Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: We introduce a new class of continuous distributions called the generalized odd Lindley-G family. Four special models of the new family are provided. Some explicit expressions for the quantile and generating functions, ordinary and incomplete moments, order statistics and Rényi and Shannon entropies are derived. The maximum likelihood method is used for estimating the model parameters. The flexibility of the generated family is illustrated by means of two applications to real data sets.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: In this paper, we revisit the Wilson-Hilferty distribution and presented its mathematical properties such as the r-th moments and reliability properties. The parameters estimators are discussed using objective reference Bayesian analysis for both complete and censored data where the resulting marginal posterior intervals have accurate frequentist coverage. A simulation study is presented to compare the performance of the proposed estimators with the frequentist approach where it is observed a clear advantage for the Bayesian method. Finally, the proposed methodology is illustrated on three real datasets.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: We give an explicit formula for singular surfaces of revolution with prescribed unbounded mean curvature. Using this mean curvature, we give conditions for certain types of singularities of those surfaces. Periodicity of that surface is also discussed.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The aim of this study is to discuss the concentration distribution, composition and possible sources of trace metals and 13 PAHs in topsoils of the University campus, in the city of São Paulo, the largest city of South America. Mineralogy and granulometry of topsoils (0-10 cm) samples, were determined and As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn, Hg, Pt, Pd and PAHs concentrations were quantified in the bulk fraction. The average clay content of soils was 221±61.8 g kg-1 and total carbon was low (mean of 25 g kg-1). Concentrations of metals were generally lower than the reference value established by the São Paulo State Environmental Agency and other studies in the São Paulo urban area, except for Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr and Zn. The mean concentration of the sum of 13 PAHs was 0.33 mg kg-1 and fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, anthracene, pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene were the most abundant compounds. PAHs and trace metals variability were constrained in PMF analysis and showed an association with exhaust and non-exhaust vehicular emissions. The results also pointed out a spatial pattern in the campus area related to traffic conditions and intensity and terrain slope.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: We here report for the first time on the presence of three species of the conopid genus Stylogaster Macquart (Diptera, Conopidae) in Ethiopia, viz. S. nitens Brunetti, S. westwoodi Smith and Stylogaster sp.. We further screened 908 muscid flies (Diptera, Muscidae) for the presence of impaled eggs of Stylogaster and recorded eggs on 89 individuals (9.8%). Eggs were impaled on eight species, viz. Limnophora translucida Stein, Musca lusoria Wiedemann, Musca splendens Pont, Neomyia chrysopyga (Emden), Pseudohelina nigritarsis (Jaennicke), Stomoxys omega Newstead, Stomoxys taeniatus Bigot and Stomoxys varipes (Bezzi). The maximum number of eggs found on a single muscid was six. We illustrated the dissected eggs. L. translucida, M. lusoria, M. splendens, N. chrysopyga and S. varipes are reported as new muscid hosts species for Stylogaster.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Useful insight can be gained into the underlying adsorption mechanism by studying the adsorption of nitrogen by primary structure coal with different water content. In this work, a coal-adsorption gas experimental system is used to investigate the adsorption of nitrogen by coal samples containing different amounts of water ( 2.894%, 1.871%, 0.897%, and 0%) and different pressures (0.7, 1.2, 1.7, 2.2, 2.7, 3.2, and 3.7MPa). The adsorption rates under the different conditions were calculated using a volume method, and the adsorption kinetics investigated using a kinetic model. The results show that an adsorption model based on an opposing process characterizes the adsorption behavior better than the pseudo-first order kinetic model and pseudo-second order kinetic model. The adsorption rate constant, k, reflects the rate at which the gas can get into the pores of different sizes in the coal a greater k value, implies a greater increment in the rate. The k value is found to decrease when the initial pressure is increased for the same moisture content. Also, the greater the water content, the smaller the value of k for a given initial pressure. As the moisture content continues to increase, the k value tends to a certain value. The results presented can provide an experimental basis for the study of the mechanism responsible for the adsorption of nitrogen by primary structure coal with different moisture content.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Stable isotopes have been widely used in the literature both to discuss current ocean circulation processes, as well as to reconstitute paleoceanographic parameters. The distribution of oxygen and deuterium stable isotopes in seawater (δ18Osw and δDsw) at the Western Tropical South Atlantic border was investigated to better understand the main fractionation processes of these isotopes and establish a regional salinity and δ18Osw relation to improve the paleoceanographic knowledge in the region. This study was conducted during a quasi-synoptic oceanographic cruise in which 98 discrete seawater samples were collected in the core of the main water masses for stable isotope analysis. A strong correlation between δ18Osw and δD was found, which made it possible to extrapolate the results for δ18Osw to δD. Although it was not possible to distinguish the water masses based only on their isotopic signatures, the water masses had a strong salinity and δ18Osw relation, and compared with previous studies, a seasonal pattern was observed. Paleosalinity differences of up to 0.2 psu between Summer and Winter are reported. Considering the limitations of the current techniques to seasonally separate the samples for the paleoceanographic studies, an intermediate Mixing Line for the Tropical South Atlantic (SSS = 1.942* δ18Osw + 34.56) was proposed to reduce the estimated errors associated with these seasonal variations.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Abstract: Isolation and screening of new fungal strains from extreme and understudied environments, such as caves, is a promising approach to find higher yields enzyme producers. Cellulolytic fungal strains isolated from a Brazilian cave were evaluated for their enzymatic production after submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF). After SmF, three strains were selected for their high enzymatic activities: Aspergillus ustus for endoglucanase (4.76 U/mg), Talaromyces bruneus for β-glucosidase (11.71 U/mg) and Aspergillus sp. (CBMAI 1926) for total cellulase (1.70 U/mg). After SSF, these strains, showed better yields compared to the reference strain Aspergillus niger 3T5B8. Aspergillus sp. (CBMAI 1926) stood out as a new species that expressed activity of total cellulases (0.10 U/mg) and low protein concentration (0.44 mg/mL). In conclusion, these isolated strains have a more efficient and promising cellulolytic enzyme complex that can be used in fermentation and saccharification processes with a lower protein concentration and a higher enzymatic activity than the reference strain. Therefore, beside the new genetic material characterized, our study highlights the benefits of cave extreme environments exploitation to find new potentially valuable strains.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Fungi play an important role in litter decomposition in forest ecosystems and are considered an undersampled group in the Amazon biome. This study aims to describe the composition, richness and frequency of species of conidial fungi associated with palm trees in an area of the Amapá National Forest, State of Amapá, Brazil. Palm leaf litter was collected from July 2009 to June 2010, incubated in moist chambers and examined for the presence of fungi. One hundred and seven species of conidial fungi were identified, in 79 genera and 25 families. As for the relative frequency of the species, the majority (94.4%) was sporadic and occurred on leaflets. We report new records for South America (Chaetopsis intermedia, Chaetochalara laevis and Thysanophora verrucosa) and Brazil (Chloridium phaeosporum, Helminthosporiella stilbacea and Zygosporium geminatum), and 83 for the State of Amapá, while 15 are also new for the Brazilian Amazon. This study significantly increases the knowledge about the distribution of the fungal species in the Amazon biome, and emphasizes the importance of the conservation of these organisms particularly in view of the large number of sporadic species recorded.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Candida albicans is the most frequent fungal species that causes infections in humans. Fluconazole is the main antifungal used to treat Candida infections, and its prolonged and indiscriminate use for the last decades are the most established causes which originated resistant strains. Fungal drug resistance is associated to alterations in ERG11 gene and overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters belonging to two families: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS). To evaluate the role of MFS transporters in azoles resistance of C. albicans clinical strains, this study aimed to analyze four Candida albicans clinical isolates from the University Hospital in Juiz de Fora (Minas Gerais/Brazil), selected in our previous study as they were unaffected by FK506, an ABC pumps inhibitor. In a primary investigation on MFS proteins overexpression, the extrusion of fluorescent substrates (rhodamine 6G and nile red) was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Results suggest participation of MFS transporters in azole resistance of C. albicans isolates and indicate the existence of secondary resistance mechanisms. Therefore, this study contributes to the information about Candida albicans infections in Brazil and reinforces the importance of epidemiological studies focusing on an improved understanding of the disease and further resistance reversion.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: In this study, the antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activity of ethanol extracts obtained from Phlomis russeliana (Sims.) Lag. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae) were evaluated. Disc diffusion and microdilution methods were used to test the extracts for antimicrobial activity against seven bacteria strains (Bacillus cereusATCC 7064, Bacillus subtilisATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureusATCC 6538P, Escherichia coliATCC 10538, Proteus vulgarisATCC 6899, Salmonella typhimuriumCCM 5445 and Pseudomonas aeruginosaATCC 27853) and four yeast strains (Kluyveromyces fragilisATCC 8608, Rhodotorula rubraATCC 70403, Debaryomyces hanseniiDSM 70238 and Candida albicansATCC 10239). Notably, they were more effective against the yeast strains than the bacterial strains. Of the yeast cultures, D. hanseii was among the most susceptible, having an inhibition zone of 16.2 mm with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of 64(128)µg/ml, respectively. For cytotoxic determination, Caco-2 cells were cultured as per ATCC protocol, and were treated with log concentrations (5–80 mg/ml) of P. russeliana. The potency of cell growth inhibition for each extract was expressed as an IC50 value. Moreover, oxidant capacity was evaluated via TOC assay. This product induced antiproliferative activity of 31.33% at 40 mg/ml and 20.96% at 80 mg/ml, without toxic effects on cells, although the oxidant capacity was decreased to 27.06 ± 0.7 nm in the 80 mg/ml-applied group compared to 47.9 ± 1.8 nm in the untreated one. Advanced pharmacological studies are needed to further evaluate P. russeliana for distinctive features.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Abstract: We used skeletochronology to compare age, size, reproductive parameters and growth patterns of two related, anuran amphibians from Northern Argentina: Leptodactylus bufonius(n=69) andL. latinasus(n=56), in order to better understand their coexistence in syntopy. Previous studies showed that the two species overlap in their dietary requirements and utilize the same habitats for feeding and breeding. We found that their life-history patterns are significantly different,L. bufoniusbeing larger, and having a higher reproductive output and lifespan, compared to the smaller and shorter-livingL. latinasus. Since none of the species exhibited sexual size dimorphism, and both acquired sexual maturity after the first year of life, we suggest that the differences in the observed life-history parameters must appear during early stages of development, during larval and/or juvenile stages.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann is a conifer seed bug, native to North America. This species is considered invasive and has reached several countries in the Northern Hemisphere and most recently Chile in South America. This work reports the first detection of this species in Argentina, with specimens from the Rio Negro province, in 2017. Ecological traits and its potential rapid spread were also discussed.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The deep sea remains the least known biome. Despite this fact, anthropic activities have affected these regions in various ways. The objective of this study was to outline the scientific production scenario based on deep sea research and to analyze trends present in the literature. For this, the bibliographical resources available from the Web of Science (WoS) were surveyed. Between 1987 and 2016, 11,079 articles on the deep sea were published. Growth was over 100% from the first to second decade and 75% from the second to third. The most productive countries were the USA, Germany, France, England and Japan. Of the 404 journals that published articles on the deep sea, 10% accounted for approximately 60% of the total published articles. The keyword with the highest occurrence was “diversity”. In the first two decades, the keywords with the greatest “strength” were related to research on mining, especially for hydrocarbons. The description of new species and the analysis of the effects of climate change appear to be emerging trends in deep sea research. Mining continues to be primarily responsible for driving the development of deep sea research.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The present study demonstrates 30 plant bugs species associated with 50 records of prey and six records of mycophagy for Brazil. The data were compiled from Schuh’s Catalog, the literature, specimens deposited in entomology museums and exemplars from different regions of Brazil sent for identification. Some of the data from the literature used did not presented complete information. This study aims to increase the knowledge of the relationships among plant bugs, prey and fungi and emphasize those species with potential for biological control strategies and pest integrated management.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract:Genypterus brasiliensis, a demersal fish of large size (1.3 m of total length), occurs in the southwest Atlantic (23 to 38oS) and well appreciated due to the quality of its flesh. It was analyzed through longline and trawl fisheries, and the average length and weight of 724 specimens were significantly different between them, with the biggest and heaviest specimens caught by the former. The weight-length relationships were significantly different based upon sex: females Wt=4x10-7Lt3.3799; r2=0.97; n=262; p<0.001, and males: Wt=4x10-7Lt3.3886; r2=0.95; n=190; p<0.001. Using the otoliths readings for 153 specimens (APE of 2% and CV of 4.2%), the growth parameters estimates reveal statistical differences between sexes (p=0.05; r2=0.889). The fisheries were composed of individuals aged 1 to 13 (females) and 1 to 14 years old (males), with ring formation in late spring. The back calculated parameters (VBGF) were: Loo=1,452.38 mm, K=0.0996, t0=-0.2757 yr-1 (females) and Loo=983.07 mm, K=0.155, t0=-0.236 yr-1 (males), and longevity as 29.8 and 19.1 years old, respectively. The low biological production allied to the slow growth and a late complete maturation and its endemism, allow classify G. brasiliensis as a vulnerable resource, jeopardizing a sustainable fishery. Until reliable quantitative biological data are available, precautionary management must be considered.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Abstract: The hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) on alcohol-induced liver steatosis were investigated in Wistar rats. Chronic alcoholic fatty liver was induced by administration of 52% alcohol to male Wistar rats at the dose of 1% body weight for 7 weeks. Then animals were simultaneously treated with 50% ethanol solutions of EEP or normal saline at the dose of 0.1% body weight for 4 further weeks. Serological analyses and liver histopathology studies were performed to investigate the development of steatosis. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the alterations of hepatic gene expression profiling. Our results showed that 4-week treatment of EEP helped to restore the levels of various blood indices, liver function enzymes and the histopathology of liver tissue to normal levels. Results from the microarray analysis revealed that the hepatic expressions of genes involved in lipogenesis were significantly down-regulated by EEP treatment, while the transcriptional expressions of functional genes participating in fatty acids oxidation were markedly increased. The ability of EEP to reduce the negative effects of alcohol on liver makes propolis a potential natural product for the alternative treatment of alcoholic fatty liver.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: We recorded a second specimen of the poorly known insular blind snake Liotyphlops caissara. This new specimen expands the morphological variation of the number of dorsal scales in the genus Liotyphlops to 296 (vs. 304 in L. wilderi) and, considering the fact that the holotype of this species was destroyed, the present specimen represents the only available L. caissara individual in zoological collections. Also, this new record constitutes the first out of type locality and expands the distribution of the species in about 40 km to the northeastern. According to IUCN criteria (B1a, b [iii]), we suggest that L. caissara be included in the “Endangered” category, since it occurs in only two insular locations and exhibits an occurrence extension of <5,000 km² (about 355 km2).
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Leaf-cutting ants are considered major pests of agriculture and forestry in the Neotropics. Attractive toxic baits are the prevailing method for managing them. Thus, there is great interest in identifying attractants to incorporate into these baits. Moreover, leaf-cutting ants can avoid toxic baits by associating the attractant with the toxin. We evaluated attractiveness of heptyl butyrate, a volatile compound found in fresh apples and plums. We conducted field experiments with ten colonies ofAcromyrmex lobicornis. First, we evaluated the behaviour of ants exposed to heptyl butyrate at 1% by surrounding resources. Then, we compared the attractiveness of heptyl butyrate and orange pulp, the most commonly used attractant. Finally, we evaluated whether heptyl butyrate increases the attractiveness of a carbohydrate resource at varying doses. Heptyl butyrate at 1% attracted 92% more ants than the control and that it was as attractive as orange pulp. Heptyl butyrate paired with sucrose at concentrations of 0.001 and 0.1% was more attractive than sucrose alone, but greater concentrations did not increase sucrose’s attractiveness. Therefore, heptyl butyrate could be added to toxic baits to manageA. lobicornisas it is as attractive as the most commonly used attractant and can be applied directly to the pellets.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The family Fanniidae is newly recorded to New Caledonia. Adult male and female of Fannia capitalis Pont are illustrated as well as the peculiar male terminalia, the female ovipositor, and the egg. Male phallic process and egg are described for the first time.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Despite being the largest and most remarkable species of Chalcidoidea, species of Leptofoeninae are very rarely collected. Here, we expand the distribution range extension of the Leptofoenus howardi (Ashmead, 1895) for Rondônia and Minas Gerais, Leptofoenus stephanoides (Roman, 1920) for Rondônia, Espírito Santo and São Paulo and Leptofoenus westwoodi (Ashmead, 1895) for Roraima, Amazonas, Rondônia, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract:Aplectana hylambatis is a nematode with a wide geographic distribution and low host specificity. In spite of numerous reports, until this moment, the morphological variations between different hosts and localities have not been studied. We studied 401 specimens collected from five host species from seven localities in Argentina, and examined the following morphological characters: mamelon-like cuticular protuberances anterior to the vulva, structure of the gubernaculum and the spicules, number and arrangement of caudal papillae, and the measurements of twelve characters in females and eleven characters in males. The results showed that mamelon-like protuberances and caudal papillae varied in number and arrangement between different hosts and localities. The metrical study revealed that five characters in males and six in females contributed to variability; nine characters showed significant differences between host species and localities. Specimens of A. hylambatis collected from R. arenarum formed a group clearly differentiated from the rest of the specimens. The results from this study highlight the importance of examining as many specimens as possible from different host samples and from several localities to cover the intraspecific variations.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Ackee (Blighia sapida K. D. Koenig) is an exotic fruit widely consumed in the Caribbean countries. While there is extensive research on the presence of hypoglycin A, other bioactive compounds have not been studied. We identified and quantified the changes in bioactive molecules (total phenol, ascorbic acid, hypoglycin A, squalene, D: A-Friedooleanan-7-ol, (7.alpha.), and oleic acid), antioxidant potential, and volatile compounds during two stages of ripe. A clear reduction in hypoglycin A, ascorbic acid, and total polyphenols during the maturation process were observed. On the contrary, oleic acid, squalene, and D: A-Friedooleanan-7-ol, (7.alpha.) contents increased about 12, 12, and 13 times, respectively with advancing maturity. These bioactive molecules were positively correlated with radical scavenging (DDPH and ABTS). Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis revealed more than 50 compounds with 3-penten-2-one and hexanal as the major compounds in the fully ripe stage. The results suggested that ripe ackee arilli could serve as an appreciable source of natural bioactive micro-constituents.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The authors of the 19th century had demonstrated the viviparity of the species Rhizophora mangle L. with the formation of propagules in the form of spears devoid a radicle, adapted self-planting in the soil of the mangrove or to leave floating in vertical during the high tide. With low tide the propagules self-planting or remain prostrate on the soil but later become upright later. When the seedlings are unearthed, those who are self-planting are straight from end to end; those that stood erect later show a curvature at the base in the form of J (J-shaped). Authors of the last 30 years have questioned the self-planting and accurately demonstrate how the prostrate propagules rise from the ground. It has been verified that the propagule is stem from end to end and does not present radicle, that is, under the plumale there is the hypocotyls without a root. All roots are adventitious, agreeing with 19th century researchers, not lateral roots as researchers of the present century have claimed. Propagules that return to the beach in Porto Seguro (BA) probably of another flowering period show an extra growth of the lower part, but this growth remains a stem rather than a root, demonstrating that there is no root, as 19th century researchers claimed.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The first cases of Zika virus infection in Colombia were reported and confirmed in October 2015. The objective of the study was estimate the seroprevalence of ZIKV infection during the pre-epidemic phase in Barranquilla, Colombia, and demonstrate the presence of virus before the Colombian Ministry of Health confirmed the first case. We conducted a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Zika virus in 390 samples obtained from a blood bank located in Barranquilla, Colombia - a city endemic for dengue, and with a recent history of a Chikungunya disease epidemic. The serum pools were tested using Euroimmun ZIKV ELISA kit. Seroprevalence of Zika virus IgG were: May 2015: 0%, June and July 2015: 2.62% (95% CI = 0.28-12.13) and August 2015: 5.35% (95% CI = 1.74-16.74). This brings to our attention the need for extending the surveillance period of this virus in order to adequately assess its teratogenic effects.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and inhibition of oxidative DNA-damage activities of n-butanol (n-BuOH) extract of Centaurea sphaerocephala. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and the n-BuOH extracts of this plant were also assayed. To investigate the antioxidant potential, extracts were tested for their capacity to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) and to inhibit lipid peroxidation using the TBARs method. The contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were measured. Additionally, antiproliferative activity and DNA-damage inhibition of the n-BuOH extract was determined using XCELLigence RTCA instrument and photolyzing 46966 plasmid, respectively. The results exhibited that the scavenging abilities of the EtOAc extract were better than the n-BuOH extract with an IC50= 11.59 µg/mL and 16.67 µg/mL for both extracts, respectively. The phenolic and flavonoid contents were found higher in the n-BuOH and EtOAc extracts. Furthermore, our results showed that n-BuOH extract exhibited a remarkable inhibition of lipid peroxidation with an IC50 of 340.94±7.49 μg/mL and had an antiproliferative effect against Hela cells. Extracts of C. sphaerocephala showed antioxidant activity on scavenging DPPH·. In addition, the n-BuOH extract inhibited the lipid peroxidation and exhibited an antiproliferative effect against HeLa cells line (human cervix carcinoma).
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases (CGTases) are important enzymes in the biotechnology field because they catalyze starch conversion into cyclodextrins and linear oligosaccharides, which are used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The CGTases are classified according to their product specificity in α-, β-, α/β- and γ-CGTases. As molecular markers are the preferred tool for bacterial identification, we employed six molecular markers (16S rRNA, dnaK, gyrB, recA, rpoB and tufA) to test the identification of a CGTase-producing bacterial strain (DF 9R) in a phylogenetic context. In addition, we assessed the phylogenetic relationship of CGTases along bacterial evolution. The results obtained here allowed us to identify the strain DF 9R as Paenibacillus barengoltzii, and to unveil a complex origin for CGTase types during archaeal and bacterial evolution. We postulate that the α-CGTase activity represents the ancestral type, and that the γ-activity may have derived from β-CGTases.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Herbal medicines are efficient to reduce side effects in the fight against glioblastoma, which plays a critical role within brain cancer species. The recent studies designated for testing the effects of lichens that have shown numerous anticancer activities on glioblastoma so far. In the present study, different concentrations of water extract obtained from Usnea longissima Ach. were used in order to determine cytotoxic (via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase tests), antioxidant (via total antioxidant capacity test), pro-oxidant (via total oxidant status test) and genotoxic (via 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine test) effects of them on human U87MG-glioblastoma cancer cell lines. Primary mixed glial-neuronal non-cancerous cells from Sprague-Dawley rats were also utilized to measure the effects of treatments on non-cancerous cells. Based on median inhibitory concentration values, the data belonged to non-cancerous cells (2486.71 mg/L) showed distinct towering compared to U87MG (80.93 mg/L) cells. The viability of non-cancerous and U87MG cells exposed to extract is decreased in a dose dependent manner. It was also showed that low concentrations of extract notably increased total antioxidant capacity on non-cancerous cells. In addition, various phenolic compounds in extract were detected through high-performance liquid chromatography. The recent results encourage that extract will be able to have therapeutic potential against glioblastoma.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The assessment of biotic-habitat relationships provides key information to predict biotic responses to perturbations and important tools for river management and monitoring. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in mountain streams of central Argentina. We evaluated the effect of seasonality and identified the variables conditioning the abundance of the assemblages and the habitat with the highest taxonomic richness. Sampling was carried out in four streams (Carcarañá River basin) during high and low water periods. Three lotic habitats were sampled: riffles, coarse substrate runs, and fine substrate runs; and physicochemical and habitat variables were measured. We found differences in assemblage composition, among the 25 genera of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, at the habitat level. The most important variables affecting distribution patterns were substrate and flow type, but macroalgae and organic matter (twigs, leaves, and detritus) were also important predictors. Riffles maintained the highest richness but when considering only the Ephemeroptera taxa, fine substrate runs emerged also as an important habitat for these taxa. Our study provided valuable ecological information related to habitat preference of taxa with a key role in stream functioning and of great usefulness for the monitoring of lotic systems.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Invasive populations of macrophytes are widely distributed and have been successfully introduced and established in freshwater habitats. Hydrilla verticillata was first recorded in 2005 in the Upper Paraná River floodplain and in 2007 at the Itaipu Reservoir (Brazil-Paraguay border, ca. 300 km downstream from its first record). However, its genetic variability within different sites in South America is unknown. We used nucleotide sequences corresponding to the trnL-trnF fragment cpDNA to genetically characterize populations of H. verticillata in different ecosystems of the Upper Paraná River basin. The results indicated an absence of genetic differentiation within and between populations of the basin, and even individuals collected 600 km apart belonged to the same haplotype. Moreover, H. verticillata populations of the Upper Paraná River basin also matched the dioecious biotype haplotype of the Southern United States and Asia. The identification of this single haplotype suggests that one founder genotype was introduced and established successfully in the Upper Paraná River basin, then, as a consequence of vegetative reproduction and the dispersal of propagules, spread to different habitats. However, firm conclusions about this inference can only be obtained with markers of biparental inheritance.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The strains CM-Z19 and CM-Z6, which are capable of highly degrading chlorpyrifos-methyl, were isolated from soil. They were identified as Bacillus megaterium CM-Z19 and Pseudomonas syringae CM-Z6, respectively, based on the 16S rRNA and an analysis of their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. The strain CM-Z19 showed 92.6% degradation of chlorpyrifos-methyl (100 mg/L) within 5 days of incubation, and the strain CM-Z6 was 99.1% under the same conditions. In addition, the degradation characteristics of the two strains were compared and studied, and the results showed that the strain CM-Z19 had higher phosphoesterase activity and ability to degrade the organophosphorus pesticide than did the strain CM-Z6. However, the strain CM-Z19 could not degrade its first hydrolysis metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and could not completely degrade chlorpyrifos-methyl. The strain CM-Z6 could effectively degrade TCP and could degrade chlorpyrifos-methyl more quickly than strain CM-Z19.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Authentication of cell lines is of paramount importance to validate the results from their use in biomedical research. Although isoenzyme polymorphism is the standard method, molecular methods based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been developed to replace it. The aim of this study was the improvement of our isoenzyme electrophoretic analysis and the validation of one molecular technique targeted at mtDNA for the authentication of our animal cell lines. The combined method of cellular lysing through osmotic shock, followed by freezing-thawing in N2 to obtain isoenzyme extracts, and with 42 × 106 cells maintained the best efficiency. The superior electrophoretic conditions were PAGE run at 200 V. All cell lines had isoenzymatic mobility corresponding to their species to lactate dehydrogenase, malate-dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzymes, and could be distinguished from each other. Two molecular techniques based on mtDNA were tested, one on the cytochrome b gene and other on cytochrome c oxidase I subunit gene. Due to difficulties in distinguishing all cell lines using only one these techniques, we merged the primers of two methods in such a way that there was a sufficient differentiation of all DNA fragments. The sequencing of these PCR products was also performed to validate these data.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the result of the selective destruction of the pancreatic β-cells by T cells of the immune system. Although spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ, it is also involved in the T1D pathogenesis. However, the alterations in a variety of cellular processes of this disease need to be further understood. We aimed to analyze the benefits of resveratrol, and its complexed form on diabetic complications in the spleen of rats. To this end, we investigated important enzymes of phosphoryl transfer network, and Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Wistar rats were divided into non-diabetic groups: Control, Ethanol, Resveratrol, Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, Resveratrol-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and diabetic groups with the same treatments. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 60 mg/kg of streptozocin intraperitoneally, and treatments by intragastric gavage once daily for 60 days. Hyperglycemia reduced creatine kinase activity, which was reversed by the administration of resveratrol. Na+, K+-ATPase activity was greatly affected, but it was reversed by resveratrol and resveratrol-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. This suggest an energetic imbalance in the spleen of diabetic rats, and in case this also occurs in the diabetic patients, it is possible that resveratrol supplementation could be beneficial to the better functioning of the spleen in diabetic patients.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Liver fibrosis is the final common pathway of chronic liver diseases, having cirrhosis as a possible progression, which has liver transplantation as the only effective treatment. Human amniotic membrane represents a potential strategy as a therapy for liver fibrosis, due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate amniotic membrane effects as a treatment for hepatic fibrosis induced in rats by bile duct ligation (BDL), verifying alterations between two different forms of amniotic membrane application, around all the lobes of the liver and around only one lobe of the liver. Two weeks after inducing fibrosis, an amniotic membrane fragment was applied to the surface of the liver, covering it either totally or partially. Four weeks later, the animals were euthanized and liver samples were collected. Histopathological and quantitative analyses demonstrated fibrosis severity decrease and an extremely significant reduction in the deposition of collagen in the groups treated with amniotic membrane, particularly when the amniotic membrane was applied in only one liver lobe. It is concluded that the amniotic membrane acted on the repair of liver fibrosis in both modes of application, with the application of the amniotic membrane around only one hepatic lobe being more effective in reducing the severity / extent of fibrosis.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Aristolochia triangularis Cham., is one of the most frequently used medicinal plant in Southern Brazil. Preparations containing the leaves and/or stems are traditionally used as anti-inflammatory, diuretic, as well as antidote against snakebites. This study screened A. triangularis extracts, fractions and isolated compounds for different bioactivities. A weak antiproliferative activity against human lung cancer cell line (A549) was observed only for chloroform fraction obtained from stems (CFstems - CC50: 2.93 µg/mL). Also, a moderate antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was detected just for chloroform fraction obtained from leaves (CFleaves -13-16 mm inhibition zone). Additionally, two semi-purified fractions (CFstems-4 and CFleaves-4) selectively inhibited HSV-1 replication (IC50 values of 0.40 and 2.61 µg/mL, respectively), while only CFleaves showed promising results against Leishmania amazonensis. Fractionation of extracts resulted in the isolation of one neolignan (-) cubebin and one lignan (+) galbacin. However, these compounds are not responsible for the in vitro bioactivities herein detected. The presence of aristolochic acid I and aristolochic acid II in the crude ethanol extract of stems (CEEstems) and leaves (CEEleaves) was also investigated. The HPLC analysis of these extracts did not display any peak with retention time or UV spectra comparable to aristolochic acids I and II.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: To investigate the mechanism of different exercise patterns on neurological function after focal cerebral ischaemia in rats. Rats with focal cerebral cerebral ischaemia were randomly divided into an aerobic exercise group, an exhaustive exercise group and a control group, with 8 rats in each group. A score for nerve function in each group was calculated, and the ultrastructure of nerve cells was observed. Levels of NO and NOS in the brain motor area of the rats were measured in each group. The aerobic exercise group had lower nerve function scores than the exhaustive exercise group and higher scores than the control group (P<0.05). Under transmission electron microscopy, irregular shapes and organs were observed in nerve cells in the control group, while regular cell shapes and organs were observed in the aerobic exercise group. The aerobic exercise group and exhaustive exercise group had higher measures of NO content, NOS activity and eNOS, nNOS and iNOS gene expression than the control group, but eNOS expression in the aerobic exercise group and iNOS expression in the exhaustive exercise group were clearly higher according to RT-PCR (P<0.05). Aerobic exercise can promote the expression of NOS, mainly in eNOS, which can promote nerve repair.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract:Candida haemulonii complex (C. haemulonii, C. haemulonii var. vulnera and C. duobushaemulonii) consists of emergent multidrug-resistant pathogens that cause bloodstream and deep-seated infections. However, little is known about their virulence factors. Herein, we evaluated the presence of extracellular serine peptidases in this fungal complex. Serine peptidase activity was measured by spectrophotometry using chromogenic peptide substrates to the S1 family. Chymotrypsin-, trypsin- and elastase-like activities were detected in all fungal isolates. Since higher chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like activities were observed from the cleavage of N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNa and N-benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-pNa, respectively, these substrates were selected for further experiments. Overall, pHs 7.0 and 9.0 were those in which higher chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like activities were observed, respectively, displaying higher hydrolytic activities at 37-45°C. Additionally, the serine peptidases produced by C. haemulonii complex were inhibited by PMSF and AEBSF in a typically concentration-dependent manner. Although the Michaelis constant (Km) values obtained for chymotrypsin-like peptidases were similar, greater differences were observed for trypsin-like enzymes secreted by the different fungal isolates. This is the first time that peptidases belonging to the S1 family are described in the C. haemulonii species complex. Thus, these data open the doors for more detailed studies into potential roles of these peptidases in fungal virulence.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are leading causes of death in the world, owing to noticeable incidence and mortality. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) SINI Decoction (SND) is used to prevent and treat CVDs, which has attracted extensive attention for its moderate and little side effects. However, the involved molecular mechanisms are exceedingly complicated and remain unclear. Systems pharmacology, as a novel approach that integrates systems biology and pharmacology plays a significant role in investigating the molecular mechanism of TCM. In systems pharmacology approach, we use to systematically uncover the mechanisms of action in Chinese medicinal formula SND as an effective treatment for CVDs, which mainly includes:1) molecular database building; 2) ADME evaluation; 3) target-fishing 4) network construction and analysis. The results show that 78 underlying valid ingredients and their corresponding 71 direct targets of SND were obtained. And SND take part in cardiomyocyte protection, blood pressure regulation, and lipid regulation module in treatment of CVDs by cooperative way. Systems pharmacology as an emerging field that investigates the molecular mechanisms of TCM through pharmacokinetic evaluation target prediction, and pathway analysis, which will facilitate the development of traditional Chinese herbs in modern medicine.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by dynamic mutations of a CGG repetition segment in an X chromosome’s single gene. It is considered the leading hereditary cause of both Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability. Some authors suggest that all individuals diagnosed with some of these latter conditions to be clinically and molecularly trialled for FXS due to the high levels of comorbidity between both conditions and also due to the variable expressiveness of this syndrome. This study has focused on verifying the presence of FMR1 expanded alleles since there is a lack of information about this kind of mutation in autism patients from the northern region of Brazil. The presence of large alleles for this gene could offer new therapeutic or pharmacological methods for the treatment of these patients. Both the presence and the frequency of CGG expansions were verified in 90 autism males by molecular analysis. Four of them had intermediate alleles and four others presented premutated alleles. Premutation carriers are on the propensity of developing the late onset Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. No full mutation alleles were found. Further studies are necessary to obtain more accurate statistical data about this kind of dynamic mutation.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: This study evaluated 24 patients with lung cancer (CA) and 23 individuals with no smoking history or cancer in the family and without respiratory disease in childhood (CO). Peripheral blood lymphocytes was used to perform alkaline comet assay and to assess DNA damage as well as to evaluate methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) DNA repair after one hour and three hours at 37 ºC. The percentage of residual damage (RD) after three hours of MMS treatment, for each patient was assessed. The majority of patients were in the CA group, male patients, former smokers, with a history of smoking for 15 years and without associated comorbidities. Alkaline and residual damages were higher in the CA group when compared to controls (alkaline damage P = 0.015 and RD P = 0.05). After one hour of MMS treatment the DNA damage of the CA increased indicating failure to repair it, compared to the controls, and after three hours DNA repair was observed in both groups. Patients with lung cancer are mostly men, former smokers and with more than 15 years of tobacco consumption, undergoing chemotherapy, have high rates of DNA damage and deficiency in their ability to repair against induced damage when compared to controls.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The use of ulinastatin for pancreatitis and sepsis have been described. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ulinastatin on vascular endothelial cell damage and coagulation in pregnant women with severe pre-eclampsia (PE).From October 2015 to November 2017 at Tianjin Central Hospital of gynecology and obstetrics in China. Eighty pregnant women with severe PE, who elected to deliver by cesarean section, were randomly assigned to a control group or an ulinastatin group. The plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and platelet granule membrane protein (GMP-140), platelet count, fibrinogen levels, prothrombin time (PT), and partial prothrombin activation time (APTT) were recorded before combined spinal-epidural anesthesia and 40 min after administration in both groups.Ulinastatin attenuates vascular endothelial cell damage in pregnant women with PE as indicated by decreased plasma concentrations of vWF and prolonged APTT.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Objective: the aim of this study is to map thermal stress risks for human health at the São Francisco River Basin (SFRB) in the Semiarid region, for climatic scenarios RCP 4.5 and 8.5. Methods: The heat stress conditions were defined by the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) indicator and by the average number of annual days in which the WBGT values exceeded the 90th percentile of the reference period. The WBGT was estimated for the climate scenarios RCP 4.5 (intermediate) and 8.5 (pessimistic) for the period 2011-2090 comparing to the period of reference (1961-2005). Results: The projections show that for the pessimistic scenario practically all municipalities of the SFRB region can reach values of WBGT that indicate a high risk for heat stress in the period 2071-2099. For this same scenario and period, the municipalities of the Lower and Under-average regions may present values of WBGT above the 90th percentile of the reference period in more than 90% of the days/year. Conclusions: These results show that, if the emission of greenhouse gases continues in the present proportions, some municipalities of the SFRB region may present a high risk for heat stress affecting the work capacity and the practice of physical exercises.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The aim of this work was to optimize a maceration condition of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). A circumscribed central composite experimental design was applied in this work. Temperature and time were varied from 40-80 °C and 30-90 min, respectively. The three responses (i.e., extraction yield, cannabidiol content, and Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol content) were predicted by computer software. The yield was high when cannabis was macerated using ethanol at high temperature and long duration time. While cannabidiol and Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol content was high when macerating at a low heating temperature and short duration time. The optimal condition provided the simultaneous high of cannabidiol and Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol content was 40 °C for 30 min. The prediction was accurate due to low percent error. This optimal condition could be used as a guide for maceration of cannabis to obtain the extract containing a high content of cannabidiol and Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: This study deals with the subject biomass estimation. The objective was to achieve the additivity of tree biomass components, which is defined as the compatibility among the component predictions and total tree biomass, using ratio estimates. The biomass estimation model was applied to black wattle trees in forest stands, which include a sample of 670 trees in an age range of 1 to 10.75 years. The adjusted model, in which the total biomass, or sum of predicted components, is a function of the stem volume multiplied by the Scalar Coefficients Proxy of Density, proved to be of great interest for biomass estimation and consistent when compared to the results obtained by WNSUR estimates (traditional method). The natural additivity of the tree biomass components was fully achieved, when modeling them by means of ratio estimation. Equations developed from the proportional behavior of the biomass components at different ages did not require the use of linear regression models and were obtained from calibration with the experimental data. The estimators resulting from these equations proved to be appropriate to make a generic model for correction of ratios coefficients at different ages.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Liming can influence crop growth by altering pore geometry, pore size distribution and water retention characteristics in acid soils. The aim of this work is to determine liming effects on the soil structure based on analysis of water retention data using a cubic spline adjustment function. For that, the authors investigated the effect of three lime rates (0, 15 and 20 t ha-1) on soil water retention characteristics and pore size distribution of a silty-clay “Cambissolo Háplico Alumínico” (Dystrudept) located in the SE region of the Paraná State, Brazil. Soil cores were collected after 31 months of the experiment at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers. Eleven matric potentials (from 0 to -7000 cm H2O) were employed to calculate soil water retention and pore size distribution curves. The pore size distribution curves revealed trimodal soil porosity with three distinct peaks. Equivalent pore diameters ranging from 9.18 µm to 13.18 µm separated structural and matrix domains. Small differences exist in the pore size distribution curves due to liming and between layers for all peaks. With no-till plus surface liming, the volume of large pores diminished at the two layers and the volume of small pores increased at the surface layer.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract:Virus diseases of cool season vegetable crops (mainly cabbage, white and red head cabbage, broccoli, kale, radish, rocket salad, garden cress, and turnip) were surveyed in Bafra Plain, Turkey during winter 2017, and 2018. Leaf samples were collected from different species of the Brassicaceae family showing mosaic, mottling, necrotic spots, malformation, and chlorosis symptoms. These samples were tested for the presence of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV), Radish mosaic virus (RaMV), Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV), and Turnip yellows virus (TuYV) by biological and serological methods. A total of 455 samples were collected from cole crop fields and tested for the seven viruses by double-antibody sandwich ELISA using specific polyclonal antibodies. According to the results, out of these, 7 % of the samples were infected by at least one of these viruses. TuMV was the most prevalent virus detected in cole crops. TuMV, CaMV, and CMV were detected in 3 %, 2 %, and 2 % of infected samples, respectively, and the infection rate of these three viruses changed significantly among Brassica species.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: This study aimed to know the patterns of spatial distribution of Anastrepha spp. and establish a criterion for determining the appropriate time for pest control. For this, 90 McPhail traps were used as Sampling Units (SU) divided into three commercial orchards of Novo Milênio guava with a total area of 14 ha. Traps were interspersed between the rows of plants, systematically in the orchards, hung and baited with 5% hydrolyzed corn protein with weekly collections. We caught 8,170 Anastrepha spp. in 840 SU. The mean infestation index was compared to the three types of distribution: random, uniform, aggregate, and fit by the theoretical frequency distributions of Poisson, negative binomial and positive binomial. The populations of Anastrepha presented aggregate distribution according to the mean variance method (I), tested by distance from randomness. The economic damage risk potential of Anastrepha spp. was associated with the aggregate distribution behavior. The most appropriate moment for the use of control techniques is when reaching 20 flies by the negative binomial. On the other hand, number of fruit fly adults per trap per day (FTD), underestimates population index, which will allow population growth, leading to risk of crop production loss.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The banana tree is associated with different species of endophytic bacteria that can stimulate plant growth. However, further studies are needed to better understand the relationships between this group of bacteria and the host plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the localization of the EB-40 (Bacillus sp.) through anatomical and ultrastructural analyses in micropropagated banana plantlets. The results demonstrated the effective colonization of the EB-40 isolate in the intercellular and intracellular spaces, as well as in the rhizosphere region. The wall of endophytic bacteria contains calcium and nitrogen. The EB-40 isolate was also observed to associate with the plasma membrane and cell wall. These results further our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the colonization of plant cells by endophytic bacteria in micropropagated banana plantlets.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Somatic embryogenesis from explants from hermaphrodite papaya mother plants is an alternative for the production of true-to-type plants without the need for sexing. This study aimed to analyze hormonal and osmotic inducers in different somatic embryogenesis stages in the commercial hermaphrodite hybrid papaya UENF/Caliman 01. Leaf disks from in vitro shoots originated from ex vitro hermaphrodite plants were cultured in induction medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D (6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 μM) and 4-CPA (19, 22, 25, 28, and 31 μM). After 90 days, the formation of somatic embryos was verified. The 2,4-D induced the formation of light brown calli with low frequency (20%) of somatic embryogenesis. However, 4-CPA (25 μM) induced 96% of embryogenic calli, which were transferred to maturation medium (MM) and cultured for 30 days. The MM contained ABA (0.5 μM) and AC (15 g L-1) and produced 36.6 somatic embryos callus-1, mainly on cotyledonary stage. Cotyledonary embryos were transferred to germination medium supplemented with gibberellic acid (GA3) (0.0, 1.44, 2.88, and 4.32 µM), and the conversion into plantlets was enhanced with GA3 at 2.88 µM.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis is one of the hosts more used for parasitoid pupal multiplication in Brazil. The parasitoids pupal of Trichospilus diatraeae and Palmistichus elaeisis are generalist natural enemies with potential to suppress populations of diverse families of lepidopteran pests. The success in the utilization of these natural enemies in the field is directly related to the capacity of search of the host, this capacity might be affected by the presence of the pathogens. In this context, the aim of this essay was to detect the presence of intracellular parasites of Phylum Microsporidia. These pathogens may cause morphological and behavioral alterations. The presence of infection was verified by microscopy and was confirmed by amplification of region small subunit (SSU) of ribosomal RNA using universal primers for microsporidia of Nosema sp. The purified PCR products were submitted to sequencing, and the sequences that had been obtained were edited and aligned with the sequences in a Genbank database. In this way, it was possible to verify the presence of intracellular parasites in T. diatraeae, P. elaeisis and D. saccharalis pertaining to Clade Nosema/Vairimorpha. However, this is the first one report about detection of the microsporidia in the parasitoids T. diatraeae and P. elaeisis.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The aquatic environment presents daily and/or seasonal variations in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels. Piava faces different DO levels in the water due to its distributional characteristics. The goal of this study was to describe the effects of low DO levels on plasma ion, biochemical and oxidative variables in piava juveniles. Fish were exposed to different DO levels, including 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mg L-1 of DO for 96 h, after which blood and tissue samples (liver, kidney, gill and muscle) were collected. The decrease in DO levels decreased plasma Na+, Cl-, K+ and NH3 levels as well as protein and glycogen levels in the liver, kidney and muscle; increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the gills and kidney as well as glucose and ammonia levels in the liver, kidney and muscle; and increased lactate levels in the kidney and muscle. Thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, catalase and non-protein thiol levels decreased in the tissues of piavas exposed to low DO levels. It is concluded that piava can apparently cope with hypoxic conditions; however, low DO levels are a stressor, and the tolerance of piava to hypoxia involves iono-regulatory, metabolic and oxidative adjustments.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters and correlations between morphological, agronomic and root quality traits of cassava plants, as well as to study cause and effect relationships through path analysis. A total of 814 genotypes were evaluated from 2011 to 2015. The joint analysis of the data was performed by the mixed models approach. The predicted genetic values of the genotypes were used to estimate the genetic correlations among as well the path analysis. The estimates of heritability of the genotype means ranged from 0.31 (commercial fresh root yield – CRY) to 0.62 (plant height - PLH). The highest genetic correlation coefficient estimates were observed for starch yield (STY) × total fresh root yield (FRY) (0.97). The results of the path analysis showed that FRY had the highest direct effect on STY, but the indirect selection based on FRY was not efficient to improve the gain of STY.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Twig girdlers have a short adult life and a long larval stage (up to one year in some species). This fact, together with lack of morphological traits to identify the species from the larval stage, poses obstacles for the taxonomic identification and characterization of the many twig girdlers found in the wild. To solve this matter, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers have been applied to identify some insect species and to determine species boundaries. The aim of this study was to identify three species of Oncideres using the RAPD technique. Adults and larvae of O. saga, O. ocularis and O. ulcerosa were collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two RAPD primers were used (OPA-05 and OPB-13), which produced different electrophoretic profiles that were used to construct a UPGMA phenogram. Three groups identified in the analyses accurately separated the three species, based on individuals in two different stages of development (adults and larvae): I: O. saga, II: O. ulcerosa, and III: O. ocularis. Molecular markers, such as RAPD, are valuable tools that help taxonomists in species identification.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Despite its economic importance, the microclimate in soybean canopies has not yet been studied in detail. Such a study can yield valuable information regarding the interaction of a crop with its environment. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the solar radiation dynamic and yield responses for each canopy strata for two soybean cultivars with determined and undetermined growth habits. A field study was conducted during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons in the city of Frederico Westphalen, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The cultivar NA6411, with a determinate growth habit, presented a greater interception of radiation in the middle and lower canopies strata which results in higher soybean yield when compared to the cultivar TEC6029, and thus, can be recommended for cultivation in crop production systems. The contribution of the middle and upper canopy strata to the total yield formation was greater than that observed in the lower canopy strata due to the greater interception of solar radiation by these strata. To increase soybean yields, new studies regarding the microclimatic conditions of the soybean canopy should be developed to improve the maximum potential yield of the new soybean cultivars.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Due to the increasing search for renewable resources, plant fibers have become an alternative when creating new products. Studies demonstrate the potential use of pineapple fibers in composites. The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity and verify any association between ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) bands and quality of pineapple fibers for use in cements in the civil construction. The study analyzed the genetic variability of 11 pineapple genotypes, as well as the possible association of 131 bands from 16 ISSR markers with fiber quality characteristics. Eleven bands were selected based on their high correlations (0.64578* to 0.72457*) with three fiber quality variables. Of these, two bands were purified, sequenced, and blasted against sequences in GenBank at NCBI. These markers can be used in marker assisted selection to genetically improve the quality of pineapple fiber. Bands that returned no hits in the NCBI BLAST search can be deposited as new sequences in the GenBank. Therefore, the SCAR markers, once validated, can be useful in pineapple genetic breeding programs worldwide by using molecular marker assisted selection for fiber resistance, which could subsidize the development of more promising genotypes for industrial use and contribute to the sustainability of this new production sector.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The orchid seed banks of Atlantic Forest may be considered a key strategy for the conservation of species threatened with extinction by indiscriminate collection or habitat destruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seed viability, to choose the best culture medium for the asymbiotic germination and evaluate germination, after storage for different periods and temperatures for the Brazilian native orchids: Gomesa praetexta (Rchb.f.) M.W.Chase & N.H.Williams, Gomesa forbesii (Hook.) M.W.Chase & N.H.Williams, Gomesa recurva R.Br. and Grandiphyllum divaricatum (Lindl.) Docha Neto. Knudson C (KC), Murashige & Skoog (MS), half-strength MS (1/2 MS macro- and micro-nutrients) and Woody Plant Medium (WPM) culture media were tested for germination. The WPM culture medium was the best for asymbiotic germination of all species evaluated, with high germination percentages and improved seedling development. Seeds of G. divaricatum, G. praetexta, G. recurva and G. forbesii indicated orthodox behavior, with high viability rates after 12 months of storage, being recommended the storage temperature of -80°C for the first three species and -20°C for G. forbesii. The protocol developed in the present study was efficient for seed bank storage, in vitro germination and seedling production of G. divaricatum and G. praetexta, contributing to conservation strategies of these species.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: This work aimed to determine variance components and genetic parameters, as well as phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations among black oat (Avena strigosa) families grown in different crop season. Seventy-six black oat families and three controls (BRS Madrugada, BRS Centauro, BRS 139 Neblina) were evaluated in two crop seasons (2016 and 2017), using families with intercalary controls experimental design. The results reveled high potential of black oat families to compose a breeding program, due to families and controls variance were similar, variance components expressed greater genetic variance origin for crop season. Panicle weight and panicle grain weight presented high heritability and, these are correlated with panicle length. Thus, these traits can be used to select superior genotypes. Divergent meteorological conditions between crop seasons expressed few variations among phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations, and it did not alter magnitude and sense of phenotypic and genetic correlations.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The genus Dermocystidium is very comprehensive in the host and site of infection, however this is the first report of the occurrence of Dermocystidium sp. in the gills of Nile tilapia. This study was carried out in a fish farming located in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. No mortalities were reported in the facility studied and the animals were clinically healthy. During the histopathological analysis of the gills, 8.33% of the fish presented spores of Dermocystidium sp. in the gill tissue. The spores reported herein had a mean length and width of 6.206 x 5.233 μm and a refractile body diameter of 1.965 μm and were studied by histopathology and Transmission Electron Microscopy. This study highlights the importance of a new branchial pathogen in farmed tilapia, as well as to its pathogenic potential, considering the outbreaks of mortalities associated with other fish species.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine how often rural farmers in a watershed use no-tillage systems combined with crop rotation, contour farming and agricultural terraces. The study area was Paraná Watershed III (PB3) in the western region of Paraná State, and data from the 2006 Agricultural Census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. A frequency distribution analysis of farms as a function of the no-tillage (NT) area was conducted in combination with a cluster analysis of soil and water conservation practices (adoption of crop rotation, contour farming and agricultural terrace practices). The results showed that the farms in PB3 adopt adequate soil and water conservation practices, with 73% adopting NT combined with at least 2 other conservation practices; however, agricultural terracing was found to be the most neglected practice in the region. In addition, based on the soil and water conservation practices in the watershed, 5 groups of farms were identified, the worst of which, those located in the municipalities that mainly neglect conservation practices, live in areas with highly erodible soils.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Several parasitoids attacking the same host may lead to competition. Adult parasitoids’ abilities to find, parasitize and defend hosts determine resource’s retention potential. In soybean, two egg parasitoid species, Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus urichi (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), compete on the egg masses of Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) one of the major pest of this crop. We evaluated parasitoid’s abilities to exploit hosts’ footprints; and parasitoid’s behavior when competing for the same host. Both arena residence time and retention time were similar for T. podisi and T. urichi on male or female host footprints. In its turn, T. urichi reentered the area contaminated with P. guildinii more times and staid longer in it than T. podisi. Furthermore, when competing for the same egg mass, each parasitoid species won (was in possession of the host by the end of the experiment) half of the replicates, and the number of times each wasp species contacted host in the first place was similar, without affecting replicate outcome (who ultimately won). Both species started agonistic and non-agonistic encounters. This study provides information about the potential interspecific competition between these parasitoids, which contributes to evaluate the compatibility of multiple natural enemies’ biological control programs for stink bugs.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop polyurethane (PU) wound dressing incorporated with cobalt nitrate using electrospinning technique. The morphology analysis revealed that the developed composites exhibited reduced fiber and pore diameter than the pristine PU. The electrospun membranes exhibited average porosity in the range of 67% - 71%. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) showed the presence of cobalt in the PU matrix. The interaction of cobalt nitrate with PU matrix was evident in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The contact angle results indicated the improved wettability of the prepared PU/cobalt nitrate composites (82° ± 2) than the pure PU (100° ± 1). The incorporation of cobalt nitrate into the PU matrix enhanced the surface roughness and mechanical strength as evident in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tensile test analysis. The blood compatibility assays revealed the anticoagulant nature of the prepared composites by displaying prolonged blood clotting time than the PU control. Further, the developed composite exhibited less toxicity nature as revealed in the hemolysis and cytotoxicity studies. It was observed that the PU wound dressing added with cobalt nitrate fibers exhibited enhanced physicochemical, better blood compatibility parameters and enhanced fibroblast proliferation rates which may serve as a potential candidate for wound dressings.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: This paper investigates phosphorus dynamics in a highly polluted system composed of a drainage channel followed by a shallow reservoir in the city of Fortaleza, Brazilian semiarid. During the dry season, significant non-point source loads of total phosphorus originated from residences unconnected to sewers were identified along the channel, resulting in an increasing flow rate of untreated sewage towards the reservoir. During the rainy season, as a consequence of dilution, phosphorus concentrations decreased by about 5-fold. The results also revealed that the reservoir was acting similarly to a waste stabilization pond, with phosphorus removal efficiency of about 33%. Assuming one-dimensional flow for the channel and complete mixing for the reservoir, it was possible to adjust phosphorus decay coefficients of kc = 2.2 day-1 and kr = 22.8 year-1, respectively, which were higher than their corresponding values available in the literature. This was attributed mainly to the relatively high temperatures and shallow water depths. The results also revealed an inverse dependence of kc and kr on water and wind velocity, with potential thresholds of respectively 0.3 and 5.0 m/s for resuspension of bed sediments and internal phosphorus loading.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Successful treatment of surface water for public use requires the evaluation of raw water and coagulant efficacy. The purpose of water treatment is to remove impurities, allowing its quality to be classified to meet the needs of the population. The conditions of urban rivers that flow though the city of São Paulo, which were already undergoing major transformations, particularly due to intense urbanization, have deteriorated further due to the precariousness of basic sanitation and increasing environmental pollution.This study focused on an analysis of the efficiency of PGα21Ca, a water purification product, in the treatment of Pinheiros River water, based on coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation tests. The biopolymer PGα21Ca reduced in the order of 100% the total phosphorus. The best sedimentation velocity for the coagulant under study was 1 cm min-1. The PGα21Ca performed well in the removal of turbidity and apparent color, with residual turbidity of 1.84 NTU, 96.95% removal of apparent color, and little change in the pH of the medium.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Field surveys and integral modelling were carried out to study the effect of bubble plumes on the flow hydrodynamics and the time-evolution of water temperature profiles in a shallow lake with maximum depth of about 4 m. Then, model simulations were performed to verify the feasibility of destratification of ten water-supply reservoirs with capacities of 10-2,000 hm3. Finally, hydrological modelling was conducted to assess the impact of destratification on evaporation suppression and its effects on reservoir yield. The results indicate that net temperature reductions of the order of 1.0°C can be obtained, which corresponds to evaporation suppressions of approximately 10%. In turn, this resulted in increases in the regulated flow of 2-12% that could be described by a general correlation. Lastly, a simplified feasibility analysis provided an operational cost of about 1.0 US$ per cubic meter of saved water, which suggests that artificial destratification cannot be discarded as an alternative for supplementing water supply in rural water-scarce regions.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: In this study effects of ultrasonic pretreatment with different sonication sources on drying behavior of carrot slices were evaluated. Fresh carrot slices were pretreated with ultrasonic probe at 65, 75 and 85 W or ultrasonic bath at 10, 20 and 30°C for 3, 5 and 10 min before air drying. Water gain % and solid loss % of pretreated samples were calculated and color values, β-carotene content and rehydration ratios of dried samples were determined. Drying behavior of the pretreated samples was evaluated and the drying data were fitted to thin layer drying models. Constant drying rate period was not observed for the carrot slices; however two definite falling-rate periods having different slopes were obtained. Drying time was significantly reduced (up to 20%) depending on the type of pretreatment. The redness value, total color difference and Chroma values of pretreated and control samples were in the same group (p>0.05). β-carotene content of ultrasonic bath pretreated samples were significantly higher than the samples pretreated with ultrasonic probe and the sample dried without any pretreatment as well (p<0.05). Also rehydration ratios of control samples were found lower than the ultrasound pretreated samples.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: Drillability is influenced by many factors, including machine parameters and rock properties. The main machine parameters for drilling include rotational speed, thrust force, torque and flush pressure. The specific rock characteristics that affect penetration rate comprise uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), tensile strength, Young’s modulus, hardness and brittleness. In this study, drilling rate index (DRI) is attempted to predict based on UCS and Brazilian tensile strength (BTS) of rocks. Simple and multiple regression analyses have been carried out to determine the best measure of the relation between DRI and two geomechanical properties. The DRI value is strongly related to the uniaxial compressive strength and indirect tensile strength. However, when the uniaxial compressive strength and tensile strength of rock are jointly considered, the correlation coefficient increases. The relationship between the geomechanical properties (UCS, BTS) and the DRI were determined using multiple regression analysis. Strong relationships were obtained from these analyses for the rock strength (UCS) above and below 100 MPa with the correlation coefficients 0.81 and 0.88 respectively.The results of the regression analyses show that for more precise prediction of DRI, rocks should be classified according to their strength.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract: The average faculty productivity have been described as a rapid rise-short peak-gradual decline pattern. Way et al. (2017) have studied this pattern for faculty careers in Computer Science in North America using a piecewise linear model. In this paper, we use a similar methodology and study trajectories (N = 20655) of the Brazilian Computer Science community. First, we have evaluated how the median publication count of researchers is related to institution prestige and public vs. private administration. Second, we have studied how the annual publication rates have increased and its variation according to prestige ranks of institutions. Third, we have found the average trajectory can indeed be described as the canonical rapid increase and slower decrease in productivity. For individual trajectories of senior researchers we have observed only 4.5% of trajectories are well explained by the conventional narrative of rapid rise and gradual decline model. We also have found polynomial models of degrees 1 to 3 explain almost 63.1% of trajectories. The rest of trajectories are considered unstable and not well explained by neither of approaches.