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Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Volume: 91, Issue: 1, Published: 2019
  • The Nadarajah-Haghighi Lindley distribution Mathematical Sciences

    PEÑA-RAMÍREZ, FERNANDO A.; GUERRA, RENATA R.; CORDEIRO, GAUSS M.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: We define a new lifetime model based on compounding the Lindley and Nadarajah-Haghighi distributions. The proposed distribution is very competitive to other lifetime models. Some of its mathematical properties are investigated including generating function, mean residual life, moments, Bonferroni and Lorenz curves and mean deviations. We discuss the estimation of the model parameters by maximum likelihood. We provide a simulation study and two applications to real data for illustrative purposes. We prove empirically that the new distribution yields good fits to both data sets, and it can be a useful alternative for other classical lifetime models.
  • A new class of lifetime models and the evaluation of the confidence intervals by double percentile bootstrap Mathematical Sciences

    MARINHO, PEDRO R.D.; BOURGUIGNON, MARCELO; SILVA, RODRIGO B.; CORDEIRO, GAUSS M.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a new three-parameter distribution by compounding the Nadarajah-Haghighi and geometric distributions, which can be interpreted as a truncated Marshall-Olkin extended Weibull. The compounding procedure is based on the work by Marshall and Olkin 1997. We prove that the new distribution can be obtained as a compound model with mixing exponential distribution. It can have decreasing, increasing, upside-down bathtub, bathtub-shaped, constant and decreasing-increasing-decreasing failure rate functions depending on the values of the parameters. Some mathematical properties of the new distribution are studied including moments and quantile function. The maximum likelihood estimation procedure is discussed and a particle swarm optimization algorithm is provided for estimating the model parameters. The flexibility of the new model is illustrated with an application to a real data set.
  • Monitoring of air quality before the Olympic Games Rio 2016 Chemical Sciences

    VENTURA, LUCIANA M.B.; RAMOS, MICHELLE B.; SANTOS, JÉSSICA O.; GIODA, ADRIANA

    Abstract in English:

    For the accomplishment of Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro city (Rio 2016), the government of the Rio de Janeiro state has undertaken to monitor air quality before and during the events. In Beijing, China, and Athens, Greece, the air quality was monitored in Olympic venues in order to evaluate the athletes’ performance in relation to the environment in which they were exposed. This study has the same proposal to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The air quality scenario of the three previous years (2013, 2014, 2015) of Rio 2016 was considered. Coarse (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) particles and O3 were monitored continuously on the stations located near to competition venues, as required by International Olympic Committee (IOC). The levels registered ranged from 6 to 96 μg m-3 for PM10, 1 to 44 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 121 to 269 μg m-3 for O3. These concentrations exceeded the national and international air quality standards. These high concentrations are associated with uncountable civil works to build Olympic arenas and the urban mobility´s improvement. However, the concentrations for all the pollutants monitored in Rio de Janeiro city were in lower concentrations than in Beijing Olympic Games 2008.
  • Surface modification of activated carbon by corona treatment Chemical Sciences

    PEGO, MATHEUS F.F.; BIANCHI, MARIA LÚCIA; CARVALHO, JANAÍNA A.; VEIGA, TAIS R.L.A.

    Abstract in English:

    Surface modification may lead activated carbon (AC) to take on different properties. This study aimed to promote surface modification of activated carbons using corona treatment (electrical discharge). In this study, powdered commercial activated carbon was used. Activated carbons were subjected to corona treatment at different exposure times (2, 5, 8 and 10 min) at 4.5 cm height from the source. To observe differences promoted by treatment, activated carbons were analyzed by acidity, surface functional groups, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis (CHN), proximate analysis and thermogravimetry. Corona treatment impacted surface chemistry of activated carbons. There was a trend of increasing surface acidity according to exposure time. There were changes in functional groups, increasing carboxyl acid and decreasing lactone and phenol groups. FTIR analysis showed peaks in the bands at 3500, 1650 and 1300 cm-1. Increase of oxygen content and decrease of carbon content were also found. Immediate analysis followed similar tendency for volatile and fixed carbon content. There were also differences in thermogravimetry analysis. Treated activated carbons were different compared to virgin activated carbon. This difference was performed by surface oxidation. Thus, this study showed that corona treatment caused surface modifications and might impact adsorption process.
  • Phenolic compounds from the rhizome of Renealmia nicolaioides Loes.: a new diarylheptanoid Chemical Sciences

    GEVÚ, KATHLYN V.; CARVALHO, MÁRIO G. DE; SILVA, ILNA G. DA; LIMA, HELENA R.P.; CASTRO, ROSANE N.; CUNHA, MAURA DA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study aims to identify phenolic compounds in dichloromethane and methanolic extracts of the rhizome of Renealmia nicolaioides collected in the North Region of Brazil. Two known diarylheptanoids, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-(1E)-1-hepten-3-one (1), and 5R-1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1E-hepten-5-ol (2), and a new one (1R,2S,5S)-2-hydroxy-1,7(p-hydroxyphenyl)-centrolobine (3), as well as one flavonoid, 3-metoxi-quercetin (4) were isolated by chromatographic procedure and identified by spectroscopic techniques (1H and13C NMR, HRMS and CD). The acetyl derivative of 2 was used to confirm its structure. All four compounds are reported for the first time for this genus, and this is the first occurrence of compound 1 as a natural metabolite. The results reported here are unprecedented for the genus Renealmia.
  • Porcupine gnaw marks on a Late Pliocene bone from the Upper Siwaliks exposed near Village Khetpurali (Haryana, India) Earth Sciences

    KAUR, JAGJEET; PATNAIK, RAJEEV; SINGH, BAHADUR; KRISHAN, KEWAL

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Abstract:Bone accumulation by porcupines at archaeological sites is well known. However, in paleontological sites such a taphonomical occurrence is rather rare. We here report porcupine (Hystrix sp.) gnaw marks on an unidentified bone fragment, dated to ~2.6 Ma from the Upper Siwalik deposits exposed near Khetpurali (Haryana), India. The present gnaw marks are very distinct and are characterized by visible edges and grooves making clear broad and shallow furrows. The present find adds to our knowledge of Siwalik vertebrate taphonomy where most of the accumulations reported earlier were either fluvial or made by carnivores.
  • The performance of the (U+Th)/He thermochronology laboratory at UNESP Rio Claro, Brazil Earth Sciences

    SIQUEIRA-RIBEIRO, MARLI C.; MARIN, DANIELI F.C.; HACKSPACHER, PETER C.; STUART, FINLAY M.

    Abstract in English:

    We have developed the first laboratory for (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronology measurements in South America. Helium is measured using a high-sensitivity magnetic sector mass spectrometer (GVI-Helix-SFT) and a double focusing single collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Thermo Scientific ELEMENT2) is used for U, Th and Sm determinations. Repeated analyses of fragments of Durango fluorapatite crystals yields an average age of 31.6 ± 1.6 Ma (2σ) (n=62). This overlaps the long-term average of Durango fluorapatite measured in laboratories worldwide. The analysis of multiple single apatite crystals of a Precambrian basement sample from Serra do Mar, southeastern Brazil, yields an average He age (60.5 ± 8.7 Ma; n=8) that overlaps that measured in the SUERC laboratory (59.6 ± 3 Ma; n=3). This confirms that the UNESP laboratory is capable of routinely measuring the (U-Th-Sm)/He ages of single apatite crystals.
  • Neotectonics as a structural control of the boundaries of the Pantanal Matogrossense Sub-Regions Earth Sciences

    MIOTO, CAMILA L.; AMORIM, GUSTAVO; MACHADO, ROMULO; DALMAS, FABRÍCIO B.; OLIVEIRA, ANA PAULA G.; SAAD, ANTONIO R.; DIODATO, MARCO ANTONIO; FILHO, ANTONIO C. PARANHOS

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Characterized by fluvio-alluvial sedimentation processes, the heterogeneity in the Pantanal Basin allows its division in several sub-regions, which present natural characteristics of their own. It is possible to find in the literature different proposals to subdivide the Pantanal plain, which vary in total area and number of sub-regions. Each author uses specific criteria – mainly vegetation, soil and humidity – in his delimitation, but does not consider the tectonic aspects of the basin. In this sense, we intend to analyze three Pantanal delimitations from the literature and to relate them to the neotectonic context of the Pantanal plain by comparing the boundaries proposed in the delimitations to structural lineaments present in the basin. As a result, we observe that the comparison of the Pantanal boundaries with the lineaments shows a high compatibility between them, suggesting the influence of these structures in the development of the sub-regions.
  • Antifungal susceptibility of yeasts isolated from anthropogenic watershed Biological Sciences

    MILANEZI, ANA C.M.; WITUSK, JOÃO P.D.; VAN DER SAND, SUELI T.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Yeasts are unicellular fungi widespread in the environment, and studies suggest that there is a positive correlation between yeast and polluted aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to analyze the diversity and resistance of yeasts isolated from water samples collected along the Arroio Dilúvio in Porto Alegre to antifungals. Yeast isolates from the Arroio Dilúvio were subjected to susceptibility assays against antifungals using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test, and amplification of the ITS1-5.8S-IT2 region; in addition, the ITS-5.8S region was sequenced for some of the isolates. The amplification product was subjected to PCR-RFLP, and the restriction profile allowed the construction of a dendrogram. Susceptibility tests showed a high prevalence of resistance to azole antifungals, where 16.8% of the isolates had a resistance profile to amphotericin B. The sequence analysis allowed the identification of Candida species, including potentially pathogenic species, and species of the Debaryomyces spp. The resistance to antifungals in yeasts isolated from Arroio Dilúvio reinforces the importance of studies of environmental microbiota, and indicates that environmental degradation influences the phenotype displayed.
  • Lizard assemblages on sandy coastal plains in southeastern Brazil: An analysis of occurrence and composition, and the role of habitat structure Biological Sciences

    OLIVEIRA, JANE C.F.; PEREIRA-RIBEIRO, JULIANE; WINCK, GISELE R.; ROCHA, CARLOS F.D.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Data on the structure of lizard communities in the different biomes and ecosystems of Brazil are still limited. In this study, we related the species richness, abundance and the spatial occurrence of lizards to the structure of the vegetation found on the coast of the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, to determine whether habitat influences the structure of lizard communities. We conducted fieldwork in 2012, 2013 and 2014, collecting data in standardized samples. We analyze whether variables of vegetation structure influenced species richness and abundance, using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). We recorded 12 lizard species from eight families. In general, species richness and abundance were similar among sites. Locally, we recorded the highest species richness in shrubby vegetation, open Clusia vegetation, and the restinga forest zone. Bromeliads explained the occurrence of teiids, although there was no systematic relationship between species richness and vegetation structure. Our results provide important insights into the characteristics of the lizard communities found on sandy coastal plains and contribute to the conservation of these species in these ecosystems.
  • Zooplankton community attributes in an oligo-mesotrophic reservoir: A comparative study of two sampling strategies Biological Sciences

    MACÊDO, RAFAEL L.; LOPES, VANESSA G.; KOZLOWSKYSUZUKI, BETINA; BRANCO, CHRISTINA W.C.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Studies of the limnetic zooplankton in Brazilian freshwater have been done using several sampling strategies which are frequently associated to personal preferences, system constraints and objectives of the studies. It is known that a better sampling technique exists for each group of investigated zooplankton. So, the challenge is to provide a good sampling method for all groups at once. Regarding this theme we are contributing by pointing out the merits and demerits of two collecting methods of zooplankton widely used in many studies in Brazilian reservoirs to clarify the information about communities’ structure in past published and non-published biological data and also find a more useful sampler for future studies. Two simultaneous strategies were used with a 68μm-plankton net: filtration of water collected at sub-surface by bucket and vertical hauls throughout the euphotic zone. A total of 133 taxa was found with both strategies. Rotifers (69 taxa) comprised the group with the highest richness, followed by protozoans (31 taxa), cladocerans (30 taxa) and copepods (5 taxa). Paired t-tests showed significant difference for richness despite none for density in whole period. Spatially, sampling strategies differed in abundance and composition of zooplankton at most sites sampled (except for L1- shallowest site and L4 – deepest site). Temporally, both samplers showed the highest mean abundances at thermal stratification period. In general, the extent of spatial data collected throughout the vertical gradient provided better estimations in the limnetic area for the attributes analyzed: zooplankton density, richness, specific diversity, equitability and cumulative richness. Zooplankton sampling by vertical hauls through the euphotic zone was more efficient, but in order to obtain integrated data and according to the collector’s curve it might be useful to adopt both methodologies.
  • Ecotoxicology assay for the evaluation of environmental water quality in a tropical urban estuary Biological Sciences

    NILIN, JEAMYLLE; SANTOS, ANDERSON A.O.; NASCIMENTO, MEGGIE K.S.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Most studies evaluating the impacts of river pollution in the semi-arid region of Brazil have been geared towards physiochemical analyses, and investigations of the adverse effects of water pollution on associated organisms are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the water quality in the Poxim river estuary in Aracaju, Sergipe throughout the dry and rainy season by evaluating the survival of the microcrustacean Mysidopsis juniae and physicochemical analyses. The evaluation of physiochemical parameters revealed a decrease in dissolved oxygen content in the rainy season. However, there was a significant reduction in microcrustacean survival in samples during the dry season, when the river flow is reduced and effluents become concentrated. These results suggest that pollutants received and carried by the waters of the Poxim River contribute to the reduction of environmental quality in the estuary, and this impact may vary according to dry and rainy patterns, that are uncertain considering the impacts of climate change on tropical regions.
  • Anticipating the response of the Brazilian giant earthworm (Rhinodrilus alatus) to climate change: implications for its traditional use Biological Sciences

    HUGHES, FREDERIC M.; CÔRTES-FIGUEIRA, JOSÉ EUGÊNIO; DRUMOND, MARIA AUXILIADORA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Our understanding of the impacts of ongoing global warming on terrestrial species has increased significantly during the last several years, but how climatic change has affected, and will affect, the distribution of earthworms remains largely unknown. We used climate niche modeling to model the current distribution of the giant earthworm Rhinodrilus alatus - an endemic species of the Cerrado Domain in Brazil, which is traditionally harvested and commercialized for fishing bait. R. alatus is sensitive to environmental changes because climate, in synergy with soil attributes, determine its annual reproductive cycle and distribution. The paleoclimatic reconstructions predict important geographical shifts from LGM (~21,000 yBp) to the present potential distribution of R. alatus: range expansion, fragmentation, and shrinkage of the current core area. Further, the 2070 scenarios predict substantial shrink and losses of stable areas. Our results indicate that climate change will not only affect the extent of the distribution, but will also promote significant fragmentation and a geographical shift to outside of the currently recognized geographical boundaries. In this context, populations of R. alatus would decline and traditional harvesting would collapse, requiring immediate implementation of management and conservation measures for the species and economically sustainable alternatives for the local community.
  • Large-Scale Spatial and Temporal Variability of Larval Fish Assemblages in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Biological Sciences

    SOUZA, CHRISTIANE S. DE; MAFALDA, PAULO O.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study investigated the large-scale spatial and temporal variability of larval fish assemblages in the west tropical Atlantic Ocean. The sampling was performed during four expeditions. Identification resulted in 100 taxa (64 families, 19 orders and 17 suborders). During the four periods, 80% of the total larvae taken represented eight characteristics families (Scombridae, Carangidae, Paralepididae, Bothidae, Gonostomatidae, Scaridae, Gobiidae and Myctophidae). Fish larvae showed a rather heterogeneous distribution with density at each station ranging from 0.5 to 2000 larvae per 100m3. A general trend was observed, lower densities at oceanic area and higher densities in the seamounts and islands. A gradient in temperature, salinity, phytoplankton biomass, zooplankton biomass and station depth was strongly correlated with changes in ichthyoplankton structure. Myctophidae, and Paralepididae presented increased abundance at high salinities and temperatures. Bothidae and Gobiidae were more abundant at higher phytoplankton biomass and zooplankton biomass. Scaridae, Scombridae and Gonostomatidae had higher abundances at deep offshore stations. Different events might be responsible for the formation, maintenance and breakdown of fish larvae assemblage in the tropical oceanic area of Brazil. The results suggested that the oceanographic variables (temperature, salinity, phytoplankton biomass, zooplankton biomass and station depth) played an important role on the distribution patterns of ichthyoplankton.
  • A new species and new records of Leptogium (Ach.) Gray (Collemataceae, Peltigerales) from Rio Grande do Sul State with an identification key for the genus Biological Sciences

    KITAURA, MARCOS J.; KOCH, NATÁLIA M.; LUCHETA, FABIANE; KÄFFER, MÁRCIA I.; SCHMITT, JAIRO L.; PEDROSO, JULIANA; MARTINS, SUZANA A.; RODRIGUES, ANDRESSA S.; CANÊZ, LUCIANA S.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Abstract: Specimens of Leptogium collected in ten localities from the State of Rio Grande do Sul were studied. Sixteen species were found of 28 records mentioned to the state, which represents around 57% of the Leptogium diversity known for Rio Grande do Sul. Leptogium exaratum is proposed as a new species. Leptogium atlanticum, L. milligranum and L. vesiculosum are reported for the first time to the state. The lectotype of L. javanicum is reported here and detailed descriptions are provided to the examined specimens. An identification key is showed with all the 28 mentioned species of Leptogium. It is the first published taxonomic key for Leptogium from Rio Grande do Sul, the State with the highest diversity of this genus in Brazil.
  • Community ecology of parasites in four species of Corydoras (Callichthyidae), ornamental fish endemic to the eastern Amazon (Brazil) Biological Sciences

    FERREIRA, MAKSON M.; PASSADOR, RAFAEL J.; TAVARES-DIAS, MARCOS

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Abstract: This study compared the parasites community in Corydoras ephippifer, Corydoras melanistius, Corydoras amapaensis and Corydoras spilurus from tributaries from the Amapari River in State of Amapá (Brazil). A total of 151 fish of these four ornamental species were examined, of which 66.2% were parasitized by one or more species, and a total of 732 parasites were collected. Corydoras ephippifer (91.2%) and C. spilurus (98.8%) were the most parasitized hosts, while C. amapaensis (9.6%) was the least parasitized. A high similarity (≅ 75%) of parasite communities was found in the host species. Hosts were parasitized by Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Camallanus sp. and metacercariae of digeneans. The parasites had an aggregated dispersion pattern, but in C. ephippifer a random dispersion of P. (S.) inopinatus was found. The parasite community was characterized by a low species richness (1-4 parasites per host), low diversity and low evenness, and consisted mainly of endoparasites with high prevalence and low abundance. An important component in the determination of the helminth parasite community composition was the dominance of species that use these fish species as secondary intermediate or paratenic hosts. This was the first study on the parasite community for these four hosts. A checklist of parasite species in wild populations of Corydoras spp. from different localities was also reported here.
  • Reproductive biology of a viviparous lizard (Mabuya dorsivittata) from the subtropical Wet Chaco of Argentina: geographical variations in response to local environmental pressures Biological Sciences

    ORTIZ, MARTÍN A.; BORETTO, JORGELINA M.; IBARGÜENGOYTÍA, NORA R.

    Abstract in English:

    Herein we studied the reproductive biology of a viviparous lizard (Mabuya dorsivittata) from the Wet Chaco region (northeastern Argentina) and compared the results with other populations from the Espinal (central Argentina) and the Atlantic Forest (southeastern Brazil), and with other Neotropical species of Mabuya to better understand the possible causes of its reproductive phenotype variation. Males and females of M. dorsivittata from the Wet Chaco exhibited associated, seasonal, and annual reproductive cycles. Spermatogenic activity related positively to a lengthening photoperiod reaching maximum activity in late spring (December). Females displayed an extended gestation period of 11 months, from mid-summer (February) to late spring or early summer (December) when births occur. Embryonic development was associated with temperature and historical rainfall. Litter size ranged from 3 to 8 (mean = 5.3 ± 1.3 SD) and increased with body size and body mass of females. Fat-body mass varied seasonally and was inversely correlated with spermatogenesis and to embryonic development. Females were larger in body size and interlimb length, and smaller in head length than males. We observed interpopulational differences in minimum body size, litter size, and timing of birth, probably as a result of phenotypic plasticity, genetic divergence or both.
  • 6-Bromoindirubin-3’-oxime promotes osteogenic differentiation of canine BMSCs through inhibition of GSK3β activity and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway Biological Sciences

    ZHAO, XIAO-E; YANG, ZHENSHAN; GAO, ZHEN; GE, JUNBANG; WEI, QIANG; MA, BAOHUA

    Abstract in English:

    This study aimed to investigate how 6-bromoindirubin-3’-oxime (BIO) increases the osteogenic differentiation of canine bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in this process. We mimicked the effect of Wnt by adding BIO to the culture medium of BMSCs and examined whether canonical Wnt signaling positively affects the differentiation of these cells into osteoblasts. Canine BMSCs were cultured with 0.5 and 1.0 μM BIO under osteogenic conditions and then differentiation markers were investigated. It was found that BIO significantly increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the number of ALP-positive cells, the mineralization level and calcium deposits. Moreover, cells cultured with 0.5 and 1.0 μM BIO exhibited detectable β-catenin expression in their nuclei, and showed upregulated β-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta(GSK3β) phosphorylation compared to untreated cells. In addition, BIO enhanced the mRNA expression of osteoblast differentiation markers such as ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2, collagen I, osteocalcin, and osteonectin. In conclusion, BIO upregulated GSK3β phosphorylation and inhibited its activity, thereby activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and promoting the osteogenic differentiation of canine BMSCs. The effect of 1.0 μM BIO on BMSCs differentiation was stronger than that of 0.5 μM BIO.
  • Distribution, diversity, and habitat partitioning of Scolecitrichidae species (Copepoda: Calanoida) down to 1,200 m in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean Biological Sciences

    DIAS, CRISTINA O.; ARAUJO, ADRIANA V. DE; BONECKER, SÉRGIO L.C.

    Abstract in English:

    In this study, we analyzed the main distributional features of Scolecitrichidae species in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (northern region of Rio de Janeiro State) and determined and described their habitat partitioning, based on a night series of stratified samplings down to a depth of 1,200 m. A total of 18 species from seven genera were identified and grouped according to their depth distribution. Distinct vertical patterns of total density, richness, diversity, and evenness were observed, with a decrease in density and an increase in diversity and richness with increasing depth. The total scolecitrichid abundance was dominated by a few epipelagic migrant species (Scolecithrix danae, Scolecithricella minor, Amallothrix tenuiserrata, and Lophothrix frontalis). The nondominant species were distributed in different habitats in the mesopelagic layer (upper-mesopelagic, mesopelagic, and lower-mesopelagic species) according to their vertical patterns of abundance and occurrence in the two sampling periods (rainy and dry season). The total density of scolecitrichid copepods was positively related to temperature and nitrate, and negatively related to silicate at 1 m depth. The abundance of scolecitrichids copepods in the upper layer with warm and oligotrophic waters supports the hypothesis of the influence of different water masses on the scolecitrichid assemblage. High abundance of appendicularians (Oikopleura longicauda) at 1 m depth in the region implies a high production rate of discarded “houses”, an important dietary component for Scolecitrichidae copepods. The observed patterns of seasonal cycles and vertical distribution suggest that the diverse scolecitrichid assemblage in the region may be structured mainly according to the partitioning of vertical habitats and food resources.
  • Sambucus australis Modulates Inflammatory Response via Inhibition of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-kB) in vitro Biological Sciences

    CARNEIRO, NORMA V.Q.; SILVA, HUGO B.F. DA; SILVA, RAIMON R. DA; CARNEIRO, TAMIRES C.B.; COSTA, RYAN S.; PIRES, ANAQUE O.; MARQUES, CINTIA R.; VELOZO, EUDES S.; CONCEIÇÃO, ADILVA S.; SILVA, TANIA M.S. DA; SILVA, TELMA M.G. DA; ALCÂNTARA-NEVES, NEUZA M.; FIGUEIREDO, CAMILA A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Medicinal plants have long been used as an alternative to traditional drugs for the treatment of inflammatory conditions due to the classical side effects and restricted access of various commercially available drugs, such as steroids (GCs) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Sambucus australis is a Brazilian herb that is commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases; however, few studies have examined the use of this species in the treatment of inflammatory conditions. The present study aims to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of S. australis in vitro. We established spleen cell cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen (PWM) to evaluate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, IFN-y, and IL-10 (by ELISA), and the expression of the transcription factor NF-kB (by RT-PCR). In addition, we evaluated the levels of nitric oxide in macrophage cultures and the membrane-stabilizing activity of S. australis methanolic extract (EMSA). Treatment with EMSA at concentrations of 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 µg/ml significantly decreased IL-4 (p<0.001) and IL-5 (p<0.001) levels. Treatment with 100 µg/ml EMSA reduced IFN-у (p<0.001) levels. Moreover, at 100 mg/ml, EMSA also increased IL-10 production and reduced NF-kB expression (p<0.01). In macrophage cultures stimulated with LPS, EMSA decreased nitric oxide levels (p<0.001) at all concentrations tested (100, 50, 25 and 12.5 µg/ml). Additionally, EMSA had a protective effect in the erythrocyte membrane stabilization assay. Taken together, these results suggest that S. australis has anti-inflammatory potential in vitro, characterized by the reduction of both inflammatory cytokines and the expression of NF-kB along with the up-regulation of IL-10.
  • Cnidom variation through distinct developmental stages in the sea anemone Aulactinia marplatensis (Zamponi, 1977) (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) Biological Sciences

    GARESE, AGUSTÍN; GONZÁLEZ-MUÑOZ, RICARDO; ACUÑA, FABIÁN H.

    Abstract in English:

    The cnidae are the exclusive diagnostic structures of phylum Cnidaria. The inventory of all cnidae types of a particular species is called the cnidom. The study of cnidae has been widely addressed in all classes of cnidarians. Particularly in the order Actiniaria (sea anemones), the study of the composition, size and distribution of cnidae is essential to the identification and description of species. In the present study, we examine the cnidom of the sea anemone Aulactinia marplatensis in three different stages of development throughout its life cycle. We found that the composition and abundance patterns are very similar between the adult and juvenile stages, although significant differences in the size capsules were found between both stages and in all cnidae types observed, being bigger those from the adult forms. The planula larvae stage presents a less diverse cnidom in comparison to the juvenile and adult stages; however, it presents an exclusive cnidae type (the mesobasic p-mastigophore) which is the biggest in size of all the cnidae types observed in the species. These results highlight the importance of considering the stage of development when cnidae is used as a diagnostic character, and the particular relevance of the study of the cnidom in larval stages.
  • First record of Utetheisa pulchella (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) in Brazilian Amazon: implications for conservation Biological Sciences

    TESTON, JOSÉ A.; CAMPELO, JANAÍNA DA C.; LOPES, ALESSANDRA M.C.; SPECHT, ALEXANDRE

    Abstract in English:

    The crimson speckled moth, Utetheisa pulchella (Linnaeus, 1758), is recorded in Brazilian Amazon for the first time. A moth (male) was collected with light trap in a multiple cropping area, in Mojuí dos Campos municipality, Pará State, Brazil. This record expands the area of occurrence and distribution of this rare species in the Neotropical Region. In addition, the occurrence of U. pulchella in the Amazon was unexpected, since this species is generally associated with open ecosystems and drier climates.
  • High-fat diet and streptozotocin in the induction of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a new proposal Biological Sciences

    MAGALHÃES, DIEGO A. DE; KUME, WILLIAN T.; CORREIA, FRANCYELE S.; QUEIROZ, THAÍS S.; ALLEBRANDT, EDGAR W.; SANTOS, MAÍSA P. DOS; KAWASHITA, NAIR H.; FRANÇA, SUÉLEM A. DE

    Abstract in English:

    Our objective was to establish a diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) model in rats using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin (HF-STZ). Male Wistar rats (240-250g) were divided into a control group (commercial feed), and HF-STZ group, (66.5%-commercial feed, 13.5%-lard, and 20%-sugar). STZ (40mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle was administered on the 13th day. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed (2.5mg of glucose/kg v.o.) on both groups. After 39 days of treatment, blood and tissue samples were collected for analyses. The weight gain after STZ administration was lower in the HF-STZ group than in the control group with reductions in muscle mass and adipose tissue. The HF-STZ group showed hyperglycemia after STZ administration (glucose on day 39: HF-STZ: 499 ± 60; control: 134 ± 9mg/dL). Serum glucagon was 23% lower, and insulin levels were unaltered. The HOMA index was 4-times higher in the HF-STZ. The HF-STZ group showed increased post-prandial (330%) and fasting (125%) triglycerides, and while glycogen content in the liver and muscles decreased (70-80%). The area under the curve (OGTT) was 282% higher in the HF-STZ group. The combination of high-fat diet with STZ (i.p) generated rats with hyperglycemia associated with hypertriglyceridemia and introduced many other alterations present in human DM2.
  • Urotrema macrotestis and Urotrema scabridum (Digenea: Urotrematidae) parasitizing bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Brazil Biological Sciences

    MELLO, ÉRICA M. DE; RABELO, ÉLIDA M.L.; SILVA, REINALDO J. DA

    Abstract in English:

    Urotrema scabridum Braun 1900 and Urotrema macrotestis Mané-Garzón and Telias 1965 are reported from the small intestine of Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843). The species were differentiated by the body width, the size and position of acetabulum, the size of testis, the caecal termination, and the distribution of vitellarium. The present study expands the distribution and the hosts of both species in Minas Gerais State and reports U. macrotestis parasitizing bats for the first time.
  • An overview of inventories of gall-inducing insects in Brazil: looking for patterns and identifying knowledge gaps Biological Sciences

    ARAÚJO, WALTER S. DE; FERNANDES, GERALDO W.; SANTOS, JEAN C.

    Abstract in English:

    We compiled published Brazilian gall-inducing insect inventories aiming to understand trends and biases in this field research and to investigate the factors that potentially explain the diversity of gall-inducing insects among different sampling sites. A total of 51 studies with gall-inducing insect inventories were compiled for Brazil, which sampled 151 sites in 88 municipalities, 13 states and five regions. The number of papers published on gall-inducing insects per year has increased over the last 30 years, being Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) the main galling taxon, Fabaceae the main host-plant family and Protium heptaphyllum (Burseraceae) the most important super-host species in these inventories. We found a great bias in the geographical distribution of Brazilian inventories, with the majority of studies in the Southeast region, and Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. The total richness of gall-inducing insects differed significantly among regions and biomes, with higher gall richnesses being recorded in the North region and Amazon biome. However, Brazilian regions and biomes did not vary in richness of gall-inducing insect morphotypes per plant species. According our results, sampling by cecidologists in less studied regions of Brazil is needed, particularly in the North and South regions and subsampled biomes such as the Amazon, Pampas and Pantanal.
  • Chemical diversity of the volatiles of Lippia rotundifolia Cham. (Verbenaceae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil Biological Sciences

    MEIRA, MESSULAN R.; MARTINS, ERNANE R.; FONSECA, FRANCINE S.A. DA

    Abstract in English:

    Lippia rotundifolia is an aromatic species, native and endemic to rocky fields, which are isolated by small mountains. It is little known about their chemical composition. Because of that we aimed to study the chemical diversity of volatiles released from rosemary leaves (Lippia rotundifolia Cham.) coming from 11 populations of the Minas Gerais, Brazil. The material for chemical analysis was obtained from the accessions in the active germplasm bank of the Instituto de Ciências agrárias of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. A total of 67 compounds were detected by HS-CG-MS. Most volatiles were detected in the São Gonçalo do Rio das Pedras accession, with 40 compounds, whereas in the Santana do Riacho accession only 5 compounds were detected. Volatiles myrcene, linalool and caryophyllene were detected in the majority of the accessions. We concluded that Lippia rotundifolia presents high chemical variability. The volatiles mircene, linalool and caryophyllene are the most frequent, detected in most of the accessions. Due to some accession to present predominance of monoterpenes, others sesquiterpenes, studies of molecular analysis are necessary for associate the chemotypes, since environmental variation influence the gene expression of the secondary metabolites.
  • Useful plants and their relation to archaeological sites in the Serra de Carajás, Brazil Biological Sciences

    SANTOS, RONIZE S.; COELHO-FERREIRA, MÁRLIA; LIMA, PEDRO G.C.; MAGALHÃES, MARCOS P.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Multidisciplinary studies including archeology and ethnobotany that seek to understand human interventions on the landscape have obtained important results concerning Amazon biodiversity. This study aims to identify the useful plants in different phytophysiognomies related to archeological sites in the Serra de Carajás, in the state of Pará, as well as expand knowledge of the local flora. Information was collected in 76 parcels located in the influence areas of 15 archaeological sites: 45 in forest vegetation, 30 in canga vegetation and 1 in palm swamps. The species were categorized as either medicinal, food, game attractants, firewood, toxic, ritualistic and material. An assessment of the plants use potential by family was done using regression analysis for the taxa inventoried. All the phytophysiognomies studied in the vicinity of archaeological sites were expressive regarding useful species. The most representative categories were medicinal, material, game attractant, firewood and food. The floristic features related to the use of plant species by family were also expressive for Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Chrysobalanaceae. The phytophysiognomies identified near archaeological sites feature several plant resources in different use categories, highlighting the value of local ecosystems and their potential for human use.
  • Ecological aspects of natural populations of Hyalella pampeana (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Hyalellidae) from the Natural Reserve Island of Martín García (Río de La Plata, Argentina) Biological Sciences

    COLLA, MARÍA FLORENCIA; CÉSAR, INÉS I.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Freshwater amphipods of the genus Hyalella have a great importance in aquatic ecosystems due to their role in matter and energy cycling and its utilization as bioindicators of environmental health. The aim of this work was to analyze relevant population parameters of Hyalellapampeana, such as population density and structure, individual body size, sex ratio, fecundity and recruitment, and to study the possible relation of these parameters to variations in environmental variables. Samples were taken monthly during a one-year period (2006) at three small ponds in the Natural Reserve Island of Martín García, Argentina. The inland aquatic environments showed distinctive physicochemical characteristics, mainly related to pH and conductivity values. Amphipod population density varied among sites and throughout the year, with population peaks during spring, positively correlating with pH values. The operational sex ratio of the total population was almost equal to 1 male: 1 female, displaying seasonal variation. Mean fecundity and mean size of ovigerous females were higher during winter and early spring months than in summer months. The presence of ovigerous females and juveniles in all months indicated that reproduction is continuous during the year for Hyalella, in its natural environment.
  • Euphausiacea diversity in a trans-oceanic transect through the South Atlantic Ocean: the first Atlantic record of Thysanopoda astylata Brinton, 1975 Biological Sciences

    MUXAGATA, ERIK; BARBOSA, CARLA N.; AGOSTINI, VANESSA O.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Information about euphausiids in central South Atlantic Ocean is scarce; hence, we investigated species composition and distribution of euphausiids along a longitudinal transect in this region, with an emphasis on Thysanopoda. Zooplankton samples were collected from 44 stations during the first Transatlantic Commission (Brazil–Africa). Euphausiids comprised 21,390 individuals across larval stages (nauplius, calyptopis, and furcilia) and adults. Furcilia and adults were classified to species level when possible, with a total of 19 identified species. Overall, Euphausia species frequency of occurrence and abundance were highest in samples collected near the African coast, while Thysanopada species dominated near the Brazilian coast. Of the euphausiids caught, 158 were identified as Thysanopoda, including 2 specimens of T. astylata, 6 T. aequalis, 3 T. pectinata, 2 T. monacantha, 2 T. tricuspida, and 1 T. egregia; 118 damaged specimens could only be identified as Thysanopoda spp., and 24 as T. aequalis / T. astylata complex because of the lack of diagnostic structures. Thysanopada egregia was present in samples collected down to 96 m, which increases the vertical range for this species. This report constitutes the first record of Thysanopoda astylata Brinton, 1975 in Atlantic waters.
  • Histatin 5 and human lactoferrin inhibit biofilm formation of a fluconazole resistant Candida albicans clinical isolate Biological Sciences

    CURVELO, JOSÉ A.R.; MORAES, DANIEL C. DE; ANJOS, CAMILA A. DOS; PORTELA, MARISTELA B.; SOARES, ROSANGELA M.A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract:Candida albicans is the most important fungal pathogen that causes infections in humans. Biofilms are hard-to-treat structures due to their high antifungal resistance. Saliva is a fluid that contains antimicrobial substances acting as the first-line of defense against pathogens, and its immune components may be potential tools for the discovery of new treatments against candidiasis. To evaluate the activity of histatin 5 and human lactoferrin against biofilm formation. A fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans clinical isolate was used as the model microorganism. Morphogenesis was evaluated by differential counting. Biofilm quantification was performed by XTT reduction assay. Thickness and topography of biofilms were assessed through confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Histatin 5 inhibited yeast-to-hyphae transition in a dose-dependent manner, while the effect of human lactoferrin on this process was inversely proportional to its concentration. Both compounds were able to significantly inhibit biofilm metabolic activity. Histatin 5 reduced biofilm thickness. Histatin 5 and human lactoferrin exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against a fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans biofilm, which points to the potential application of these compounds in the treatment of biofilms formed by this fungus, especially in resistant infections.
  • Redescription of immatures of Dasyhelea flavifrons Guérin-Méneville (Culicomorpha: Ceratopogonidae) and new contribution to the knowledge of its larval habitats Biological Sciences

    DÍAZ, FLORENTINA; MANGUDO, CAROLINA; GLEISER, RAQUEL M.; RONDEROS, MARÍA M.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The fourth instar larva and pupa of Dasyhelea flavifrons Guérin-Méneville are redescribed, illustrated, and photomicrographed using binocular, phase-contrast, and scanning electron microscopy. Comparisons with the American species of the grisea group were made. The immatures were collected by using a siphon bottle in tree-holes and from water collected in dead snail shells in Salta Province, Argentina, transported to the laboratory and there bred to the emergence of the adults. Details on larval habitats are given. These are the first records from Argentina and in gastrotelmata.
  • Metacercariae of Strigeidae Parasitizing Amphibians of the Chaco Region in Argentina Biological Sciences

    HAMANN, MONIKA I.; FERNÁNDEZ, MARÍA V.; GONZÁLEZ, CYNTHYA E.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The goal of the present study was to analyze the metacercariae found in adult amphibians collected in the Argentinean Chaco region. A total of 194 frogs, Leptodactylus chaquensis, Leptodactylus latinasus, and Lepidobatrachus laevis was examined for digeneans. Three different larval trematodes of the genus Strigea (Digenea, Strigeidae) were found infecting the liver, mesentery, body cavity, and muscle of frogs. These metacercariae are described and illustrated for the first time and provide new information on the composition of metacercariae in amphibians, thus contributing to the knowledge of larval trematodes biodiversity in the Neotropical region. We also present new information on the morphology and morphometry of strigeid metacercariae.
  • Discovery and characterization of SSR markers in Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) using low coverage genome sequencing Biological Sciences

    SARZI, DEISE S.; JUSTOLIN, BEATRIZ; SILVA, CLARIANE DA; LEMOS, RAFAEL P.M.; STEFENON, VALDIR MARCOS

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is a tree species widely distributed in South America suffering the effects of the exploitation of natural populations. In this study, we employed low coverage sequencing of the E. uniflora genome for mining of SSR markers. The de novo assembly generated 2,601 contigs with an average length of 1139 bp and spans 3.15 Mb. A total of 76 dimer, 33 trimer and two compound SSR loci were identified. Twelve selected SSR loci were employed to genotype 30 individuals from two natural populations. A total of 73 alleles were detected (mean A= 6.1) were observed, the mean effective number of alleles was Ae = 3.91, mean Ho was 0.23 and mean HE was 0.70). The mean Wright’s within population fixation index was FIS = 0.66 and significant deviation of HWE was observed in all loci, except one. The FST between populations equaled 0.27. The levels of genetic diversity and structure estimated with these 12 SSR markers are in accordance with data from genetics studies performed on other tree species of the Pampa biome, presenting moderate to high polymorphism and may be employed in studies of species conservation measures and breeding programs.
  • Exploring the Insecticide and Acaricide Potential of Development Regulators obtained from Restinga vegetation from Brazil Biological Sciences

    FEDER, DENISE; GONZALEZ, MARCELO S.; MELLO, CÍCERO B.; SANTOS, MARCELO G.; ROCHA, LEANDRO; KELECOM, ALPHONSE; FOLLY, EVELIZE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: As a part of our continuing search for insect and arthropod development regulators from Brazilian restinga vegetation of the Rio de Janeiro State, crude extracts, purified fractions and essential oils were submitted to screening tests seeking for biological activities on the development of the insects Rhodnius prolixus, Dysdercus peruvianus, Oncopeltus fasciatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Up to now, 102 secondary metabolites have been detected in the fractions, among them monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and two triterpenes which were obtained from the species, Eugenia sulcata, Pilocarpus spicatus, Manilkara subsericea, Myrciaria floribunda and Zanthoxylum caribaeum. These secondary plant metabolites are considered of interest for the use of studies related to arthropod endocrinology, vector-parasite interaction system, and population control of vector insect and agricultural pest. The observed biological activities were surprisingly high, involving increased mortality, molting and metamorphosis inhibition, paralysis, corporeal deformities, apparition of permanent nymphs, of adultoids and juvenoids, partial or total inhibition of oviposition and egg hatching. These compounds are now being studied further to determine if they may or may not be useful in controlling insect populations and/or interfere with the life cycle and vector transmission of parasites to animal and human populations.
  • Saline extract from Malpighia emarginata DC leaves showed higher polyphenol presence, antioxidant and antifungal activity and promoted cell proliferation in mice splenocytes. Biological Sciences

    BARROS, BÁRBARA R.S.; BARBOZA, BRUNO RAFAEL; RAMOS, BÁRBARA A.; MOURA, MAIARA C. DE; COELHO, LUANA C.B.B.; NAPOLEÃO, THIAGO HENRIQUE; CORREIA, MARIA TEREZA S.; PAIVA, PATRÍCIA MARIA G.; CRUZ, IRANILDO JOSÉ DA; SILVA, TÚLIO DIEGO DA; LIMA, CLÁUDIA S.A.; MELO, CRISTIANE M.L. DE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Currently, the research of new natural compounds with biological potential demonstrates great ethnopharmacological importance. In this study, we evaluated the biological properties promoted by saline extract from Malpighia emarginata DC leaves, whose objective is to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity potential. Phytochemical characterization was performed by UPLC-MS chromatography to identify the chemical compounds. For the antioxidant potential, DPPH, ATT and FRAP methods were used. The antibacterial and antifungal tests were performed evaluating the MIC50, MIC90, CMB and CMF parameters. Moreover, antibiofilm action was evaluated. Cytotoxicity and proliferation were performed using splenocytes from Balb/c mice and were evaluated by cytometry. We found a list of phenolic compounds among other bioactive compounds in the M. emarginata saline extract. In addition, higher antioxidant profile and antifungal activity against different strains of Candida spp. was promoted by the saline extract. Splenocytes showed greater cell viability (more than 90%) and showed higher proliferate index in 24 and 48 hours of incubation with the extract. Saline extract from Malpighia emarginata DC has potential action like antioxidant and antifungal agent without promote animal cell damage.
  • Consumption of Euterpe edulis fruit by wildlife: implications for conservation and management of the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest Biological Sciences

    SILVA, JULIANO Z. DA; REIS, MAURÍCIO S. DOS

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study aimed to measure the wildlife consumption of Euterpe edulis fruit and use this data to discuss management possibilities. To estimate infructescence fruit volume consumed, collectors were installed in fruit-bearing palms. To characterize consumption from the ground, samples were placed next to fruiting palms. To identify wildlife and their activities, camera traps were installed in infructescences and on the ground. The results suggested that there was a small fruit surplus (1.8 %), and this finding indicated the possibility of a harvest to reduce food for the wildlife. However, recurrent variations in the annual fruit production (21.4 %) were also noted, and suggested that wildlife could tolerate some fruit harvesting. Thus, a harvest could be restricted to fruit volume that exceeds the annual average (94 kg/ha/year). Turdus flavipes, a migratory bird, was the most active species in the dispersal of seeds; this finding indicates the need for broader conservation strategies. Wildlife composition also changed along with the fruiting, and this alteration suggests that dependence on the fruit is variable among different species. Seed germination and seedling mortality were high, results that indicate that local conditions may have a predominant effect on seed volume in natural regeneration density.
  • Orange and Passion Fruit Wastes Characterization, Substrate Hydrolysis and Cell Growth of Cupriavidus necator, as Proposal to Converting of Residues in High Value Added Product Biological Sciences

    LOCATELLI, GABRIEL O.; FINKLER, LEANDRO; FINKLER, CHRISTINE L.L.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Brazil is the world’s largest producer of orange and passion fruit, which are destined mainly for industrialization, generating grand volumes of wastes. The solid portion of these residues is a rich source of pectin - composed mainly of galacturonic acid and neutral sugars, which through the hydrolysis process can be used in biological conversion processes, as the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). This way, we characterized these wastes, followed by the extraction and hydrolysis of pectin for employ as a substrate for the cell growth of Cupriavidus necator. The results confirmed the large portion of pectin (almost 40 g.100g-1) and soluble sugars, present in these wastes. The hydrolyzed extract showed as a good source of carbon for the cell growth of C. necator with YX/S 0.56 and 0.44, µMax 0.27 and 0.21 for orange and passion fruit wastes respectively, similar to other carbon sources. This way, the extraction and hydrolysis of orange and passion fruit wastes for the cellular growth of C. necator, can be a good alternative to converting of residues in high value added product.
  • Influences of dietary crude protein and stocking density on growth performance and body measurements of ostrich chicks Biological Sciences

    MAHROSE, KHALID M.; EL-HACK, MOHAMED E. ABD; AMER, SHYMAA A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Thirty-six African Black ostrich chicks were used to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (180, 210 and 240 g/kg), stocking density (4.5 and 3 m2/bird) and their interactions. A factorial arrangement was used to examine the impact of treatments on growth performance and body measurements of ostrich chicks during 2 to 10 weeks of the age. Results indicated that factors studied did not change growth performance traits. The highest value of protein efficiency ratio was observed in ostrich chicks fed diet contained 240 g/kg diet. Birds fed diet contained 240 g CP /kg diet and kept at stocking density of 3 m2 per bird had numerically the highest protein efficiency ratio. Shank girth and tibiotarsus length decreased with increasing dietary CP level. Stocking density did not change values of body measurements, except tibiotarsus length at 6 weeks of age, which increased in birds kept at the lower density than the higher. Body height at 10 weeks of age was significantly affected by the interactions between dietary CP and stocking density. In conclusion, results affirmed that ostrich chicks can grow on diets containing low levels of CP (180-210 g/kg). Our results provide a comprehensive set of morphometric data for ostrich chicks as affected by the factors studied.
  • On the occurrence and ecology of Glaucus atlanticus Forster, 1777 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) along the Southwestern Atlantic coast Biological Sciences

    PINOTTI, RAPHAEL M.; BOM, FABIO C.; MUXAGATA, ERIK

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Unlike the majority of the nudibranchs, Glaucidae lives adrift at the sea surface within Tropical and Subtropical ocean basins, feeding on cnidarians or using them to attach their egg strings as a reproductive strategy. The latitudinal distribution of Glaucus atlanticus throughout the Brazilian Province is influenced by the Brazil current and, in its austral limit, by seasonal shifts in the Subtropical Convergence Zone (especially under the influence of ENSO El Niño events). Once over the shelf, seasonal wind patterns and meteorological events can force a passive displacement of the species towards the shore. Such onshore displacements may result on strandings of Glaucus spp. and other pleustonic species of the “blue plankton” community, like already reported worldwide and recently at the Southern Brazilian / Uruguayan coasts. Although fascinating, Glaucus spp. should be considered harmful to humans and people should thus avoid direct contact; if this accidentally occurs, short-term treatments can be implemented besides looking for medical attention. The current geographical distribution of Glaucus atlanticus over the Brazilian coast reveals some inaccuracy and gaps; the present study not only revises the ecology of this species but also evidences the occurrence of summer strandings and its austral distribution into subtropical shores.
  • Reproductive aspects of the semi-aquatic snake Erythrolamprus miliaris (Dipsadidae: Xenodontini) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil Biological Sciences

    EISFELD, ALEXIA; VRCIBRADIC, DAVOR

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: We analyzed some aspects of reproduction and sexual dimorphism of the semi-aquatic dipsadid snake Erythrolamprus miliaris in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. We detected sexual dimorphism in body size (snout-vent length), with females averaging larger than males, but no sexual dimorphism in the relative length of the tail. Oviductal eggs and secondary follicles were found in all seasons, suggesting that female reproductive cycles are continuous, in spite of the tropical seasonal climate in the region. Reproductive males were present throughout the year, suggesting a continuous cycle for males as well. Clutch size averaged 10.3 ± 4.8 (range 4-21) and there was a positive and significant relationship between clutch size and female size. Compared to conspecific populations previously studied in other Atlantic Rainforest areas, populations of E. miliaris from the state of Rio de Janeiro appear more similar overall in their reproductive traits to a more northern population from the state of Bahia than to populations from further south in the states of São Paulo and Paraná.
  • Diet, sexual dimorphism and reproduction of sympatric racers Philodryas aestiva and Philodryas patagoniensis from the coastal Brazilian Pampa Biological Sciences

    QUINTELA, FERNANDO M.; LOEBMANN, DANIEL

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Herein we investigated diet, sexual dimorphism and reproductive biology of two sympatric congeneric species at the coastal Brazilian Pampa, Philodryas aestiva and P. patagoniensis. Analysis of the stomach content of the scansorial Philodryas aestiva revealed that it feeds mainly on Anura and small mammals, while it occasionally consumes Insecta, Squamata and Aves. The more terrestrial Philodryas patagoniensis presented a broader diet, composed mainly of Anura, Squamata and small mammals. Insecta and Actinopterygii were found in lower frequencies. In females of both species, snout-vent length was significantly larger than in males, while tail length/snout-vent length ratio was significantly higher in males. Males reach sexual maturity at smaller sizes than females in both species. Fecundity was higher in P. patagoniensis (3 to 24 eggs; 15 ± 8.15) than in P. aestiva (10 to 20 eggs; X = 14.50 ± 3.53). Females of P. aestiva showed secondary follicles in all seasons while eggs occurred from middle-winter to early-summer. Secondary follicles occurred throughout the year in P. patagoniensis, but concentrated in spring. Eggs occurred in late-summer, middle-autumn and spring. Both species presented positive correlations between SVL and clutch size. Differences in analyzed traits seem to reflect divergences in species morphology and use of habitat/microhabitat.
  • Antidiarrheal effect of extract from the bark of Combretum leprosum in mice Biomedical Sciences

    CAVALCANTI, PAULO M.S.; MARTINS, MARIA DO CARMO C.; NUNES, PAULO H.M.; ALVES, FRANCISCO C.; SILVA, JANYERSON D.P.; CAVALCANTI, SUZANA M.G.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract from the bark of Combretum leprosum (ECL) on intestinal transit and castor-oil induced diarrhea in mice. The oral administration of ECL (750 and 1000 mg/kg) slowed intestinal transit (ID50 of 455 mg/kg). The ECL (250-1000 mg/kg) reduced castor-oil induced diarrhea, in a time- and dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). To determine if antidiarrheal effect of ECL involves α2-adrenergic or opioid receptor activation, the mice were pretreated with antagonists of these receptors, yohimbine or naloxone respectively. None of these drugs inhibited the antidiarrheal effect of ECL. To test if antidiarrheal effect of ECL is due to an antisecretory action, we realized the enteropooling assay on rats. The ECL increased bowel content and did not inhibit intestinal fluid secretion increase induced by misoprostol (100 µg/kg, s.c.). To determine if antimotility effect of ECL is due to a reduction on gastric motility, we realized the organ bath assay in the rat fundus stomach. Isotonic recordings show that the carbachol /KCl - induced contraction was not reversed by the addition of ECL. In conclusion, our results suggest that ECL contains antidiarrheal compounds and these compounds could induce a reduction of intestinal tract motility.
  • Repercussions of low fructose-drinking water in male rats Biomedical Sciences

    MIRANDA, CAROLINA A.; SCHÖNHOLZER, TATIELE E.; KLÖPPEL, EDUARDO; SINZATO, YURI K.; VOLPATO, GUSTAVO T.; DAMASCENO, DÉBORA C.; CAMPOS, KLEBER E.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Fructose consumption has increased worldwide, and it has been associated with the development of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance (IR) and steatosis. The aim was to evaluate if lower fructose concentrations may cause pancreatic structural abnormalities, leading to a glucose intolerance without steatosis in male rats. Young male rats orally received 7% fructose solution for 12 weeks. Body weight, food, water, and energy intake were measured. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. After final experimental period, all rats were anaesthetized and killed. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and organs (liver and pancreas) were processed for morphological analyses. Fructose consumption was not associated with lipid accumulation in liver. However, fructose administration was associated with an increased area under curve from OGTT and an increased percentage of insulin-positive cells, high beta cell mass and reduced pancreatic islet area. Fructose supplementation (7%) did not cause steatosis, but it led to abnormal morphology and function of pancreatic islet cells, contributing for glucose intolerance development. Our findings demonstrate that even low fructose concentrations may cause deleterious effects in animals.
  • Effects of Aliskiren, an RAAS inhibitor, on a carrageenan-induced pleurisy model of rats Health Sciences

    BAYIR, YASIN; UN, HARUN; CADIRCI, ELIF; AKPINAR, EROL; DIYARBAKIR, BUSRA; CALIK, ILKNUR; HALICI, ZEKAI

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Our aim is to investigate the potentially preventive effects of Aliskiren in a carrageenan-induced lung pleurisy model and to compare the standard anti-inflammatory agents, indomethacin and dexamethasone. The pleurisy model was induced through the injection of carrageenan (0.2 ml-%2) into the pleural cavity. After the experiment, serum and lung tissues were collected and biochemical, molecular and pathological examinations were performed. In our study, pleural inflammation decreased superoxide dismutase activity and the glutathione level and increased the malondialdehyde level in the lung of rats, while Aliskiren increased the superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione level and decreased the malondialdehyde level. In addition, carrageenan-induced pleurisy caused a significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA expressions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and NF-KB), while Aliskiren administration decreased their expressions as well as the standard treatments, indomethacin and dexamethasone, did. Aliskiren administration at the 200 mg/kg dose protected the lungs in the pathological evaluation, especially against inflammatory cell infiltration and edematous lesions. It appears that Aliskiren protects the lung from carrageenan-induced pleurisy damage by regulating inflammation and antioxidant-oxidant balance via Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System inhibition.
  • Oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare) to feed laying hens and its effects on animal health Health Sciences

    MIGLIORINI, MARCOS J.; BOIAGO, MARCEL M.; ROZA, LENILSON F.; BARRETA, MAURICIO; ARNO, ALESSANDRA; ROBAZZA, WEBER S.; GALVÃO, ALESSANDRO C.; GALLI, GABRIELA M.; MACHADO, GUSTAVO; BALDISSERA, MATHEUS D.; WAGNER, ROGER; STEFANI, LENITA C.M.; SILVA, ALEKSANDRO S. DA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of oregano essential oil added to the feed of commercial laying hens. This research was focused on the analysis of biochemical changes linked to hepatic function, and protein and lipid metabolism. It was used 240 laying hens (59 weeks-old) distributed in a completely randomized design of six treatments (five repetitions with eight birds each). The experiments were constituted by a control treatment (CT) with the inclusion of zinc bacitracin and five treatments of oregano essential oil (OEO: 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg.kg-1), respectively. After 28 days of feeding, an increase on serum levels of total proteins and globulins was observed on groups T150 and T200, as well as an increase on albumin levels on group CT. After 84 days of feeding, a significant reduction on total proteins and albumin was observed on group T200, as well as an increase in serum triglycerides. OEO at 200 mg.kg-1 increased globulin levels on day 28, which may be considered an effect in the inflammatory response, which increases serum immunoglobulins and proteins.
  • Litter Size Reduction Induces Metabolic and Histological Adjustments in Dams throughout Lactation with Early Effects on Offspring Health Sciences

    Xavier, João Lucas P.; Scomparin, Dionizia X.; Pontes, Catherine C.; Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Cordeiro, Maiara M.; Marcondes, Jessica A.; Mendonça, Felipe O.; Silva, Makcine T. da; Oliveira, Fabio B. de; Franco, Gilson C.N.; Grassiolli, Sabrina

    Abstract in English:

    In the present study we analyzed morphological and metabolic alterations in dams nursing small litters and their consequences to offspring throughout lactation. Offspring sizes were adjusted to Small Litter (SL, 3 pups/ dam) and Normal Litter (NL, 9 pups/ dam). Body weight, food intake, white adipose tissue (WAT) content, histological analysis of the pancreas, mammary gland (MG) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) as well as, plasma parameters and milk composition were measured in dams and pups on the 7th, 14th and 21st days of lactation. In general, SL-dams presented higher body weight and retroperitoneal fat content, elevated fat infiltration in BAT, reduced islets size and hyperglycemia throughout lactation in relation to NL-dams (p<0.05). Moreover, MG from SL-dams had reduced alveoli development and high adipocytes content, resulting in milk with elevated energetic value and fat content in relation to NL-dams (p<0.05). Maternal states influenced offspring anthropometric conditions during lactation, offspring-SL displayed higher body weight and growth, hyperglycemia, augmented lipid deposition in BAT and elevated islet. Thus, maternal histological and metabolic changes are due to modifications to nursing small litters and reinforce the importance of preserving maternal health during lactation avoiding early programming effects on offspring preventing metabolic consequences later in life.
  • Daily life of women with alcoholic companions and the provided care Health Sciences

    NASCIMENTO, VAGNER F. DO; LIMA, CLÁUDIA A.S.; HATTORI, THALISE Y.; TERÇAS, ANA CLÁUDIA P.; LEMES, ALISSÉIA G.; LUIS, MARGARITA A.V.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The study aimed to know the daily life of women with alcoholic companions and the provided care. This is a comprehensive-interpretative, qualitative study, guided by the thematic Oral History method. Data collection occurred by semistructured interview. The empirical material was subjected to content analysis under the light of the King’s Theory of Goal Attainment. Women are frustrated and frightened by the alcoholic companion’s behavior and lifestyle, and still feel judged by society. Many abandon their life projects and self-care due to the overload caused by the companion’s absence in the care of home and children. The family care they develop focuses on maintaining the family and protecting from further damage. The study revealed that these women are sick due to the companion’s dependence and, even supporting a type of family care, they cannot control the effects of the alcohol in the family. This reinforces the need for health professionals’ greater bond and involvement, establishing therapeutic projects in which women feel involved and, at the same time, supported.
  • Evaluation of cytotoxicity and wound healing activity of Avicennia schaueriana in cream Health Sciences

    LOPES, CAROLINE M.I.; BARATELLA-EVÊNCIO, LIRIANE; SOUZA, IVONE A. DE; OLIVEIRA, ERWELLY B. DE; SÁ, JÉSSICA G.A.; SANTANA, MARLLON A.N.; MARCELINO, PEDRO P.; SANTANA, EDUARDA S. DE; SILVA, LUZIA A. DA; VIEIRA, JEYMESSON R.C.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract:Avicennia schaueriana is found in Brazilian mangrove coast. The cytotoxicity in vitro of the Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Avicennia schaueriana (AELAs) and the healing activity of the plant in cream on mice skin wounds were evaluated in this study. The cytotoxic evaluation was performed on Vero cells. The healing activity was evaluated on mice treated during 5, 10 and 15 days with cream at 5%, solution of sodium chloride at 0.9% and dexpanthenol in cream at 5%. The extract did not show cytotoxicity, but showed mitogenic activity (100μg/ml). In morphometric analysis, the percentage of wound contraction after 10 days was higher in dexpanthenol group (93.41%). In 15 days, the lowest percentage of contraction was observed in the dexpanthenol group (94.41%) and the highest in the AELAs cream group (98.50%). In histomorphometry the dexpanthenol showed the lowest length of re-epithelialization in 10 days. In 15 days, the AELAs cream group showed 100% of re-epithelialization. The number of fibroblasts found in AELAs cream group was higher than the saline solution in 10 days. In 15 days, AELAs cream group maintained a higher amount of fibroblasts when compared to the others. A. schaueriana did not show cytotoxicity. Furthermore, topical application of AELAs cream decreased the wound area, stimulated the re-epithelialization and increased the number of fibroblasts. The species A. schaueriana could become a topical treatment in tissue repair process.
  • The development and characterization of Propranolol Tablets using Tapioca starch as excipient Health Sciences

    FERNANDES, JULYANE B.M.; CELESTINO, MAÍSA T.; TAVARES, MARIA I.B.; FREITAS, ZAIDA M.F.; SANTOS, ELISABETE P. DOS; RICCI, EDUARDO; MONTEIRO, MARIANA S.S.B.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Tapioca starch (TS) is produced from Cassaca roots and it is differentiated from other starches because it contains about 17–20% amylase and low amount of residual substances. Propranolol (POP) is a non-selective beta-adrenergic blocking agent and it is in the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of TS in the development of POP tablets by means of direct compression. Its evaluation was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uniformity of weight, drug content, disintegration, friability, hardness, dissolution test and drug release kinetics. The TS granules were spherical with mean diameter of 10.09 ± 1.85 µm. The XRD, FTIR and NMR suggested physical interaction between TS and POP. The tablets presented average diameter of 1.1 ± 0.0 cm, 0.24 ± 0.02 cm thickness and average weight of 0.544 ± 0.003 g. The hardness of tablets was 10.98 ± 0.31 N and the percentage of friability was 25.74 ± 0.08%. POP was released after 45 min and the release kinetics properly fitted the Hixson-Crowell equation.
  • Health benefits of subcutaneous zinc edetate and diphenyl diselenide in calves during the weaning period Health Sciences

    SANTOS, DAIANE S. DOS; BOITO, JHONATAN P.; KLAUCK, VANDERLEI; REIS, JOÃO H. DOS; GEBERT, ROGER R.; GLOMBOWSKY, PATRÍCIA; BIAZUS, ANGELISA H.; BOTTARI, NATHIELI B.; SOUSA, REJANE S.; MACHADO, GUSTAVO; LEAL, MARTA L.R.; BALDISSERA, MATHEUS D.; BERWANGER, JEAN C.; SILVA, ALEKSANDRO S. DA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aims of this study were to investigate whether treatments with zinc edetate (Zn) and diphenyl diselenide ((PhSe)2) enhance performance, immune responses, protein metabolism, and oxidant/antioxidant status in calf serum and muscle. Animals were divided into four groups (n=6 each): control (without supplementation), and groups supplemented on days 50 and 70 of life with (PhSe)2, Zn, and a combination of (PhSe)2 and Zn. Animals treated with (PhSe)2 gained more weight by experimental day 220 than did the control group, but there was no difference by the end of the experiment (day 300). The absolute number of leukocytes and lymphocytes increased in groups Zn and (PhSe)2+Zn on day 20 of experiment, but decreased on day 40 in groups (PhSe)2, and (PhSe)2+Zn. The number of monocytes decreased in all groups compared with control. One of the principal findings was that (PhSe)2+Zn together had beneficial effects on protein metabolism, represented by increases total protein and globulin levels, compared with the control group. The combination of (PhSe)2 and Zn led to low levels of TBARS and ROS in serum and muscle, and stimulated antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, supplementation with (PhSe)2+Zn may be a compelling approach to augmenting the calf antioxidant system during weaning.
  • Effect of the intake of high or low glycemic index high carbohydrate-meals on athletes’ sleep quality in pre-game nights Health Sciences

    DANIEL, NATÁLIA V.S.; ZIMBERG, IONÁ Z.; ESTADELLA, DEBORA; GARCIA, MÁRCIA C.; PADOVANI, RICARDO C.; JUZWIAK, CLAUDIA R.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study investigated the effect of the intake of high (HGI) or low glycemic index (LGI) high-carbohydrate meals on athletes’ sleep. Nine basketball adult male athletes were assessed during a championship and received high-carbohydrate meals (dinner and evening snack) with HGI or LGI. Quantitative and qualitative sleep variables were assessed: sleep latency (LAT), sleep efficiency (EFIC), Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO), sleep time through actigraphy and sleep diary. Dietary intake, satiety, sleepiness, glycemic response, salivary cortisol and melatonin were also assessed. On both days most athletes had LAT and WASO higher than recommendation, and nocturnal sleep time below the recommendations. There was no difference between sleep and hormonal parameters according to GI dietary manipulations; however, correlations were observed between sleep and diet. Daily energy intake had negative correlation with efficiency and nocturnal total sleep time, and a positive correlation with WASO, regardless of the GI nocturnal meals. No differences were observed in salivary cortisol and melatonin according to GI. The results suggest that food intake throughout the day seems to exert more influence on sleep parameters of basketball players than GI manipulation of evening meals on the pre-night game, but further studies are necessary to better understand this complex relationship.
  • Comparative anatomy and histochemistry of the leaf blade of two species of Artocarpus Agrarian Sciences

    SÁ, RAFAELA D.; CADENA, MARÍLIA B.; PADILHA, RAFAEL J.R.; ALVES, LUIZ CARLOS; RANDAU, KARINA P.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Abstract: In Brazil, there are two species of Artocarpus that were introduced: Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg, known as fruta-pão, and Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., known as jaca. Both are used as food and medicine. The objective of this work was to conduct a comparative anatomical and histochemical study between A. altilis and A. heterophyllus. Techniques of optical, polarized and scanning electron coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy. The anatomical characterization showed the characters of general occurrence in the family Moraceae and of those that allow the differentiation of A. altilis and A. heterophyllus. The histochemistry revealed the sites of synthesis and/or storage of the metabolites. The chemical microanalyses brought new information about the chemical composition of crystals. The study provides pharmacobotanical data for the quality control of the species.
  • Development of an annual drought classification system based on drought severity indexes Agrarian Sciences

    LIMA, RAFAEL P.C.; SILVA, DEMETRIUS D. DA; MOREIRA, MICHEL C.; PASSOS, JÉSSICA B.M.C.; COELHO, CLÍVIA D.; ELESBON, ABRAHÃO A.A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In order to characterize the occurrence and intensity of droughts in the Doce River Basin, as well as to develop a system for its classification, four different drought indexes were evaluated: Percent of Normal Precipitation (PNP), Deciles Method (DM), Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The indices were calculated annually, based on precipitation data from 89 rainfall stations of the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA). Nine analysis units (AUs) were determined in the basin and the Thiessen Polygons method was used to obtain the average precipitation in the respective drainage areas. The indices were calculated for each AU and then related to the drought intensity classes. An overall classification of the indices was proposed for the drought classification system for a 30-year base period, from 1985 to 2015. The most critical hydrological years of the Doce River Basin in relation to the drought were 1994/1995, 2000/2001 and 2014/2015, the latter being the most critical of the last 30 years. The results show that the annual drought classification system proved to be efficient in the identification of events, allowing to verify that the Doce River Basin presents a severe climatic drought condition, on average, every seven years.
  • Public engagement in science: Mapping out and understanding the practice of science communication in Latin America Social Sciences

    BARBA, MA DE LOURDES PATIÑO; CASTILLO, JORGE PADILLA GONZÁLEZ DEL; MASSARANI, LUISA

    Abstract in English:

    This article presents the results of a study aiming to map out the characteristics of science communication activities carried out in Latin America by different organizations. We looked at a general description of the activities (such as the kind of activities carried out, in which periodicity, the publics engaged in the activities, etc.) and the favorable and unfavorable existing conditions in the organizations (such as budget and planning, evaluation, as well as weakness and strengths). The study focused on gathering primary information, through an online survey, answered by 123 institutions from 14 countries. Although the results are not representative of the entire Latin America – and it would be not possible to be so, since it is not even known the totality of initiatives existing in the region –, the study presents trends that can help the guidance and the consolidation of strategies for strengthening the practice of science communication in the region.
  • The theorical-methodological construction of theses and dissertations and their epistemological problems Social Sciences

    GOMES, RODRIGO DUTRA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This essay discusses the problem of the lack of dialogue between theory/empirical reality in the construction of the theoretical structure of dissertations and doctorates in Human Sciences in Brazil; taking Geography as an example, Santos (2000) observed this problem, which persists at the national level. The proposal is to present the question and to suggest the relationship between theory/empirical reality coming of the dialogue with specific research questions. It is these research questions that will define the limitations, factors, agents, processes and structures that will be studied. The relationship between the construction of the theoretical references with specific problems allowing theoretical-methodological advances, thus adapting the reading of the general theory to empirical situations. This appropriation generates both methodological directions for how to treat the empirical and the understandings that will be used in the discussion of the results. The confrontation and discussion of the results will suggest affirmations, questions and new perceptions for the theory.
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