staple food in many developing countries. Earlier studies demonstrated that the treatment of seeds using ascorbic acid (AsA-seed priming) enhanced soluble carbohydrates, proteins and soluble amino acids for other species. AsA seed priming in maize showed the potential for reducing abiotic stresses. The effects on grain quality have not been previously demonstrated. This study investigated the impacts of AsA seed priming on maize kernel quality of seeds produced by the plants generated from the primed seeds, based on the amino acid profile and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient contents. AsA seed priming improved the maize kernel quality with respect to the ascorbate content, boron allocation, total carbohydrate content and increased soluble amino acid levels, including serine, tyrosine, alanine, valine, glutamate, arginine, proline, aspartate, lysine and isoleucine, whereas soluble methionine was decreased. Therefore, AsA seed priming can represent a potential technique for improving maize grain quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Decision support for nutrient application remains an enigma if based on soil nutrient analysis. If the crop could be used as an auxiliary indicator, the plant nutrient status during different growth stages could complement the soil test, improving the fertilizer recommendation. Nutrient absorption and partitioning in the plant are here studied and described with mathematical models. The objective of this study considers the temporal variation of the nutrient uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in soil solution. A uniform maize crop was grown to observe dry matter accumulation and nutrient content in the plant. The dry matter accumulation followed a sigmoidal model and the macronutrient content a power model. The maximum nutrient absorption occurred at the R4 growth stage, for which the sap concentration was successfully calculated. It is hoped that this new approach of evaluating nutrient sap concentration will help to develop more rational ways to estimate crop fertilizer needs. This new approach has great potential for on-the-go crop sensor-based nutrient application methods and its sensitivity to soil tillage and management systems need to be examined in following studies. If mathematical model reflects management impact adequately, resources for experiments can be saved.
Abstract in English:Abstract A performance assessment of active magnetocaloric regenerators using entropy generation minimization is presented. The model consists of the Brinkman-Forchheimer equation to describe the fluid flow and coupled energy equations for the fluid and solid phases. Entropy generation contributions due to axial heat conduction, fluid friction and interstitial heat transfer are considered. Based on the velocity and temperature profiles, local rates of entropy generation per unit volume were integrated to give the cycle-average entropy generation in the regenerator, which is the objective function of the optimization procedure. The solid matrix is a bed of gadolinium spherical particles and the working fluid is water. Performance evaluation criteria of fixed cross-section (face) area (FA) and variable geometry (VG) are incorporated into the optimization procedure to identify the most appropriate parameters and operating conditions under fixed constraints of specified temperature span and cooling capacity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Enzymatically crossliked gelatin hydrogel was submitted to two different drying methods: air drying and freeze drying. The resulting polymeric tridimensional arrangement (compact or porous, respectively) led to different thermal and swelling properties. Significant differences (p < 0.05) on thermal and mechanical characteristics as well as swelling in non-enzymatic gastric and intestinal simulated fluids (37 ºC) were detected. Water absorption data in such media was modelled according to Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, and Peppas-Sahlin equations. Freeze dried hydrogel showed Fickian diffusion behavior while air dried hydrogels presented poor adjustment to Higuchi model suggesting the importance of the relaxation mechanism at the beginning of swelling process. It was possible to conclude that the same gelatin hydrogel may be suitable to different applications depending on the drying process used.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Fostering innovation and creativity is a priority in the science and education policy agenda of most countries, which have advocated that innovative minds and processes will boost scientific and economic growth. While our knowledge society has embraced this view, fostering creativity is among the major challenges faced by educators and policymakers. For example, plagiarism, which may be considered a form of imitation and repetition, is a global concern at schools and universities. However, most discussions focus on academic integrity, which, we believe, leaves some gaps in the approach to the problem. As part of an ongoing project on plagiarism, science and education policy, we show results from a survey sent to 143 high-school science teachers at one of the most highly regarded federal schools in Brazil. Among respondents (n=42), about 50% admit that students plagiarize in assignments. Additionally, many of these educators suggest that the way biology, chemistry and physics are taught at school stimulates more repetition than creativity. Our findings are consistent with the need for a broader perspective on plagiarism and with initiatives to stimulate creativity and critical thinking among students. Although we offer a perspective from Brazil, it may illuminate current discussions on plagiarism, particularly in emerging countries.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program - Science without Borders (SwB) - saw the concession of over 101 thousand scholarships for Brazilian STEM students and education professionals to attend universities worldwide. As the first phase of this program ends, it is time to take a first look at its impacts, mainly on the undergraduate student body (79% of total scholarships implemented). Benefits included a 6-month language course (optional), a one year undergraduate course and optional 2 month internship in a university, government laboratory or technology company. Positive impacts have been seen on entrance into post-graduate programs (>20% of SwB students compared to <5% of the overall student body of similar fields), as well as high representation of lower income families (>50% from families with less than 6 minimum wages per month). The impact of the program will need to be evaluated over the next years, but innovation on the part of the students is already apparent. Any new SwB program needs to take into account the lessons learned from this first experience and therefore recommendations are presented.