• Inflated Kumaraswamy distributions Mathematical Sciences

    CRIBARI-NETO, FRANCISCO; SANTOS, JÉSSICA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The Kumaraswamy distribution is useful for modeling variables whose support is the standard unit interval, i.e., (0, 1). It is not uncommon, however, for the data to contain zeros and/or ones. When that happens, the interest shifts to modeling variables that assume values in [0, 1), (0, 1] or [0, 1]. Our goal in this paper is to introduce inflated Kumaraswamy distributions that can be used to that end. We consider inflation at one of the extremes of the standard unit interval and also the more challenging case in which inflation takes place at both interval endpoints. We introduce inflated Kumaraswamy distributions, discuss their main properties, show how to estimate their parameters (point and interval estimation) and explain how testing inferences can be performed. We also present Monte Carlo evidence on the finite sample performances of point estimation, confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. An empirical application is presented and discussed.
  • New classes of polynomial maps satisfying the real Jacobian conjecture in 2 Mathematical Sciences

    ITIKAWA, JACKSON; LLIBRE, JAUME

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: We present two new classes of polynomial maps satisfying the real Jacobian conjecture in ℝ2. The first class is formed by the polynomials maps of the form (q(x)–p(y), q(y)+p(x)) : R2⟶ R2 such that p and q are real polynomials satisfying p'(x)q'(x) ≠ 0. The second class is formed by polynomials maps (f, g): R2⟶ R2 where f and g are real homogeneous polynomials of the same arbitrary degree satisfying some conditions.
  • The Log-Odd Normal Generalized Family of Distributions with Application Mathematical Sciences

    ZUBAIR, MUHAMMAD; POGÁNY, TIBOR K.; CORDEIRO, GAUSS M.; TAHIR, MUHAMMAD H.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The normal distribution has a central place in distribution theory and statistics. We propose the log-odd normal generalized (LONG) family of distributions based on log-odds and obtain some of its mathematical properties including a useful linear representation for the new family. We investigate, as a special model, the log-odd normal power-Cauchy (LONPC) distribution. Some structural properties of LONPC distribution are obtained including quantile function, ordinary and incomplete moments, generating function and some asymptotics. We estimate the model parameters using the maximum likelihood method. The usefulness of the proposed family is proved empirically by means of a real air pollution data set.
  • Processing of nanomaterials in Layer-by-Layer films: Potential applications in (bio)sensing and energy storage Physical Sciences

    OLIVEIRA, DANILO A.; GASPAROTTO, LUIZ H.S.; SIQUEIRA, JOSÉ R.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The study and preparation of new nanostructures involving the integration of distinct nanomaterials have been important for the development of new electrochemical devices for (bio)sensing and energy storage. Such devices envisage miniaturized or flexible electronic equipment for emerging technologies, including adaptive displays, artificial skin and wearable devices. In this way, the processing of specific nanomaterials may lead to nanostructures with properties that permit the fabrication of multifunctional devices for different applications, including sensors and supercapacitors. Therefore, the use of a suitable method to manipulate nanomaterials in a same nanostructure is important for this purpose. Thus, we expect that this review provides the readers with a brief overview of the potential usage of the Layer-by-Layer technique to fabricate nanostructured films and their advantages for sensing and energy storage.
  • Propagation of vibrational modes in classical harmonic lattice with correlated disorder Physical Sciences

    SILVA, LEONADE D. DA; RANCIARO, ADHEMAR; SALES, MESSIAS O.; SANTOS, JOSÉ L.L. DOS; MOURA, FRANCISCO A.B.F. DE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The vibrational modes with nonzero frequency are localized in harmonic lattice with disordered masses. In our work, we investigated numerically the propagation of vibrational energy in harmonic lattice with long-range correlated disordered masses, which are randomly distributed with power law spectrum S(k)∝ k− α . For α = 0, a standard uncorrelated disordered mass distribution was observed and for α > 0 its distribution exhibits intrinsic long-range correlations. Our procedure was done by the numerical solution of the classical equations for the mass displacement and velocities. Energy flow was investigated after injection of an initial wave-packet with energy E0 and the dynamics of the vibrational energy wave-packet was analyzed. We also investigated the dynamics of a pulse pumped at one side of the lattice. Our calculations suggest that vibrational modes with nonzero frequency propagate within harmonic lattice with correlated disordered masses distribution.
  • Exploring the metallochromic behavior of pentacyanidoferrates in visual, electronic and Raman spot tests Chemical Sciences

    SHINOHARA, JORGE S.; GRASSESCHI, DANIEL; ALMEIDA, SABRINA N.; TOMA, HENRIQUE E.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Pentacyanidoferrate(II) complexes of aromatic N-heterocycles, such as 4-cyanopyridine, exhibit characteristic colors and strong metallochromism associated with the donor-acceptor interactions of the metal ions with the cyanide ligands. In the presence of transition metal ions insoluble polymeric complexes are formed, displaying bright yellow, red, brown and green colors with zinc(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and iron(III) ions, respectively. Such metallochromic response is better observed on filter paper, allowing applications in analytical spot tests. The effects can be explored visually and probed by means of modern instrumental facilities, including spectrophotometric and resonance Raman techniques. In this way, by using the cyanopyridinepentacyanidoferrates, the Prussian Blue test for ferric ions can be extended to the entire row of transition metal elements, providing a new and modern insight of such classical Feigl’s spot tests.
  • Mercury and methylmercury in carapace of the marine turtle Caretta caretta, in northeastern Brazil and its potential for environmental monitoring Chemical Sciences

    RODRIGUEZ, CÉSAR AUGUSTO B.; BEZERRA, MOISES F.; REZENDE, CARLOS EDUARDO DE; BASTOS, WANDERLEY R.; LACERDA, LUIZ D. DE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The present work tests the use of carapace fragments of the marine turtle Caretta caretta as a tool for environmental biomonitoring of mercury (Hg) and to evaluate the influence of biological and ecological factors in Hg concentrations. Samples of carapace fragments were obtained during the nesting season of 2012 and 2016 and were analyzed for their total-Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations and the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen (δ15N and δ13C). Seventy-six females were sampled, with an average size of 87.1 to 107 cm of curved carapace length (CCL). The results showed a wide variation in total Hg concentrations (3.3 – 1,672 ng g-1) and low concentrations of methyl-Hg, not showing any pattern of accumulation among the individuals. The isotopic composition of δ15N and δ13C suggests that the individuals sampled belong to a high trophic level but did not present any relationship with the Hg concentrations. It suggests that, at least with the existing results, and unlike other turtle species, carapace fragments of C. caretta cannot yet be used in environmental monitoring.
  • Inventory and assessment of geosites to stimulate regional sustainable management: the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil Earth Sciences

    GARCIA, MARIA DA GLÓRIA M.; LAMA, ELIANE A. DEL; MARTINS, LUCELENE; MAZOCA, CARLOS EDUARDO M.; BOUROTTE, CHRISTINE L.M.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The reviewed and integrated geoheritage inventory of the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, resulted in 43 geosites distributed in eight geological frameworks. The selected geosites are representative of a geological history from the Neoproterozoic (Brasiliano-Pan African Cycle) to the recent, covering a minimum 700-Ma timespan. Considering the dynamic character of geoheritage inventories, the results presented in this work were based on previous local, town-based surveys, which were reviewed under the light of new geological data and geoconservation methods. Both qualitative and quantitative geosites assessments were used to discuss their geological representativeness and relevance, as well as legal aspects regarding protection and perspectives for future use. This resulted in a detailed inventory that reflects the current geological knowledge in the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, and may be used to make a general diagnosis of the scientific value, state of conservation, risk of degradation and potential use of the geoheritage. Moreover, it reinforces the importance of locally- and regionally-relevant sites for sustainable land management using geoheritage and to direct the decisions related to the conservation and use of this abiotic part of nature in the region.
  • Trophic dynamics (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen-DIN and Dissolved Inorganic Phosphorus-DIP) in tropical urban estuarine systems during periods of high and low river discharge rates Earth Sciences

    NORIEGA, CARLOS; ARAUJO, MOACYR; FLORES-MONTES, MANUEL; ARAUJO, JULIA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This paper focused on the use of the biogeochemical LOICZ (Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone) to investigate the dynamics of DIN and DIP nutrients among three highly urbanized tropical estuaries (Barra das Jangadas (BJ), Recife (RE) and Timbó (TB)), located in the northeastern region of Brazil. The input data were obtained through in situ measurements (2007) and governmental agency databases (2001-2007). The balances of the non-conservative elements showed that the RE and TB systems alternated between sources and sinks during the observation periods (0.2-0.8 mmoles DIP m-2 d-1 and 0.1-10 mmoles DIN m-2 d-1). The metabolism rates in the systems indicated that the BJ system was autotrophic during the two observation periods (10-26 mmoles C m-2 d-1), while the RE system was heterotrophic (9-12 mmoles C m-2 d-1). The river discharge rates observed during the period 2001-2007 showed averages ranging from 9.4±3.8 to 18.4±7.7 m3s-1. Measurements of the trophic status in the RE system during 2007 characterized the system as eutrophic, thereby demonstrating high levels of chlorophyll-a and inorganic nutrients. The applications of balance sheets modeling proved to be very useful toward understanding the dynamics of estuarine systems dominated by large urban centers.
  • Environmental fragility and vegetation cover dynamics in the Lapa Grande State Park, MG, Brazil Earth Sciences

    CAMPOS, JASMINE A.; AIRES, UILSON R.V.; SILVA, DEMETRIUS D. DA; CALIJURI, MARIA LÚCIA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The environmental fragility analysis evaluates the susceptibility of an environment to degradation. Thus, the goals of this work are to analyze and map the environmental fragility of the Lapa Grande State Park (PELG), Brazil, and its buffer zone (ZA) and also quantify the changes in the vegetation cover before and after the implementation of the PELG. The environmental fragility was evaluated through multicriteria analysis using the factors: slope, geology, pedology and land use and land cover. The changes in the high vigor vegetation cover were determined from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for 1996, 2006 and 2016. It was verified that the central-east and northeast regions of the PELG presented the greatest environmental fragilities in 1996, and significant reductions in the areas with high and very high fragility were observed in 2006 and 2016 due to the increase in the vegetation cover after the implementation of the PELG, which was more expressive in the park area than in the ZA. The increase of 20.7% of 2006 to 2016 in the vegetation with greater vigor, proved the importance of the creation of a conservation unit.
  • Morphometric variation in pink shrimp populations at Rio de Janeiro coast (SE Brazil): are they really similar in closer areas? Biological Sciences

    CARVALHO, CÁSSIA DE; KEUNECKE, KARINA A.; LAVRADO, HELENA P.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract:Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and F. paulensis are the most exploited shrimps of SE-S Brazilian coast. Our aim was to verify if adjacent nursery areas with different environmental condition (Sepetiba and Guanabara bays, SE Brazil) influence on shrimp populations (eg, CPUE) and body shapes. Samplings were carried out during 12 months in those bays ca. 85 Km far from each other. Carapace length (CL), total body length (TL), wet weight, abdomen size and TL/CL ratio were used to analyze variations in shape through regressions. In general, F. brasiliensis was 4 to 6 times more abundant than F. paulensis. The sex ratio differed from 1:1 in F. brasiliensis in both bays, with dominance of females, largest catches occur in autumn. However, differences in size and morphology were found between bays, mainly regarding the TL/CL ratio. Shrimps in Sepetiba Bay have higher TL/CL showing a more “elongated shape” (larger abdomen) when compared to those from Guanabara Bay. Results suggest the existence of an estuary vs shrimp morphology relationship which results in differences in body shape even in spatially close areas. TL/CL ratio has proven useful for assessing shrimp populations differences and might be tested for tracking the origin of adult shrimps stocks at the coast.
  • Evaluation of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of 7-hydroxy-4’, 6-dimethoxy-isoflavone and essential oil from Myroxylon peruiferum L.f Biological Sciences

    PEREIRA, RAFAEL; PEREIRA, ANNA L.; FERREIRA, MARCILIO M.; FONTENELLE, RAQUEL O.S.; SAKER-SAMPAIO, SILVANA; SANTOS, HÉLCIO S.; BANDEIRA, PAULO N.; VASCONCELOS, MAYRON A.; QUEIROZ, JOSÉ A.N.; BRAZ-FILHO, RAIMUNDO; TEIXEIRA, EDSON H.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study evaluated the antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant effect of 7-hydroxy-4’,6-dimethoxy-isoflavone and essential oil of Myroxylon peruiferum. The compound was isolated and its structure elucidated by NMR. The chemical composition of essential oil determined by GC-MS analysis. To evaluation of antimicrobial activity, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were performed. In addition to analysis of antioxidant activity, DPPH radical scavenging tests, iron chelating assay (FIC), antioxidant reducing power assay (FRAP) and β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) were performed. For the essential oil were identified 24 organized compounds having as main constituents; Germacrene D (17.2%), α-pinene (14.8%) and E-caryophyllene (10.8%). The results showed that isoflavone (2000 to 156 μg/mL) and essential oil (5.0 to 1.25%) present antibacterial and antifungal activity against Gram-positive bacteria and filamentous fungi. The isoflavone and the essential oil also presented antioxidant activity in all the tests, mainly on inhibition of the oxidation of β-carotene test concentrations ranging from 60 to 100%. In conclusion, isoflavone and essential oil from M. peruiferum present an antimicrobial alternative against Gram-positive bacteria, especially of the genus Staphylococcus and dermatophyte fungi of the genus Trichophyton, as well as a natural compound antioxidant.
  • Influences of stocking density and dietary probiotic supplementation on growing Japanese quail performance Biological Sciences

    MAHROSE, KHALID M.; ELHACK, MOHAMED E. ABD; MAHGOUB, SAMIR A.; ATTIA, FATEN A. M.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study investigated the effects of stocking density and dietary supplementation of probiotic (Lactobacillus) on growth, traits of carcass, lymphoid organs and intestinal microbial count of Japanese quail. Quail chicks (one week old) were randomly allotted to 6 groups in a 2×3 factorial experiment included 2 levels of stocking density (100, and 75 cm2/bird) and 3 levels of probiotic (0.00, 0.02 and 0.04 g/kg diet). Quail reared at 100 cm2/ bird showed significantly the highest body weight and daily gain. Quail reared at 75 cm2/ bird had significantly the lower average of feed consumption and the best ratio of feed conversion. Increasing level of probiotic up to 0.04 g/kg led to a significant decrease in dressing percentage by about 2.7 % compared to the control. Interaction effect was insignificant on carcass traits studied except for liver percentage which was significantly higher for birds fed diet supplemented with probiotic at 0.04 g/kg of diet and reared at 100 cm2/bird. Rearing quail at 100 cm2/bird stocking density significantly increased bursa weight. Birds fed diet supplemented with probiotic at 0.02 g/kg of diet and reared at 100 cm2/bird showed significantly the highest (p = 0.043) spleen weight when compared with the other groups. In conclusion, the low (100 cm2/bird) stocking density was sufficient to give better performance of Japanese quail than the other group. Probiotic supplementation diminished the stressful effect of crowding on growing Japanese quail.
  • An integrated approach clarifies the cryptic diversity in Hypostomus Lacépède 1803 from the Lower La Plata Basin Biological Sciences

    CARDOSO, YAMILA P.; BRANCOLINI, FLORENCIA; PROTOGINO, LUCILA; PARACAMPO, ARIEL; BOGAN, SERGIO; POSADAS, PAULA; MONTOYA-BURGOS, JUAN I.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Abstract:Hypostomus commersoni Valenciennes 1836, Hypostomus cordovae (Günther 1880) and Hypostomus laplatae (Eigenmann 1907) have been little studied since their original descriptions. This study shows a comprehensive review of these species from the Lower La Plata Basin, including their taxonomic history, distribution, color patterns, morphology, and ecological and molecular phylogenetic data. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses based on D-loop sequences suggested that H. commersoni can be separated into two subclades, or subgroups. Based on these results and on the non-overlapping distribution range of the two subclades, we conclude that they represent two distinct species, thereby revalidating H. spiniger. The results also suggest that H. paranensis should be considered as species inquirenda and H. cordovae as valid species. This integrated approach provides key information for assessing the conservation status and biogeographic aspects of the genus Hypostomus in the Lower La Plata Basin.
  • Comparison of acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin, as inexpensive source to cell growth of Cupriavidus necator Biological Sciences

    LOCATELLI, GABRIEL OLIVO; FINKLER, LEANDRO; FINKLER, CHRISTINE L.L.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The present work investigated what the appropriate methods of hydrolysis of pectin for reducing compounds (RCs) production, employed as a substrate for cell growth of Cupriavidus necator. This microorganism has great importance industrial, because besides potential single cell protein (SCP), is the most studied microorganism for production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), and both processes require high cell concentration with inexpensive substrates For this, it was compared to acid and enzymatic hydrolysis procedures, through rotational central composite experimental design, using pectin concentration (1.0%). It was analyzed as a variable response for both experimental design, the RCs’ production. The best conditions of each procedure were used in study kinetics of RCs’ production and as a substrate for cell growth of C. necator. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis method was the most efficient, with a 93.0% yield of RCs, while the yield for acid hydrolysis was 60.0%. The optimum conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis were an enzyme concentration of 10.01 UI/g (International Unit of enzyme per gram of pectin) and an agitation speed of 230.3 rpm. C. necator showed satisfactory growth in the media containing pectin hydrolysates, with specific growth rates (μMax) similar to those reported for other substrates.
  • New records of nocturnal Anomaloninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in South America Biological Sciences

    FERNANDES, DANIELL R.R.; DÍAZ, FRANCISCO A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: We report for the first time Aphanistes ruthae Alvarado, 2018 in Venezuela and Castrosion renei Gauld & Bradshaw, 1997 in South America (Venezuela and Brazil). Castrosion renei is associated with the amazon rainforest in the Amazonas and Maranhão, States of Brazil.
  • Genetic Population Structure and Allele Surfing During Range Expansion in Dynamic Habitats Biological Sciences

    BRAGA, ROSANA T.; RODRIGUES, JOÃO F.M.; DINIZ-FILHO, JOSÉ A.F.; RANGEL, THIAGO F.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Expanding populations may loss genetic diversity because sequential founder events throughout a wave of demographic expansion may cause “allele surfing”, as the alleles of founder individuals may propagate rapidly through space. The spatial components of allele surfing have been studied by geneticists, but have never been investigate on dynamic and shifting habitats. Here we used an individual-based-model (IBM) to study how interactions between different habitat restoration scenarios and biological characteristics (dispersal capacity) affect the spatial patterns of the genetic structure of a population during demographic expansion. We found that both habitat dynamics and dispersal capacity, as well as their interaction, were the drivers of emergent pattern of genetic diversity and allele surfing. Specifically, allele surfing is more common when a species with low dispersal capacity colonizes a large geographic area with slow restoration (low carrying capacity). Despite this, we showed that allele surfing can be reduced, or even avoided, by dispersal management through suitable habitat restoration. Thus, investigating how colonization generates a spatial variation in genetic diversity, and which parameters control the emergent genetic pattern, are essential steps to planning assisted gene flow, which is fundamental for an effective planning of habitat restoration.
  • Helminth parasites of Cichla ocellaris Bloch & Schneider, 1801 collected in the Jacaré-Pepira River, São Paulo state, Brazil Biological Sciences

    JANUÁRIO, FELIPE F.; GIÃO, THAYANA; AZEVEDO, RODNEY K. DE; ABDALLAH, VANESSA D.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract:Cichla ocellaris is native to the Amazon region. It is popularly known as tucunaré and is widely used for human consumption. It is difficult to breed in captivity due to its highly predatory habits, it is considered symbolic of sport fishing in Brazil. This study aimed to make a qualitative and quantitative survey of helminth parasites of C. ocellaris. Thirty specimens from the Jacaré-Pepira River, located in the municipality of Ibitinga, in the interior of the state of São Paulo, were studied. The river is located 13 km from the urban area and at an altitude of approximately 600 m. A total of four taxa of metazoan parasites were collected and identified in Cestoda, Digenea, Monogenea and Nematoda. The cestoid Proteocephalus macrophallus presented the highest prevalence (63.3%) and had the greatest abundance and intensity, being found only in the intestine and stomach. The parasites found showed a significant positive correlation between the total body length of the hosts and the prevalence, as did the weight. This is the first study of helminth parasites of this host conducted in the Jacaré-Pepira River and the first record of a new location for P. macrophallus.
  • Temporal changes in biological traits of diatom communities in response to an oil spill in a subtropical river Biological Sciences

    FARIA, DENISE M. DE; COSTIN, JÚLIO C.; TREMARIN, PRISCILA I.; LUDWIG, THELMA A.V.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Diatom growth strategies, which are used as a proxy to analyze disturbances and environmental impacts, can also provide reliable information about environmental gradients. In this study, we used diatom communities and biological traits to assess the structure of epilithic diatoms after an oil spill in a large tributary of the Iguaçu River (Paraná, Brazil). Epilithon and water samples were taken on July 12th, 2004, and after an unexpected oil spill, on the following days: 09/19, 10/03, and 10/13/2004. We observed that the spill caused a distinct shift in both diatom composition and guild group. Diversity decreased and pollution-tolerant diatoms of the motile group became dominant in response to the elevated nutrient levels and reduced light. Tube-forming diatoms, which are strong competitors for light, dominated the epilithon 24 days after the oil spill. Both diatom guilds and growth forms were successfully used to predict the environmental conditions. While diatom guilds responded to disturbances along a temporal gradient, changes inside the guilds were the main factor for understanding the environmental gradient.
  • Identification of two species of Binema Travassos 1925 (Oxyurida: Travassosinematidae) and Cameronia arecoensis Marchissio and Miralles 1987 (Oxyurida: Thelastomatidae) based on morphological and 18S rRNA partial sequence Biological Sciences

    RUSCONI, JOSÉ M.; MONTES, MARTÍN; FERRARI, WALTER; ACHINELLY, MARÍA FERNANDA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Oxyurid nematodes parasitizing the mole cricket Neoscapteriscus vicinus were isolated in the framework of sampling fields of mole-crickets from the pampean region, in Argentina. In this work, molecular characterization of the 18S rRNA partial sequence of nematodes belonging to the families Thelastomatidae (Cameronia arecoensis Marchissio and Miralles 1987) and Travassosinematidae (Binema korsakowi Sergiev 1923 and Binema klossae, Marchissio and Miralles 1993) were carried out. This is the first world report of sequences belonging to B. klossae and C. arecoensis and first Argentinian report of B. korsakowi sequence. Also, morphological and morphometric features of B. klossae, B. korsakowi and C. arecoensis from Argentinian populations are reported.
  • Antibacterial and cytotoxicity activities and phytochemical analysis of three ornamental plants grown in Mexico Biological Sciences

    RÍOS-CHÁVEZ, PATRICIA; PEREZ-GONZALEZ, JORDY; SALGADO-GARCIGLIA, RAFAEL; RAMÍREZ-CHÁVEZ, ENRIQUE; MOLINA-TORRES, JORGE; MARTINEZ-TRUJILLO, MIGUEL; CARREON-ABUD, YAZMIN

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study evaluates the antibacterial, cytotoxic activities, and phytochemical composition, of Callistemon citrinus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Plumbago auriculata leaves and flowers, three ornamental plants in Mexico. However, in other countries offers a range of other uses. Ethanol extracts of C. citrinus leaf and flower presented stronger antibacterial activity than the extracts obtained from the other two plants. C. citrinus leaf showed low cytotoxicity (LC50 <600 µg/mL) on the brine shrimp test, whereas the ethanol extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and P. auriculata leaves showed no cytotoxic activity. Flower extracts obtained from the three plants did no exhibit cytotoxicity. GC-MS analysis revealed that the ethanol extract of P. auriculata leaf contained lupeol triterpene and lupeol acetate, neither of them have been previously reported in this genus. Gamma sitosterol was present in the leaf and flower extracts of P. auriculata. Higher contents of linoleic and linolenic acids were found in extracts of H. rosa-sinensis leaves and flowers. The ability of the ethanol extracts of C. citrinus leaves and flowers to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria indicates a potentially broad antimicrobial spectrum. Moreover, the absence of cytotoxicity suggests the potential use of this plant to treat microbial infections.
  • Physiological parameters of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes: Characidae) exposed to a biopesticide based on Bacillus thuringiensis Biological Sciences

    MARIANO, WAGNER S.; AZEVEDO, SAULO B.; GOMES, FRANCISCO L.; LIMA, LIANA B.D.; MORON, SANDRO E.; TAVARES-DIAS, MARCOS

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study investigated the physiological effects of a pesticide based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel-WP®) added in the water and diet of Piaractus mesopotamicus during 24 and 48 h. It was added 0.13 g of de B. thuringiensis per kg of commercial feed; and for the fish subjected to the biopesticide in the water of the tanks, it was added 0.13 g/L of the biopesticide. Plasma levels of sodium, chloride, potassium, cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, cortisol, total protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes number, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), number of thrombocytes and leukocytes were determined. Cortisol, lactate, glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT, AST, sodium, potassium, hematocrit, hemoglobin, MCV, number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils and PAS-positive granular leukocytes suffered alterations derived from the addition of B. thuringiensis in water and diet of the fish. The toxicity of the concentrations of biopesticide in short-term exposure in water and diet of the fish led to blood alterations (increase or decrease). Therefore, care must be taken to avoid a possible prolonged contamination in the tanks of fish farming by agricultural pollution based on B. thuringiensis.
  • Jabuticaba (Plinia jaboticaba) skin extracts as inhibitors of phospholipases A2 and proteases Biological Sciences

    MARQUES, TAMARA R.; BRAGA, MARIANA A.; CESAR, PEDRO H.S.; MARCUSSI, SILVANA; CORRÊA, ANGELITA D.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The phenolic extracts of jabuticaba skin flour (JSF) were characterized by HPLC, and evaluated for their modulating action upon phospholipases A2 and proteases of snake venom, aiming at their possible use in the treatment of the various diseases associated with the action of venom toxins. Two types of extracts were prepared from JSF: aqueous and methanolic. These extracts, evaluated at different ratios, (venom: extract, m/m), significantly inhibited the phospholipase activity induced by the venom of Bothrops moojeni and Crotalus durissus terrificus, except for Bothrops atrox venom. The greatest hemolysis inhibitory action was observed for the methanolic extract, when incubated with venoms of B. moojeni and C. durissus terrificus, with inhibitions between 21 and 100%. Thrombolysis induced by venoms of B. moojeni and C. durissus terrificus was inhibited by both extracts, ranging from 32 to 83% and 51 to 83% for the aqueous and methanolic extracts, respectively. Both extracts extended coagulation time, induced by the venoms of B. moojeni and Lachesis muta muta. Inhibitory actions are related to phenolic compounds, such as gallic, syringic and p-coumaric acids, besides catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin; resveratrol and quercetin, present in the extracts of jabuticaba skin flour, confirming their potential for nutraceutical use.
  • Community structure of metazoan parasites in Hemibrycon surinamensis (Characidae) from the Matapi River in the State of Amapá, Brazil Biological Sciences

    SOUSA, BRIANI O.; OLIVEIRA, MARCOS S.B.; MARCOS, TAVARES-DIAS.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the community of metazoan parasites in Hemibrycon surinamensis from the Matapi River, State of Amapá, Brazil. Among the 31 examined fish, 77.4 % were parasitized by Jainus hexops, Tereancistrum ornatus (Monogenea), Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda), Clinostomus marginatum and Posthodiplostomum sp. (Digenea). However, the dominance was of monogeneans J. hexops and T. ornatus, and among the endoparasites, the predominance was of species at the larval stage. The parasites showed random dispersion. Brillouin diversity index varied from 0 to 0.9, evenness from 0 to 0.7 and species richness from 0 to 3 parasites per host. Low levels of parasitic infection were observed and discussed. The results indicate that this intermediate host occupies a low position in the food web. This is the third eco-epidemiological study for H. surinamensis.
  • Influence of microhabitat on the richness of anuran species: a case study of different landscapes in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil Biological Sciences

    FIGUEIREDO, GUILHERME DE T.; STORTI, LUIS FERNANDO; LOURENÇO-DE-MORAES, RICARDO; SHIBATTA, OSCAR A.; ANJOS, LUIZ DOS

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Environmental heterogeneity is a factor which can help explain the higher local species richness. The objective of this study was to test if richness and composition of anurans species are related to available microhabitats and landscape type of sampled sites. We assume that a higher number of microhabitats increase environmental heterogeneity and this, in turn, affects species richness of amphibians. We performed the study in the Mesophytic Semideciduous Forest, a vegetation type within Atlantic Forest Domain. Between October 2010 and February 2011, we sampled 23 water bodies located in the agricultural, forest, and urban landscapes. The species richness was determined using survey at breeding sites methodology, and the availability of microhabitats was estimated visually. Thirty-four anuran species belonging to 12 families were recorded. The species richness in water bodies ranged from two to 13 species. The highest species richness was recorded in environments with a higher number of microhabitats, while the species composition in water bodies was partially grouped according to the predominant landscape type that is agricultural, forest, forest edge or urban. Our results suggest that species use specific environments (e.g. landscapes, habitat and microhabitat) for their reproductive activities.
  • Temporal variation of bacterial population and response to physical and chemical parameters along a petrochemical industry wastewater treatment plant Biological Sciences

    ANTUNES, THEMIS C.; BALLARINI, ANA E.; SAND, SUELI VAN DER

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The petrochemical industry has played a considerable role in generation and release of waste in the environment. Activated sludge and facultative lagoons are commonly used for domestic and industrial wastewater treatment due to their low-cost and minimal need for operational requirements. Microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) are responsible for most nutrient removal. In this study, microbiological and physicochemical parameters were used to estimate changes in bacterial community in a petrochemical industrial WWTP. The activated sludge was the place with higher heterotrophic bacterial quantification. Denitrifying bacteria was reduced at least 5.3 times throughout all collections samples. We observe a decrease in the total Kjeldahl nitrogen, oxygen demand and phosphate throughout the WWTP. In this work, we also use Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for bacteria isolates identification comparing with 16S rDNA sequencing. The MALDI-TOF MS allowed the identification of 93% of the isolates and only 5% show different results from 16S rDNA sequencing showing that the MALDI-TOF MS can be a tool for identifying environmental bacteria. The observation of microbial community dynamics in the WWTP is important in order to understand the functioning of the ecological structure formed in a specific environment.
  • Bioactivity and action mechanism of green propolis against Pythium aphanidermatum Biological Sciences

    PAZIN, WALLANCE M.; SANTOS, SUIKINAI N. DOS; QUEIROZ, SONIA C.N.; BAGATOLLI, LUIS A.; SOARES, ADEMILSON E.E.; MELO, ITAMAR S. DE; ITO, AMANDO S.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: We have established how natural compounds from green propolis collected by the species Apis mellifera act against the growth of Pythium aphanidermatum. On the basis of mass spectrometry (Q-ToF MS), we determined that Artepillin C, the major constituent of green propolis, underlies the effect and displays activity against P. aphanidermatum at a minimal inhibitory concentration of 750 µg.mL-1. Biophysical studies based on model membranes showed that this inhibitory effect may be linked with a membrane-related phenomenon: Artepillin C increases the permeability of membranes with relatively high fluidity in their lateral structure, a feature that is in line with the lipid composition reported for the cytoplasmic membrane of P. aphanidermatum. Therefore, the present study supports the use of the effective and inexpensive green propolis to control the impact of the dangerous phytopathogen P. aphanidermatum on agriculture.
  • Candesartan inhibits inflammation through an angiotensin II type 1 receptor independent way in human embryonic kidney epithelial cells Biomedical Sciences

    YU, YING; JIANG, HAIFENG; NIU, YANGYANG; ZHANG, XIAOQIN; ZHANG, YINGYING; LIU, XI; QI, TAO; YU, CHEN

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Besides stimulating vasoconstriction, Angiotensin II is also well known in inducing reactive oxygen species and promoting inflammatory phenotype switch via its type 1 receptor. In clinic, Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker like candesartan has been widely applied as an antihypertensive medication. We previous have demonstrated that a higher dose of candesartan plays a protective role after kidney injury. However, whether candesartan could exhibit anti-inflammatory effects remains unclear. Here, by stimulating isolated human embryonic kidney epithelial cells with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), we observed the anti-inflammation capacity of candesartan ex vivo. It was found that pre-treat with candesartan significantly suppressed transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression after incubation with TNF-α. Surprisingly, silence of angiotensin II type 1 receptor has little effects on reducing TGF-β or IL-6 products. Furthermore, candesartan inhibited TNF-α-induced oxidative stress in the primary cultured tubular epithelial cells. Overall, our data indicates that candesartan suppresses TNF-α-induced inflammatory cytokine production by inhibiting oxidative stress, rather than block AT1 receptor activity.
  • The impact of long-term consumption of diets enriched with olive, cottonseed or sesame oils on kidney morphology: A stereological study Biomedical Sciences

    HASSANZADEH-TAHERI, MOHAMMADMEHDI; HASSANZADEH-TAHERI, MAHSA; JAHANI, FARNAZ; ERFANIAN, ZAHRA; MOODI, HESAM; HOSSEINI, MEHRAN

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: To date, most of studies have only focused on metabolic effects of dietary oils while recent evidence proposes that they can influence kidneys structure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of long-term consumption of olive, cottonseed and sesame oils on renal morphology in rats. 70 male Wistar rats randomly assigned into seven equal groups and treated with standard diet (control), the standard diet enriched with 10% or 20% (W/W) of either olive oil (OLI10%, OLI20%), cottonseed oil (COT10%, COT20%) or sesame oil (SES10%, SES20%) for 5 months. Quantitative features of the kidney including kidney and cortex volumes and the number of glomeruli were analyzed stereologically. Moreover, kidney sections histologically were evaluated. All of the studied oils in low concentration had no devastating effects on renal morphology and also its pathological features. However, only in SES20% group, kidney volume as well as, cortical volume was higher than the control group. Besides, accumulation of carbohydrate macromolecules and renal fibrosis were markedly increased in SES20% group compared to the control. The results suggest that sesame oil, especially at high concentration, may lead to renal deformities as a result of histopathological changes such as dilatation, fibrosis, and tubular defects.
  • Inhibitory Effect on the Hepatitis B Cells through the Regulation of miR-122-MAP3K2 signal pathway Biomedical Sciences

    CHEN, SONGLIN; YANG, LEI; PAN, AIPING; DUAN, SILIANG; LI, MINGFEN; LI, PING; HUANG, JINGJING; GAO, XINGXIN; HUANG, XIAOQI; LIN, YINGHUI

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of regulation of miR-122-MAP3K2 signal pathway on the hepatitis B cells. We detected the content of MAP3K2 from patients with HBV blood serum samples and analyzed the correlation between content of MAP3K2 and copies of HBV-DNA. Wound healing and Transwell assays were used to detect the function of cells from control group (wild type) and observer group (overexpresses miR-122). Secretion levels of HBsAg and MAP3K2 in the supernatant and level of MAP3K2 in cells were detected by ELISA and western blot, respectively. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between the copies of HBV-DNA and MAP3K2 in serum. In the assays involving detection of the number of HBV-DNA copies, the supernatant levels of HBsAg and MAP3K2, and the level of MAP3K2 in the cells, the rate of increase of these indicators significantly slowed as culture time. In conclusion, overexpression of miR-122 could inhibit the migration of hepatoblastoma cells; however, following transfection with miR-122, DNA synthesis and the secretion of HBsAg were inhibited. Overexpression of miR-122 can also downregulate MAP3K2. Consequently, we concluded that regulating the miR-122-MAP3K2 signaling pathway exerts an inhibitory effect in hepatitis B cells.
  • Assessment of Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties of Safranal on CCI4-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rats Biomedical Sciences

    ALAYUNT, ÖMER N.; AKSOY, LAÇINE; KARAFAKIOĞLU, YASEMIN S.; SEVIMLI, SEVCAN

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The present study aimed to determine the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of safranal on damage induced by CCl4. Experimental animals were divided into five groups. The first group was determined as the control group and no treatment was conducted. Second group rats were administered 1 mL/kg-day CCI4 during the experiment. Rats in Groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered 1 mL/kg-day CCI4 and 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg; 100 mg/kg safranal, respectively via gavage. Oxidative-antioxidant parameters, liver function enzymes and inflammatory cytokine levels were determined in liver samples obtained from the rats. Data analysis demonstrated that oxidative stress and inflammation markers were significantly higher in CCI4 administered groups (p<0.05). Antioxidant parameters in high-dose safranal administered groups were not different when compared to the control group. Safranal had ameliorating effects on the increased liver function enzymes activities in CCI4 administered groups. In conclusion, it was observed that CCI4 administration led to hepatic damage and increased oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine levels. It was observed that particularly high-dose administration of safranal promoted the antioxidant system. Safranal administration was not effective on IL-1β levels. However, high-dose (100 mg/kg) safranal was found to be inflammatory against TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines. In conclusion, it can be said that safranal has an anti-inflammatory potential and has a strong antioxidative effect.
  • Mapping Study on the Use of Digital Games for Persons with Disabilities in Upper Members Biomedical Sciences

    FERNANDES, FLÁVIA G.; CARDOSO, ALEXANDRE; LOPES, RENATO A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Digital games are no longer seen as a form of entertainment detrimental to health. They have become an important tool to improve the treatment of patients, ranging from those who are experiencing a serious illness, such as cancer, to those requiring milder procedures such as physiotherapy. However, there are people who are physically disabled and have difficulty playing digital games. In this line of reasoning, this work presents a systematic review on the use of digital games for people with physical disabilities in the upper limbs. The sources of research were the following indexed databases: IEEE Xplore, Portal of Periodicals of the Coordination of Improvement of Personnel of Higher Level (CAPES), PubMed, Scielo, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. It should be noted that the application of Systematic Mapping in the elaboration of a bibliographical review allowed to identify the main gaps for the development of new research, and to redirect to the main publications related to the study. Finally, the results shows that it is an area that is constantly expanding.
  • Inhibitory effect of Lonchocarpus araripensis lectin in rat acute models of inflammation Biomedical Sciences

    PIRES, ALANA F.; MARQUES, GABRIELA F.O.; ALENCAR, NYLANE M.N. DE; MARTINS, MARIA G.Q.; SILVA, MAYARA T.L. DA; NASCIMENTO, KYRIA S. DO; CAVADA, BENILDO S.; ASSREUY, ANA MARIA S.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Dalbergieae tribe lectins, possessing binding affinity for galactose and mannose, present inflammatory and nociceptive effects, while those for N-acetylglucosamine are anti-inflammatory. Since the anti-inflammatory effect of the seed lectin of L. araripensis (LAL) had been already demonstrated in mice, this effect was presently evaluated in rat models of acute inflammation. LAL (0.01-1 mg/kg) was administered by intravenous (i.v.) route in male Wistar rats 30 min before paw edema induction by dextran or carrageenan, and peritonitis by carrageenan. LAL (1 mg/kg) was incubated with N-acetylglucosamine for allowing lectin-sugar interactions before injection into animals. LAL toxicity was evaluated by the parameters: body mass, organs weight, stomach macroscopy, hematological and biochemical dosage. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test (p<0.05). The paw edema induced by carrageenan (AUC: 0.96 ± 0.09) was inhibited by LAL about 39% (0-2 h) at all doses, and about 72% (3-5 h) at 0.1 and 1 mg/kg. The increase in the neutrophil migration stimulated by carrageenan was also inhibited by LAL (83%). In both models, LAL inhibitory effect was prevented by GlcNAc. The sub-chronic treatment with LAL was well tolerated by animals. LAL possesses anti-inflammatory effect via lectin domain, indicating potential modulator role in cellular inflammatory events.
  • Evaluation of Gastro-protective Activity of Myristica fragrans on Ethanol-induced Ulcer in Albino Rats Biomedical Sciences

    SATTAR, ARRANSA; ABDO, ABDULLAH; MUSHTAQ, MUHAMMAD N.; ANJUM, IRFAN; ANJUM, AHSAN

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract:Myristica fragrans seeds are traditionally used to treat dyspepsia, vomiting and abdominal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Myristica fragrans in ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Study was carried out on rats, divided into four groups; negative control, positive control, standard drug control, and Myristica fragrans extract treated rats. The pH, ulcer index, acidity values and histopathological examination of stomach were evaluated. Myristica fragrans significantly (P<0.05) reduced gastric lesions by 41.68% in ethanol induced ulcer model at 200 mg/kg when compared to sucralfate (60.41%). However, histopathological findings appeared similar in Myristica fragrans extract treated and standard drug control groups, where stomachs were found with mild erosion of superficial epithelium and few infiltrated inflammatory cells. pH of gastric contents of rats from extract treated was increased (4.25 ± 0.25) as compared to positive control group (2.25 ± 0.25). Ulcer index of extract treated rats was improved (41.74%). Moreover, total acidity of extract treated group (60.0 ± 0.47) was decreased as compared to control group (74.50 ± 1.04). It is concluded that Myristica fragrans showed significant protecting activity in ethanol induced ulcer. Isolation and purification of phytochemicals responsible for gastroprotective activity becomes necessary.
  • Blood compatibility assessments of electrospun polyurethane nanocomposites blended with megni oil for tissue engineering applications Biomedical Sciences

    JAGANATHAN, SARAVANA KUMAR; MANI, MOHAN P.; SUPRIYANTO, EKO

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Tissue engineering holds as a prominent technique to repair or replace the damaged human parts to recreate its native function. In this research, a novel scaffold based on polyurethane (PU) comprising megni oil was electrospun for tissue engineering applications. The obtained polyurethane blended with megni oil nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, the blood compatibility of the fabricated nanocomposites evaluated through activated prothrombin time (APTT), partial thromboplastin time (PT) and hemolysis assay to determine the anticoagulant nature. The morphological results showed that the fabricated nanocomposites showed reduced fiber size (789 ± 143.106 nm) than the pristine control (890 ± 116.91 nm). The interaction between PU and megni oil was identified by the hydrogen bond formation evident in the FTIR. The incorporation of megni oil in the PU decreased the wettability behavior (113.3° ± 1.528) and improved the surface roughness (646 nm). Preliminary evaluation of blood compatibility assessments was carried out using APTT, PT and hemolysis assay revealed the enhanced antithrombogenicity nature of the fabricated nanocomposites than the PU. Hence, we conclude that the fabricated new nanocomposite membrane with desirable characteristics which might find potential application in the tissue engineering applications.
  • Pharmacognostical study of Desmodium caudatum Biomedical Sciences

    LI, JUNNI; LIN, XIAOJING; TANG, GENGQIU; LI, RONG; WANG, DONG; JI, SHENGGUO

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract:Desmodium caudatum (Thunb.) DC, is an ever-green plant widely used in the central and southern China with great economic value for their medical values on fever, dysentery, gastroenteritis, rectal prolapse, snake bites, mastitis, and boils carbuncle. Despite its extensive uses as a traditional Chinese medicine, no systematic research on the identification of Desmodium caudatum has been reported. In this study, traditional pharmacognostical identification including the botanical origin and morphological characters, medicinal material characters, microscopic characters, physicochemical parameters determination and phytochemical screening, and DNA barcoding analysis were employed to establish an accurate and effective identification system of Desmodium caudatum. In addition, the molecular pharmacognosy study was adopted in order to identify the samples more accurately. The ITS loci of the nuclear genome and psbA-trnH loci of the chloroplast genome were selected and evaluated, which were the most variable loci. The study will be beneficial to the development of the quality standard and the identification of species.
  • In vitro effect of globotriaosylceramide on electron transport chain complexes and redox parameters Biomedical Sciences

    ALVARIZ, RAFAELA M.; MOREIRA, ISABEL T.D.S.; CURY, GABRIELA K.; VARGAS, CARMEN R.; BARSCHAK, ALETHÉA G.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked inherited disease and occurs due to mutations in GLA gene that encodes the α-galactosidase enzyme. Consequently, there is an accumulation of enzyme substrates, namely globotriaosylceramide (GB3). FD is a multisystemic disease, caused by storage of GB3 in vascular endothelia, with significant renal, cardiac and vascular involvement. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of GB3 on electron transport chain complexes (ETC) and redox parameters. Biochemical biomarkers were determined in homogenates of cerebral cortex, kidneys and liver of Wistar rats in the presence or absence of GB3 at concentrations of 3, 6, 9 and 12 mg/L. We found that GB3 caused an increase of ETC complexes II and IV activities, increased production of reactive species and decreased superoxide dismutase enzyme activity in homogenates of cerebral cortex. As well also increased production of reactive species and superoxide dismutase activity in kidney homogenates. The results obtained in our work suggest that GB3 interferes in ETC complexes II and IV activities, however, the magnitude of this increase seems to be too low to present a physiologically importance. However, the imbalance in cellular redox state indicating that these alterations may be involved in the pathophysiology of FD, mainly in renal and cerebral manifestations.
  • Position-dependent correlation between TBX22 exon 5 methylation and palatal shelf fusion in the development of cleft palate Biomedical Sciences

    LI, KE; SHU, XUAN; GONG, HUI; CHENG, LIUHANGHANG; DONG, ZEJUN; SHU, SHENYOU

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: DNA methylation is essential for spatiotemporally-regulated gene expression in embryonic development. TBX22 (Chr X: 107667964-107688978) functioning as a transcriptional repressor affects DNA binding, sumoylation, and transcriptional repression associated with X-linked cleft palate. This study aimed to explore the relationship and potential mechanism between TBX22 exon 5 methylation and palatal shelf fusion induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). We performed DNA methylation profiling, using MethylRAD-seq, after high throughput sequencing of mouse embryos from control (n=9) and ATRA-treated (to induce cleft palate, n=9) C57BL/6J mice at embryonic gestation days(E) 13.5, 14.5 and 16.5. TBX22 exon 5 was hyper-methylated at the CpG site at E13.5 (P=0.025, log2FC=1.5) and E14.5 (P=0.011, log2FC:1.5) in ATRA-treated, whereas methylation TBX22 exon 5 at the CpG site was not significantly different at E16.5 (P=0.808, log2FC=-0.2) between control and ATRA-treated. MSP results showed a similar trend consistent with the MethylRAD-seq results. qPCR showed the change in TBX22 exon 5 expression level negatively correlated with its TBX22 exon 5 methylation level. These results indicate that changes in TBX22 exon 5 methylation might play an important regulatory role during palatal shelf fusion, and may enlighten the development of novel epigenetic biomarkers in the treatment of CP in the future.
  • Persistent Mullerian duct Syndrome in a Brazilian miniature schnauzer dog Biomedical Sciences

    NOGUEIRA, DENISE M.; ARMADA, JORGE L.A.; PENEDO, DIEGO M.; TANNOUZ, VANIA G.S.; MEYERS-WALLEN, VICKI N.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Here we describe an eight-year-old miniature schnauzer (MS) dog from Brazil with Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) and the single base pair substitution in AMHR2 exon 3, first detected in this breed in the USA. This finding is evidence of mutation dissemination to South America. In PMDS, a type of XY Disorder of Sex Development (DSD), dogs with a male karyotype and external phenotype also have a uterus, oviducts, and a cranial vagina internally. Approximately half of PMDS MS are unilaterally or bilaterally cryptorchid and many develop pyometra and/or Sertoli cell tumor. Bilateral Sertoli cell testicular tumors were present in this case, and the dog died a few days after surgical castration and hysterectomy. Although the karyotype was compatible with male chromosomal sex, a Robertsonian translocation was also identified, which may be an incidental finding. This report emphasizes the importance of cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses, along with clinical examination, to identify chromosomal or genetic variations associated with canine PMDS. These are helpful tools to obtain early diagnosis in the MS, which is important to improve health outcomes for affected dogs and to reduce the prevalence of PMDS and cryptorchidism in this breed by avoiding the mating of carriers.
  • Protective Effect of Vitamin C on Triptolide-induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in Mice through mitigation of oxidative stress Biomedical Sciences

    XU, PENGJUAN; LI, YOUYOU; YU, ZHICHAO; YANG, LIN; SHANG, RONG; YAN, ZIHANG

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Triptolide, a purified diterpenoid from the herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f., was widely used to treat many diseases. However, the hepatotoxicity of triptolide limited its clinical use. Research showed oxidative stress played an important role in triptolide-induced liver injury. To investigate the effect of vitamin C, which was one of the most effective antioxidants, on triptolide-induced hepatotoxicity and its potential mechanism in mice. In the present study, acute liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of triptolide and vitamin C was orally administered. The results showed treatment with vitamin C prevented the triptolide-induced liver injury by reducing the levels of aspartate transaminase from 286.86 to 192.48 U/mL and alanine aminotransferase from 746.75 to 203.36 U/mL. Histopathological changes of liver corresponded to the same trend. Furthermore, vitamin C also protected the liver against triptolide-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting the generation of malondialdehyde (2.22 to 1.49 nmol/mgprot) and hydrogen peroxide (14.74 to 7.19 mmol/gprot) and restoring the level of total superoxide dismutase (24.32 to 42.55 U/mgprot) and glutathione (7.69 to 13.03 μg/mgprot). These results indicated that vitamin C could protect against triptolide-induced liver injury via reducing oxidative stress, and vitamin C may pose a significant health protection in the clinical use of triptolide.
  • A low-protein, high carbohydrate diet induces increase in serum adiponectin and preserves glucose homeostasis in rats Biomedical Sciences

    CEOLIN, PATRÍCIA; FRANÇA, SUÉLEM A. DE; FROELICH, MENDALLI; SANTOS, MAÍSA P. DOS; PEREIRA, MAYARA P.; QUEIROZ, THAÍS S.; SILVA, FLÁVIA H.S. DA; LISBOA, PATRÍCIA C.; ANDRADE, CLAUDIA M.B.; BAVIERA, AMANDA M.; KAWASHITA, NAIR H.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of this study was investigate the effects of a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet introduced to rats soon after weaning. The animals were distributed in the following groups: LPHC45: fed an LPHC diet (6%-protein, 74%-carbohydrate) for 45 days; C45: fed a control (C) diet (17%-protein, 63%-carbohydrate) for 45 days; R (Reverse): fed with LPHC for 15 days followed by C diet for 30 days. The LPHC45 group showed alterations in the energetic balance with an increase in brown adipose tissue, and in glucose tolerance, and lower final body weight, muscle mass and total protein in blood when compared with C45 group. The HOMA-IR index was similar between LPHC45 and C45 groups, but this parameter was lower in LPHC45 compared with R groups. Serum adiponectin was higher in LPHC45 group than C45 and R groups. The R group presented higher fed insulin than C45 and LPHC45 and higher T4 compared with C45 group. Total cholesterol in R group was higher when compared with LPHC45 group. Thus, the data show that the change of the diet LPHC for a balanced diet led to different metabolic evolution and suggest that the different response can be due to different levels of adiponectin.
  • Regular exercise, overweight/obesity and sedentary lifestyle cause adaptive changes in thiol–disulfide homeostasis Health Sciences

    GOL, MEHMET; ÖZKAYA, BEYTULLAH; YILDIRIM, CANER; BAL, RAMAZAN

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Dynamic thiol–disulfide homeostasis is considered to have critical roles in maintenance of physiological functioning. We aimed to reveal whether there is any specific aberration in thiol–disulfide homeostasis in three distinct categories of individuals, including those who 1) exercise regularly (fitness group), 2) have a sedentary lifestyle (sedentary group) and 3) are overweight or obese (overweight/obese group). 72 male individuals were included in the study, 21 of whom were in fitness group, 28 of whom were overweight or obese and 23 of whom had a sedentary lifestyle. Plasma native thiol (-SH) and total thiol [(-SH) + (-S-S-)] levels were quantitatively determined. Total thiol levels in sedentary group were significantly lower than those in overweight/obese (p<0.05) and fitness groups (p<0.001). Also, disulfide values in fitness group were significantly higher than those in sedentary and overweight/obese groups (p<0.005, p<0.05). On the other hand, disulfide level, reduced and oxidized thiol ratios and oxidation/reduction ratio in fitness group differed significantly from the other groups (p<0.05). Thiol–disulfide homeostasis varies depending on lifestyle. The results of our study indicate that higher total thiol and disulfide levels are conspicuously distinctive features of thiol–disulfide homeostasis in individuals exercising regularly.
  • Plant Extracts Display Synergism with Different Classes of Antibiotics Health Sciences

    SILVA, DANIELLE M.; COSTA, PRISCILLA A. DA; RIBON, ANDRÉA O.B.; PURGATO, GISLAINE A.; GASPAR, DIAZ-MUÑOZ; DIAZ, MARISA A.N.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: One manner in which plant-derived compounds exert their antibiotic potential is the synergism, a positive interaction between two compounds. Studies indicate that the use of plant extracts combined with antimicrobials may promote a significant reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics for bacterial strains. This study aimed to evaluate the activity of plant extracts and antibiotics as well as their combination on Staphylococcus aureus. The activity of 15 plant extracts was evaluated using diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the interactions between the extracts and antibiotics as well as compound emodin were evaluated with the checkerboard method. The active extracts were a hexane extract of the leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia and the ethanol extracts of the leaves of Plectranthus ornatus, Inga edulis, Salvia officinalis and Senna macranthera. The Plectranthus ornatus extract displayed synergism with ampicillin (a β-lactam), kanamycin and gentamicin (aminoglycosides), with 8-fold reductions in the MIC. The same reduction was observed for the extracts of Salvia officinalis and Senna macranthera, which displayed the lowest MIC. Using these combinations resulted in a reduction in the minimum dose required for effective antimicrobial effects, which is interesting because it may decrease both the risk of side effects and the costs of treatment.
  • Hepcidin is a useful biomarker to evaluate hyperferritinemia associated with metabolic syndrome Health Sciences

    RAUBER, MARIANA R.; PILGER, DIOGO A.; CECCONELLO, DAIANE K.; FALCETTA, FREDERICO S.; MARCONDES, NATÁLIA A.; FAULHABER, GUSTAVO A.M.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Investigation of hyperferritinemia in metabolic syndrome patients represents a diagnostic challenge, but it is essential for the identification of individuals with iron overload. Hepcidin negatively regulates iron absorption and release. An increase in hepcidin occurs when iron levels are sufficient or in inflammatory states, conditions often associated with hyperferritinemia. Hemochromatosis causes hyperferritinemia due to iron overload, but frequently has low hepcidin levels. Our aim was to evaluate biochemical and molecular parameters related to iron metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome. We evaluated 94 patients with metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data and diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, iron dosage, ferritin, transferrin saturation, hepcidin, and the C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE hemochromatosis gene were evaluated. Prevalence of hyperferritinemia in the study population was 27.7% and was higher in males (46.2%) than in females (14.5%). Increase in transferrin saturation correlated with mutations in the hemochromatosis gene. Hyperferritinemia was associated to transferrin saturation and hepcidin after logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, hyperferritinemia is a frequent finding in metabolic syndrome patients, most frequently in men; and hepcidin assessment can be useful for the investigation of ferritin increase in those subjects.
  • Effect of acetylsalicylic acid on total myenteric neurons in mice experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Health Sciences

    SOUZA, NOEMI D. DE; BELIN, BRUNA S.; MASSOCATTO, CRISTINA L.; ARAÚJO, SILVANA M. DE; SANT’ANA, DÉBORA M.G.; ARAÚJO, EDUARDO J.A.; P., PHILENO; NIHEI, OSCAR K.; MOREIRA, NEIDE M.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: We investigated the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on the total myenteric neuronal population in the descending colon in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice. Thirty-five male Swiss mice, 60 days old, were divided into a control group (C group), control group treated with ASA (CA group), infected group (I group), and infected group treated with ASA (IA group). A total of 1300 trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi were intraperitoneally inoculated in the IA and I groups. The CA and IA groups were treated with ASA intraperitoneally. At 75 days post-infection (dpi), all of the animals were sacrificed. Neurons in the colon were stained with Giemsa, quantified, and measured. No difference in the course of infection was observed between the IA and I groups, reflected by the parasitemia curve. Acetylsalicylic acid treatment in the CA and IA groups did not alter the total number of myenteric neurons compared with the C and I groups. The CA and IA groups exhibited an increase in the nuclear area, cytoplasmic area, and neuronal body area compared with the C and I groups. Future studies should elucidate the mechanism of action of ASA against Chagas’ disease in the chronic phase.
  • Relationship between periodontal outcomes and serum biomarkers changes after non-surgical periodontal therapy Health Sciences

    LOBÃO, WALDER J.M.; CARVALHO, ROSANA C.C. DE; LEITE, SANDRA A.M.; RODRIGUES, VANDILSON P.; BATISTA, JOSÉ EDUARDO; GOMES-FILHO, ISAAC S.; PEREIRA, ANTONIO L.A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The systemic effect of chronic periodontitis (CP) has been suggested by several studies as an etiologic factor and modulator of diseases based on the changes in the inflammatory marker levels. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the changes in clinical periodontal outcomes and serum biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, albumin and percentage of leukocytes) after non-surgical periodontal therapy in systemically healthy adults. An interventional study was conducted with a sample of 29 individuals without CP (control group) and 33 with CP (CP group). Periodontal clinical variables were recorded, and the serum levels of inflammatory markers were measured. Statistical analysis included the chi-square and Student’s t-tests and Pearson’s correlation analysis. After 90 days of non-surgical periodontal treatment, a reduction of periodontal parameters and IL-6 in both groups could be observed (P < 0.001). The correlation analysis revealed a directly proportional correlation between changes in the probing depth (r = 0.349, P = 0.049) and clinical attachment level (r = 0.374, P = 0.034) with CRP in the CP group. The findings suggest a reduction of IL-6 serum concentration and periodontal clinical measures 90 days after periodontal therapy in both groups.
  • Metaphylactic effect of calcium on milk composition and animal health in post-partum dairy cows Health Sciences

    ALBANI, KÁSSIO D.; LOPES, LEANDRO S.; CAMPIGOTTO, GABRIELA; BALDISSERA, MATHEUS D.; SILVA, ALEKSANDRO S. DA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of subcutaneous calcium administration in post-partum dairy cows with respect to carbohydrate, protein and lipids metabolism, as well as its effects on milk composition. Twenty post-partum dairy cows were randomly divided into two groups (n=10): a control and a treated group with a single dose (150 mL) of calcium. Blood collection was performed on post-partum days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 10. In addition, we measured serum levels of total calcium, total proteins, albumin, globulins, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, as well as creatine kinase (CK) activity. We determined milk composition on post-partum days 5, 10 and 20. Serum total calcium levels was higher on post-partum days 3 and 7 in the treated group. Serum urea (day 3) and triglycerides (days 7 and 10) levels were higher in the treated group, as were CK activity levels at post-partum days 2 and 3. Serum glucose and cholesterol levels were lower on post-partum day 2 in treated animals. Fat (day 20) and lactose (day 10) content in milk samples were higher than in the treated animals. We concluded that treatment with calcium in cows during the post-partum period changes biochemical variables related to metabolism.
  • Effects of fed mycotoxin contaminated diets supplemented with spray-dried porcine plasma on cholinergic response and behavior in piglets Health Sciences

    MÜLLER, LUCIELI K.F.; SILVA, ALEKSANDRO S. DA; BOTTARI, NATHIELI B.; SANTURIO, JANIO M.; MORSCH, VERA M.; PIVA, MANOELA M.; MENDES, RICARDO E.; GLORIA, EDUARDO M.; PAIANO, DIOVANI

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) supplementation on cholinesterase enzymes and its relationship with animal behavior of weaning piglets exposed to mycotoxin contaminated diets. To achieve these objectives, two experimental design approaches were used. Male piglets (7.15±0.61kg) were allocated in four groups: CTL group received a regular diet; SDPP group received a regular diet and 6% SDPP; MYC group received a diet containing desired contamination of 210 µg/kg aflatoxins and 6.690 µg/kg fumonisins; group MYC+SDPP received 253 µg/kg aflatoxins, 6930 µg/kg fumonisins and 6% SDPP. The animals treated with mycotoxin co-contaminated diets showed an increase in AChE and BChE activities in peripheral system (MYC) when compared to control (CTL). Furthermore, supplementation with SDPP (MYC+SDPP group) prevented the mycotoxin-related reduction of AChE in blood and brain. Behavioral tests showed that sleeping and resting behaviors were more often observed in the MYC group; this group also fed fewer times when compared to the other groups, characterizing the deleterious effect of mycotoxins. Taken together, the data suggest changes in AChE and BChE activities may indicate alterations in cholinergic neurotransmission and consequently in the behavior of piglets.
  • Performance and egg quality of laying hens fed with mineral sources and rosemary oil Agrarian Sciences

    GARCIA, ELIS REGINA DE M.; CHAVES, NATÁLIA R.B.; OLIVEIRA, CARLOS ANTONIO L. DE; KIEFER, CHARLES; MELO, EVILÁSIO P. DE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In order to evaluate the effect of rosemary oil and micro mineral sources on the performance and egg quality of laying hens, 288 hens were used and distributed in a completely randomized design using a 2x3 factorial (mineral sources x rosemary oil) with six different diets and six replications. Diets were formulated containing inorganic or organic minerals, with or without added rosemary oil (100 and 200 mg kg-1). The treatments showed interaction for average egg weight, yolk color, albumen and yolk percentage, with significant results from the use of organic minerals compared to inorganic minerals. The addition of 200 mg kg-1 rosemary oil in diets improved laying rate, egg mass, specific gravity, number of pores on the shell when compared to other treatments. In conclusion, the use of 200 mg kg-1 of rosemary oil improves the performance of red laying hen eggs. The association between organic minerals and 100 mg kg-1 rosemary oil in laying hen diets increases yolk color and percentage of albumen. The use of organic minerals is superior to inorganic minerals as to improve the quality of eggs, increasing average egg weight, yolk color and percentage of albumen.
  • Productivity and nutritive value of elephant grass pastures under organic and conventional production systems Agrarian Sciences

    SIMONETTI, GABRIELA D.; OLIVO, CLAIR J.; SEIBT, DAIANE C.; BRATZ, VINICIUS F.; SAUTHIER, JULIO C.; ADAMS, CARINE B.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Elephant grass (EG) (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) have great importance in tropical and subtropical climates, especially on dairy farms. Normally, EG is established alone under high fertilization levels. EG in organic production system can improve low production costs and environmental issues, are still little known. The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of herbage yield, nutritive value, extraction/ export nutrient and forage yield and animal responses. Three production systems of EG were analyzed: (i) EG mixed spontaneous-growing species (SGE) in warm-season and ryegrass (R) in cool-season under organic production; (ii) EG mixed SGE + R under conventional system (positive control); and (iii) EG based under conventional production (control). Holstein cows were used in a rotational stocking. Forage samples were collected to evaluate the pasture and animal responses. Seven grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period (312 days). Herbage yield, forage intake, and stocking rate were 12548; 10270; 19168 kg ha-1 and 2.5; 2.6; 2.7% and 3.3; 2.1; 4.5 AU ha-1 day-1, respectively. Crude protein of EG was 17.9; 15.4; 16.4%, respectively. Mixed pastures, in conventional and organic production, had a better forage distribution throughout the seasons. Highest forage yield and extraction/ export nutrient was reported in pure EG within the conventional system.
  • Alcoholic extract of propolis in Nile tilapia post-larvae and fingerlings’ diets: effects on production performance, body composition and intestinal histology Agrarian Sciences

    SANTOS, LILIAN D. DOS; ZADINELO, IZABEL V.; SILVA, LILIAN C.R. DA; ZILLI, ROGÉRIO L.; BARREIROS, MARCO ANTONIO B.; MAUERWERK, MARLISE T.; MEURER, FÁBIO

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the production performance of Nile tilapia post-larvae and fingerlings fed with increasing levels of alcoholic extract of propolis into diets. In Experiment 1, 1800 post-larvae were distributed in 30 tanks, in a completely randomized design with five treatments composed by the inclusion of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g of dry propolis/kg of feed, and six replicates. In experiment 2, 1600 fingerlings were distributed in the same system and designed as experiment 1. No significant effect was observed between treatments, for final weight, total and standard length, survival, and intestinal villus height. However, the propolis extract inclusion of 1 g/kg in Nile tilapia post-larvae and fingerlings’ feed resulted in a better body condition factor and higher body protein deposition (p<0.05). The condition factor is an estimate for the future growth of the animals, possibly the fish treated with propolis extract will present better growth, survival and greater reproductive potential rates. The results of the present study demonstrate that alcoholic extract of propolis improves the nutritional condition of Nile tilapia post-larvae and fingerlings, potentially leading to increased productivity in subsequent stages, as well as leading to improvement in fingerlings muscle deposition.
  • Evaluation of food baits to capture Drosophila suzukii in the southern of Brazil Agrarian sciences

    WOLLMANN, JUTIANE; SCHLESENER, DANIELE C.H.; VIEIRA, JÚLIA G.A.; BERNARDI, DANIEL; GARCIA, MAURO S.; GARCIA, FLÁVIO R.M.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract:Drosophila suzukii is one of the main pests of small fruits in the world. An effective monitoring is fundamental to detect the presence of the fly and to predict the infestation of fruits in new areas. We evaluated the food baits Ceratrap®, Torula®, Biofruit®, Suzukii Trap®, apple cider vinegar, and a homemade mixture comprising wine, vinegar and molasses (WVM) for D. suzukii attractiveness, and if reproductive stage affects females attraction and capture in the different baits. Bait selectivity of non-target insects was assessed. The preference of adults between ripe blackberry fruit and the food baits was also evaluated. Adults showed a higher attraction (61.97% of the captured insects) to the WVM mixture than to Ceratrap® (1.32%), Torula® (0.52%), Biofruit® (13.15%), Suzukii Trap® (17.6%), and apple vinegar (5.4%). Considering the attractiveness to D. suzukii, Suzukii Trap® and apple vinegar were the most selective to non-target insects. In general, reproductively immature females showed a preference for Biofruit®, apple vinegar, and WVM, whereas mature females did not show bait preferences. Adults preferred ripe blackberry fruit over the WVM mixture. Understanding the field behavior of D. suzukii is of foremost importance to estimate insect population density and outline pest management strategies.
  • Post-fire recovery of a dense ombrophylous forest in Amazon Agrarian Sciences

    ANDRADE, DÁRLISON F.C. DE; GAMA, JOÃO R.V.; RUSCHEL, ADEMIR R.; MELO, LIA O.; AVILA, ANGELA L. DE; CARVALHO, JOÃO O.P. DE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The fires that occur in the Amazon are as damaging as the deforestation is. There is a need for further long-term studies on dynamics of tree communities in forests affected by fires. In the present study we evaluated the dynamics of tree species, before and after an accidental fire that occurred in 1997 in an experimental area of terra firme forest in the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, in western Pará State, Brazil. Approximately 3500 trees with diameter measured at 1.30 m above ground (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were botanically identified and measured in 12 permanent plots of 0.25 ha (50 m x 50 m), in 1983, 1987, 1989, 1995, 2008 and 2012. Analyses of survival, mortality and recruitment of trees were performed. The results showed that although the fire has increased the mortality and recruitment rates after 15 years, the highest mortality occurred on trees with smaller diameters (DBH < 30 cm), so the fire did not affect the survival of large trees in the long term, explaining why the reduction in density of living trees has not greatly influenced the decrease in basal area in the burned forest.
  • Physical characterization of Arabica ground coffee with different roasting degrees Engineering Sciences

    NAKILCIOĞLU-TAŞ, EMINE; ÖTLEŞ, SEMIH

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Roasting is a determinative operation on the final quality of coffee. Roasting process causes physical, chemical and sensory changes on coffee. In this study roasting degree effect on physical properties of Arabica fine ground coffee was examined. The bulk properties, particle property, reconstitution properties, moisture content, water activities and color properties were investigated in different roasting degrees of coffee. The results showed that the physical characteristics of coffee samples were influenced by the degree of roast. To have longer shelf life, lower cost and better physical attributes of Arabica fine ground coffee, the roasting process should be kept at a lower degree. At the same time the requests and expectations of customer should also be considered.
  • Perceptions of Graduate Students at the University of São Paulo about Plagiarism Practices in Academic Works Social Sciences

    KROKOSCZ, MARCELO; FERREIRA, SUELI M.S.P.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Our objective was to identify the understanding of theoretical aspects and the interpretation of practical situations that a sample of 3,623 graduate students (Population = 22,438) at the University of São Paulo (Brazil) have regarding academic plagiarism. The survey used an electronic questionnaire containing 30 multiple choice questions developed from the literature concerning the concept and definition of plagiarism, occurrence modality, types of plagiarism, reasons for occurrence, standards and preventive actions adopted. We identified that the fact of respondents agreeing or disagreeing with the theoretical-conceptual characteristics of plagiarism did not make a difference in their capacity of correctly assessing practical situations characterizing plagiarism. Moreover, the agreement or disagreement responses regarding the concepts of plagiarism were observed not to differ among the respondents who had been trained to use references and citations. However, the same respondents correctly interpret practical situations characterizing plagiarism. Therefore, this study suggests that there is a gap between theoretical and practical knowledge regarding plagiarism for graduate students. Although the technical training related to the correct use of research sources is an important prerequisite in the capacity-building process, it does not seem to be enough to prevent plagiarism practices.
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