Abstract in English:Abstract In this time of confinement due to COVID-19 pandemic some reflections have been made e it has never been as clear as people can benefit from science. From the simple gesture of washing your hands like many others used during the quarantine, they have been identified by previous studies. In this way, we reinforce the need to maintain investments in the science.
Abstract in English:Abstract This essay is a historical exploration of the circumstances, and subsequent mathematical consequences, of the encounter, in 1955, of Maurício M. Peixoto (1921 - 2019) with the work of Henry F. DeBaggis (1916 - 2002) on Structural Stability, Princeton 1952, developing a notion introduced by Alexander A. Andronov and Lev S. Pontrjagin, Gorkii 1937.
Abstract in English:Abstract The air quality and distribution of trace elements in a metropolitan area of the Peruvian Andes were evaluated using transplanted epiphytic Tillandsia capillaris as biomonitors. Biomonitors were collected from the non-contaminated area and exposed to five sites with different types of contamination for three months in 2017. After exposure, the content of twenty-one elements were determined by ICP-MS analysis. Datasets were evaluated by one-way ANOVA, exposed-to-baseline (EB), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed significant differences among sampling sites for several elements. According to EF ratios for Ba, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn EB ratios value greater than 1.75 were found around urban areas, indicating anthropogenic influence, which can be attributed to vehicular sources. The highest values of As and Cd were found in areas of agricultural practices, therefore their presence could be related to the employment of agrochemicals (pesticides, herbicides, and phosphate fertilizers). HCA shows that most elements come from vehicular sources and lower from agricultural and natural sources.
Abstract in English:Abstract Eutrophication of lakes has affected society in many regions, particularly in water scarce environments where: i) low runoff reduces the self-purification potential of water bodies; ii) water supply relies on surface reservoirs, which are susceptible to nutrient enrichment. This work presents an assessment of the impact of the silted sediment management on the trophic status of a tropical surface reservoir with intense temporal variability of water storage. A complete mixing model describing the total phosphorus budget in the water and sediments was used, based on semi-empirical formulations. The sediment reuse as soil fertilizer has been proposed to increase productivity in small scale agriculture, which should also enhance the water quality by removing the nutrient-enriched sediment from lakes. Model application for a 40-years period indicate that sediment management may improve water quality, changing from poor to acceptable trophic state during roughly 10% of the time when the reservoir is not empty.
Abstract in English:Abstract Wave energy gradients between and along the margins of inlet channels play an important role in defining the inlet margins’ evolutionary processes, mainly those related to spit erosion or accretion, and inlet migration. The aim of this study is to understand the wave power distribution along the margins of a tidal inlet (Cananéia inlet, São Paulo, Brazil), its variation over time, and the influences of the ebb tidal delta morphology on the incoming waves. To evaluate changes in bathymetry and morphology of submersed features, we apply geoprocessing techniques to analyze nautical charts from the Brazilian Navy from 1939, 1971, 1985 and 2004. The numerical model MIKE21 SW was applied to assess wave propagation and nearshore wave power. Hence, wave energy levels along the inlet margins were assessed in terms of decadal morphological changes. The results indicate a dynamic behavior of the inlet and ebb tidal delta, pointing to the ebb tidal delta as the main transforming agent of the waves that reach the inner portion of the channel. The morphological changes of the ebb tidal delta over the last decades are critical to define the action of waves on the margins of the inlet.
Abstract in English:Abstract The isotopic and geochemical evolution of tourmaline constrain the processes of paleo-oceanic lithosphere in ophiolites. The Brasiliano Orogen is a major structure of South America and requires characterization for the understanding of Gondwana supercontinent evolution. We made a pioneering investigation of tourmaline from a tourmalinite in the Ibaré ophiolite by integrating field work with chemical analyses of tourmaline by electron microprobe (EPMA) and δ11B determinations via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). Remarkably massive tourmalinite (>90 vol.% tourmaline, some chlorite) enclosed in serpentinite has homogeneous dravite in chemical and isotopic composition (δ11B = +3.5 to +5.2‰). These results indicate a geotectonic environment in the altered oceanic crust for the origin of the tourmalinite. This first δ11B characterization of tourmaline from tourmalinite sets limits to the evolution of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Brasiliano Orogen and Gondwana evolution.
Abstract in English:Abstract This work is focused on characterizing and understanding the aboveground biomass of Caatinga in a semiarid region in northeastern Brazil. The quantification of Caatinga biomass is limited by the small number of field plots, which are inadequate for addressing the biome’s extreme heterogeneity. Satellite-derived biomass products can address spatial and temporal changes but they have not been validated for seasonally dry tropical forests. Here we combine a compilation of published field phytosociological observations with a new 30m spatial resolution satellite biomass product. Both data were significantly correlated, satellite estimates consistently captured the wide variability of the biomass across the different physiognomies (2-272 Mg/ha). Based on the satellite product we show that in year 2000 about 50 percent of the region had very low biomass (<2 Mg/ha) and that the majority of the biomass (86%) is concentrated in only 27% of the area. Our work confirm other estimates of biomass 39 Mg/ha (9-61 Mg/ha) and carbon 0.79 PgC. The satellite products together with ground based estimates has the potential to improve forest management in Caatinga and other seasonally dry tropical forests through improved approximation of spatial variability, how they relate to climate, and support numerical modeling experiments in semiarid regions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate spatial behavior and temporal stability of rainfall and mean air temperature in the state of Bahia, using historical series from 1975 to 2011 and 1961 to 2009, respectively. The analyses were performed considering the accumulated variables of each month of the historical series. The accumulated monthly totals were divided by the number of years of observation, obtaining the monthly average values of rainfall and air temperature for each measurement point. The data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis and linear correlation studies. Geostatistical analysis was used to verify the existence and quantify spatial dependence between the values of the studied variables. In addition, the maps were submitted to algebra operations, calculating the spatial difference between months for each of the variables. For that purpose, the difference between one month and its subsequent period was calculated in order to establish the behavior of the variables over time. Climatic variables showed a close relationship between each other, demonstrating their spatial and temporal variation, which is mainly dependent on the seasons of the year. The rainfall and mean air temperature variables showed stable spatial behavior and high temporal stability between subsequent months.
Abstract in English:Abstract Normal moveout (NMO) velocity is used in seismic data processing to correct the data from the moveout effect. This velocity depends on the medium above the reflector and it is estimated from the adjustment of a hyperbolic function that approximates the reflection time. This approximation is reasonable for media formed by isotropic layers. For deeper exploration targets, which effectively behave as anisotropic media, the NMO velocity estimate from the hyperbolic approximation becomes imprecise. One possibility is the use of non-hyperbolic approximations for the reflection time and deeming the medium to be anisotropic. However, these approximations make the NMO velocity estimation a more complex problem, since the anisotropic parameters are unknown. In this study the NMO velocities for a vertical transverse isotropy medium are estimated using two non-hyperbolic reflection time approaches. For comparing the two methodologies that estimate NMO velocity, a 2-D dataset from Jequitinhonha Basin is used and it presents anisotropic behavior. The results show that this approach produces more consistent results than the conventional approach, which ignores the anisotropy of the medium.
Abstract in English:Abstract Globally, there is limited knowledge about management and conservation of Callianassidae family. Their catches seem to be recently increasing in several parts of the world and evidences raise concern on the need of specialized literature focused on populations monitoring. At Southeast of Brazil, the species Callichirus major (Say 1818), known as the ghost shrimp, is frequently captured for use as bait in sport fishing and, according to previous studies, the overexploitation could threaten the population. The aim of this study was evaluated over a year this harmful human pressure on the species C. major in two beaches contiguous but susceptible to different anthropogenic impacts due to the existence of legislation on one beach that prohibits the capture of this crustacean. The population of C. major presented where the prohibition regulation does not exist a density almost three times lower when compared to the beach that prohibits the capture, with individuals with smaller carapace oval area and a shorter reproductive period. This paper alert to some evidence of C. major structure population disturbance resulting from its exploitation at Southeast of Brazil. Recommendations were also addressed to conservation management considering the species' ecological importance.
Abstract in English:Abstract Resprouting is a functional trait in species which occur in fire-prone ecosystems. These plants can resprout from aerial buds and by recruiting belowground bud bank using carbohydrates allocated in roots as resource. In this study, we present morpho-anatomical features and chemical composition related to the resprouting potential of two species of Eugenia L. in an area of the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) under regeneration, after the clear-cutting of Pinus sp. with the later burning of pine needles layer. We used standard histological techniques for belowground organs analysis and aerial buds protection degree. Belowground buds in layer from soil surface down to 10 depth were counted and the chemical analyses were performed on roots. In all aerial buds, there were relevant protection traits. The belowground organ is a sobole and the number of buds in its upper portion varied from 24 to 517 between individuals of both species. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, starch and other carbohydrates were detected in roots. The protection of aerial buds, the large number of belowground buds and the storing and protective compounds may have favored the resprouting of the species in the area.
Abstract in English:Abstract Arapaima is a widely-distributed fish of enormous economic importance in the Amazon region. In the present study, a total of 232 specimens were sampled, 121 from five sites in the Amazon basin and 111 from five sites in the Tocantins-Araguaia basin. The analyses investigated fragments of the Cytochrome b, Control Region, Cytochrome Oxidase I, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and seven loci microsatellites. The analyses revealed the existence of two mitochondrial lineages within the general area, with no haplotypes shared between basins, and genetic variability significantly higher in the Amazon than in the Tocantins-Araguaia basin. Two divergent, but sympatric mitochondrial lineages were found in the Amazon basin, but only a single lineage in the Tocantins-Araguaia basin. The existence of these two mitochondrial lineages indicates that past events, probably occurring during the Pleistocene, resulted in the separation of the populations of this species and molded its evolutionary history, which is reflected directly in its mitochondrial DNA. The analysis of the arapaima population structure identified distinct levels of diversity within the distribution of the species, indicating specific geographic regions that will require special attention for the development of conservation and management strategies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Grape pomace from Vitis labrusca is an important sub-product of the “American table wine” industry. It is recalcitrant to degradation, and its accumulation is a serious problem with negative environmental impacts. We analyzed the ability of five white-rot fungi to transform this residue in-vitro. Mass loss and phenol removal in grape pomace treated with each fungus were compared after 30-day solid-state fermentation. Since Peniophora albobadia isolate LPSC 285 was the fungus that showed the highest degradative ability and the lowest free phenol levels in the residue transformed, we selected this fungus to monitor its effect on this residue after 30, 60, and 90 days of incubation. We analyzed mass loss of the residue caused by the fungus activity and its chemical changes using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. After 90 days of incubation, Peniophora albobadia isolate LPSC 285 reduced grape pomace mass by 20.48%, which was associated with degradation of polysaccharides and aromatic structures. We concluded that Peniophora albobadia LPSC # 285 isolate is a promising fungus to transform grape pomace from Vitis labrusca under solid-state fermentation conditions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The pupa of Schizonyxhelea thomsenae (Wirth) is described and illustrated from material collected in Misiones province, Argentina. A key for the four known species of pupae of Schizonyxhelea is given, a diagnosis and photographs of the adult are also provided, and the geographic distribution of the species in the Neotropical region is enlarged including first records from Argentina, Brazil and Peru based mainly on adult specimens.
Abstract in English:Abstract Bird-window collisions are a major cause of bird mortality in the world; up to one billion birds die each year from collisions with glass panes in North America alone. However, relatively little attention had been given to this issue in the broad scientific literature, despite a recent increase in the number of papers. In this paper, the indexed literature on bird-window collisions was reviewed, specifically addressing the causal factors. The search retrieved 53 papers, mostly from North America. The factors linked to higher collision rates were large areas of continuous glass, the presence of nearby vegetation and feeders, bird migration, abundance, and behavior. Several factors were site-specific, preventing the global extrapolation of these findings. There is a lack of scientific knowledge regarding bird-window collisions in tropical countries. One of the challenges to mitigating this problem is the small amount of information and – frequently - the extrapolation of findings described for temperate regions to other areas. There is a need for a greater and urgent effort to fill this gap.
Abstract in English:Abstract Significant reductions in the water levels of lakes are influenced by droughts and freshwater demands, especially in semi-arid regions, where hydric stress is greater. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of phytoplankton during two different water volume periods resulting from an extended drought in a semi-arid lake. Another objective was to compare two functional approaches to test which one of these best captures phytoplankton variability as a function of environmental variability. Multivariate analyses performed using the Reynolds Functional Groups (RFG) and Morphology-Based Functional Groups (MBFG) classification schemes indicated two periods, high and a low water volume. The results demonstrated the importance of light availability on phytoplankton assemblages as these two periods showed significant differences in water transparency and phytoplankton composition. During extended droughts the reduction in water volume enhances the development of bloom-forming cyanobacteria through the limitation of light in a eutrophic man-made lake. Moreover, both functional traits approaches demonstrated the effect of light availability on phytoplankton assemblage composition and can be applied in similar systems. However, the RFG classification provides more information and allows a more detailed description of the algal assemblages.
Abstract in English:Abstract Freshwater crabs are important components of aquatic ecosystems; however, their distributions are restricted because of characteristics of their life history, which hinder conservation strategies. Fredius reflexifrons is a widely distributed freshwater crab of the Amazon basin with relictual occurrences in small wetlands on the Planalto da Ibiapaba in Northeastern Brazil. Habitat degradation, destruction of forest patches, channeling of water bodies, and the use of land for legume cropping can seriously impact the species by leading to the extinction of its relic populations, which have limited distributions in the Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA; Environmental Protection Area) Bica do Ipu of the Planalto da Ibiapaba. The objectives of this study were to assess the distribution of F. reflexifrons in APA Bica do Ipu, identify the main impacts from anthropic activities, suggest potential actions to mitigate these impacts, besides providing recommendations for the expansion of the APA. Fredius reflexifrons was recorded in eleven sites in the Planalto da Ibiapaba, of which nine are new records and five are not located within the APA. These findings evidence the need of expanding the APA to encompass the newly known distribution of F. reflexifrons in order to assure its protection.
Abstract in English:Abstract Larvae of Psychodidae develop in a variety of breeding sites, including vertebrate feces. As searching for the larvae can be an extremely difficult task, immatures of many species are little known, with descriptions of coprophagous moth flies all from outside the Neotropics. In an attempt to mitigate this challenge, we tested an oviposition trap using cattle dung as attractant, measured the efficiency and specificity of the traps and the most efficient period of exposition in the field. With 60 traps installed in one fragment of ombrophilous forest, 344 immatures were collected, distributed in four species of Psychoda and one of Feuerborniella. Psychodidae accounted for 75% of the collected Diptera. The high specificity of the trap to Psychodidae contrasts with other studies on coprophagous fauna where they appear in low abundance. Based on the metrics in this study, the most efficient period of trapping exposition was between five to eight days, but the difference was not significant probably due to the high number of zero observations among the traps. Many questions pertaining to coprophagous moth flies remain unanswered. Further research is needed to improve trapping efficiency, elucidate the effects of attractants and determine how environmental factors influence the attractiveness of bait.
Abstract in English:Abstract There is a great amount of ecological information for terrestrial arthropods in several types of habitats, but few studies have focused on populations living in tidal freshwater wetlands. During a two-year field survey, we studied the temporal dynamics of the harvestman Discocyrtus prospicuus inhabiting a freshwater wetland exposed to predictable tides and unpredictable floods. We also explored the effects of temperature, precipitation, and tide level on the population dynamics and reproductive phenology. Our findings are markedly different from those reported in other harvestman species living in different habitats and also from conspecific populations living in the mainland. Adults, subadults, and juveniles remain active throughout the year, and a long breeding season was observed. However, the number of adults, subadults, juveniles, and egg clutches showed clear variations over the year without a consistent seasonal pattern. Contrary to the general pattern in harvestmen, no climatic variables were significant predictors of abundance fluctuations. We discuss the potential masking effect of unpredictable flood events, obscuring the relationship between abundance and abiotic factors. In addition, given that climatic conditions seem to favor harvestmen activity throughout the year, we also hypothesized that abundance variations could be driven mainly by biotic rather than by abiotic interactions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra DC.) extract has been demonstrated hypolipidemic and antioxidant capacity. Herein, we investigated the effect of red cabbage aqueous extract (RC) or fenofibrate (FF) in oxidative stress induced by Triton WR-1339 in rats. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated through the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and, thiobarbituric reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyl (PC) levels in erythrocytes, liver, kidneys, cerebral cortex and hippocampus of male rats. The alterations promoted by Triton WR-1339 in enzymatic antioxidant defense in the liver, kidneys and hippocampus were reversed by RC or FF treatments. The TBARS and PC levels increased in the liver, cerebral cortex and hippocampus of hyperlipidemic rats were decreased by the treatments with RC or FF. These findings demonstrated that RC is a potential therapy to treat diseases not only involving dyslipidemic condition but also oxidative stress.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the consequences of dietary levels of crude protein (CP) and total sulfur amino acids (TSAA, Met+Cys) on productive performance, egg quality and egg components for Lohmann Brown laying hens through 18-34 weeks of age. A 2×3 factorial design experiment was conducted using two levels of CP (16 and 18 %) and three levels of Met+ Cys (0.67, 0.72 and 0.77 %). A total of 144 Lohmann Brown laying hens at 18 weeks of age were randomly divided into 6 treatment groups. The best values of final body weight and body weight change were recorded by the hens fed 18 % CP diet. Increasing dietary CP up to 18 % accompanied with the best (P> 0.01) feed conversion, egg weight and egg mass. The combination between low-CP diet (16 %) and 0.72 % Met+ Cys gave the best percentage of egg production. The majority of egg quality traits were not significantly altered by dietary treatments. The interaction between CP and Met+Cys levels had a statistical (P>0.01) impact on egg content of moisture and total solids only. It could be concluded that the best production criteria could be obtained by using 0.72% Met+Cys. Moreover, dietary level of 16 or 18 % CP with 0.72% Met+Cys is recommended for feeding Lohmann hens.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pharmaceuticals occur in the environment due to their excessive consumption and the inefficiency of treatment plants to degrade, inactivate or remove them. Diazepam (DZP) stands out as the most consumed benzodiazepine, and induces sedative effects and reduces anxiety. Considering its potential appearance in several environmental compartments, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of DZP under acute and chronic exposures on the mysid Mysidopsis juniae. Mortality was assessed using an acute toxicity test and a LC50 of 3.7 ± 0.5 mg·L-1was derived. The mass and length of the mysids was recorded in the chronic exposure to test for sublethal effects, and concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 mg·L-1 of DZP affected mysids length and dry weight, respectively. Although effect-inducing concentrations used in this study are above environmentally relevant levels, the present study adds value to the limited available data for DZP toxicity to marine organisms, and we have shown that M. juniae is the most sensitive marine crustacean species tested thus far.
Abstract in English:Abstract Bryophytes play an important role in the process of ecological succession: conditioning the environment favourably for the emergence of subsequent groups. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of bryophyte communities in a cronossequence in the Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brazil. To this end, biological material was collected in forest remnants with different successional stages based on regeneration age: Stage I (0 – 10 years), Stage II (10 - 25), Stage III (> 25) and Stage IV (primary forests). Density, richness and composition of species were compared between successional stages and the occurrence of possible indicator-species was investigated. The identified taxa were also classified by guilds of tolerance to solar radiation and colonized substrate. Composition of species was the variable that most contributed to understanding the distribution of bryophyte communities throughout successional stages, with eight species identified as potential indicators of some successional stages. Generalist species predominated in all stages. The richness of sun tolerants, in turn, decreased with the progress of succession, while shade tolerants increased. The land use history and land cover can influence the availability and quality of substrates and consequently their colonization by bryophytes in the different stages.
Abstract in English:Abstract The paper deals with the possibility of processing category 2 animal byproducts with a ferment preparation. We chose collagen-rich cattle lips and ears as the category 2 byproducts for our study. The selected samples were processed in the following sequence: fixation, rinsing with running water, densifying the samples, slicing into sections, dying sections, and enclosing the sections under cover glass. The pathohistomorphologic changes found in the control samples significantly differ both before the processing and after the use of the ferment preparation Protepsin, which caused destructive metabolic and hydrolytic processes in the dense connective tissue of the ear and lip framework and led to softening of the muscle parenchyma of the organs.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Euphobia milii var. hislopii latex has been tested in the control of schistosomiasis but its action in the locomotor activity of Biomphalaria glabrata is unknown. The objective of this work was to study the locomotor and reproductive behaviors of B. glabrata exposed to E. milii var. hislopii latex. For this, 96 snails were individually exposed to the latex (LC50 - 0.53 mg / L) for 24 hours. The specimens were submitted to biomonitoring for image analysis to record the locomotor parameters at different times: before exposure (control), one day post exposure (group 1 d-p-e) and 30 days post exposure (group 30 d-p-e). The reproductive parameters were recorded weekly for 10 weeks. All locomotor activities of group 1 d-p-e decreased significantly. The egg/egg mass ratio decreased the week after exposure while there was an increase in the hatching rate. After 30 days, these reproductive parameters were similar to those observed in these same snails before exposure. However, the number of hatched snails declined after exposure until the end of the experiment. The influence of the latex in the parameters of B. glabrata added further evidence that this natural water-soluble product can be an important tool for the control of schistosomiasis.
Abstract in English:Abstract We report the first comprehensive multilocus molecular characterization of cultivated Ilex paraguariensis plants belonging to a breeding program. Using nuclear and homologous chloroplastidic molecular markers, we have genotyped 158 plants from four plantation sites. Analyses of the nuclear data (187 variable dominant loci) allowed detecting high diversity (0.569), the occurrence of four distinct genetic clusters, and a low but significant differentiation among sites. Additionally, 20 chloroplastidic alleles were identified applying five microsatellite polymorphic markers, and a high chloroplastidic diversity was recognized (0.505); two haplogroups were distinguished amongst the 63 haplotypes detected. Our results from both nuclear and plastidic markers indicate that most genetic variation reside within plantations sites (≥ 95%), and that these plantations were established on highly variable materials (either as seeds or plantlets) derived from, at least, 63 maternal lineages. Moreover, our study suggests that the genetic structure within each plantation site was most likely shaped by past admixture favored by farmers´ practices during the establishment of each plantation. Also, subsequent constraints in gene flow and/or a low level of shared polymorphism among plantations could have contributed to current structure.
Abstract in English:Abstract The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Vitex agnus-castus and Ocimum campechianum, and from fresh inflorescences of Ocimum carnosum were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components of V. agnus-castus essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (47.9%), terpinyl α-acetate (11.6%), sabinene (11.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.7%), while in the O. campechianum essential oil were eugenol (72.1%), β-elemene (6.8%), (E)-caryophyllene (6.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (5.2%). Linalool (79.0%), α-epi-cadinol (5.4%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%) and 1,8-cineole (2.8%) were the major constituents in the O. carnosum essential oil. The essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their larvicidal and cytotoxic activities. Larval bioassay against Aedes aegypti of V. agnus-castus, O. campechianum and O. carnosum essential oils showed LC50 values of 97.55 ± 0.35, 81.45 ± 0.35 and 109.49 ± 0.35 μg/mL, respectively. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of the essential oils has been evaluated on breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), lung carcinoma (NCI-H292), pro-myelocytic leukemia (HL-60), and cervical adenocarcinoma (HEP-2) human cell lines, and pro-myelocytic leukemia cells lines (HL-60) were found to be the most sensitive to all the essential oils tested than the others. This is the first report on larvicidal and cytotoxic activities of these essential oils.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fleas of Argentina are receiving renewed systematic interest, but the identification of many species associated with small mammals can be problematic. We review the taxonomy of the flea genus Agastopsylla including the re-description of two species and one subspecies, and designate neotype and neallotype for Agastopsylla hirsutior, neotype for Agastopsylla nylota nylota from the “Colección Mamíferos Lillo Anexos” (CMLA), Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Argentina, and neotype and neallotype for Agastopsylla pearsoni from the Natural History Museum (London, U.K.). Additionally, a key to identification of the species of Agastopsylla and a distribution map of the species of the genus are included.
Abstract in English:Abstract In 2008, 270 wild birds from aquatic environments were found dead or debilitated on the banks of smaller lakes that had been formed due to the decrease in the level of the holding lake of the Sobradinho Dam located on the São Francisco River in the Caatinga of Bahia, Brazil. The outbreak occurred months after the dam’s partial drainage, with the formation of puddles that accumulated decomposing organic material. Amongst the 270 individuals examined and/or found dead, the majority (50%) of the birds found belonged to the Anatidae family. The debilitated birds presented neurological clinical signs including lack of motor coordination, weakness, grave flaccid paralysis in the legs, wings, neck and eyelids, diarrhea, and dyspnea. Tissue samples of the birds were collected, as were water samples and samples of the substrate of the lakes. Zoonotic arboviroses or heavy metals were not detected. Analyses of liver and digestive tract content samples through bioassay and serum neutralization in mice revealed the presence of type C botulinic toxin in the viscerae samples, and type D in sediment samples. According to our knowledge, this is the first record of an outbreak of botulism in wild birds in natural conditions in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Currently, in Argentina 368 species of true ferns (i.e. Polypodiopsida class) are distributed throughout the country, however, only four of them have been mentioned until now as weeds and ruderal species. The goal of this work was to generate an update of weedy ferns from Argentina, including morphology, distribution, and type of weed according to their impact on natural habitats and/or human activities. All Argentinian fern species were analyzed based on references, herbarium specimens, and field trips. As a result of our study 25 species were recorded from Argentina and classified as segetal, ecological, or aquatic weeds, and ruderal and/or toxic species. Current taxonomic identity, diagnostic characters, origins, habitats, geographical distribution, common names, and impact and potential risks were indicated by species. In addition, we provide a dichotomous key to species, presence of these species in southern South American countries, as well as and photographs in natural habitat. This work represents the first review on native and exotic ferns from Argentina that cause an impact on human activities or disturbe native habitats. The results provide information for the development of weed management tools and priority areas to implement them.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to analyze the possible effects of diflubenzuron on the associated insect fauna under laboratory, semi-field and field conditions. Laboratory bioassays were performed in aquariums with mortality readings (%) every 24h until 96h, and in semi-fields, insects were kept in basins with readings every 24h for up to 12 days, in triplicates and a control. In the field experiment, a collection was performed before the application of diflubenzuron in ten brick factory pits (25m²) and 15 post-application. The values of LC50 and LC90 for Chironomus were 2.77x10-3g/L and 0.86g/L, respectively, and for Buenoa, they were 0.019g/L and 0.92g/L, a strong relationship was observed between mortality and exposure time (r²>0.8) in all concentrations used. In semi-field, similar mean values of emergency inhibition were observed, except for Euthyplociidae, which was more sensitive. There was no significant difference between the data of richness and diversity of aquatic insects in the field experiment, considering an interval of 15 days (p=0.32). Finally, the data suggest that diflubenzuron may have a negative effect on the associated insect fauna, but in the field experiment the environmental conditions of Anopheles breeding sites may have affected its efficiency.
Abstract in English:Abstract This is the first record of the trematode Choledocystus incurvatum and Choledocystus elegans in Argentinean amphibians collected in two localities of the Chacoan region. The first trematode species was found infecting the small intestine of Pseudis paradoxa Linnaeus, captured near the city of Corrientes, Corrientes Province; the second species was found infecting the gall-bladder of Lepidobatrachus laevis Budgget, captured in Ingeniero Juárez, Formosa Province. Morphology of these species was studied in detail using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and compared with previous studies of Brazilian and Venezuelan specimens. Morphological descriptions of these parasites are provided to supplement existing data. Choledocystus incurvatum was characterized using molecular methods by sequencing and analyzing rDNA. Regarding metric characters of C. incurvatum, the Argentinean specimens show some differences in body and egg size (some larger than Venezuelan specimens). For C. elegans the specimen shows smaller body size than Brazilian specimens. SEM observations of C. incurvatum showed tegument covered with triangular spines and confirmed presence of a sucker-like structure around the genital atrium. The morphological and genetic data on C. incurvatum contribute to a more thorough diagnosis of the genus. Moreover, this report represents the first occurrence of this genus in the Argentine Chacoan region.
Abstract in English:Abstract Amazonian biodiversity is increasingly threatened due to the weakening of policies for combating deforestation, especially in Brazil. Loss of animal and plant species, many not yet known to science, is just one among many negative consequences of Amazon deforestation. Deforestation affects indigenous communities, riverside as well as urban populations, and even planetary health. Amazonia has a prominent role in regulating the Earth’s climate, with forest loss contributing to rising regional and global temperatures and intensification of extreme weather events. These climatic conditions are important drivers of emerging infectious diseases, and activities associated with deforestation contribute to the spread of disease vectors. This review presents the main impacts of Amazon deforestation on infectious-disease dynamics and public health from a One Health perspective. Because Brazil holds the largest area of Amazon rainforest, emphasis is given to the Brazilian scenario. Finally, potential solutions to mitigate deforestation and emerging infectious diseases are presented from the perspectives of researchers in different fields.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this study, we evaluated the reproductive activity and the temporal and spatial distributions of anuran assemblages in three environments within a semideciduous forest in Southeast Brazil, located at Municipality of Barão de Monte Alto, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The field activities were carried out during three consecutive days, monthly throughout the rainy seasons of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015. We recorded 28 anurans species, distributed in eight families. We observed the spatial-temporal distribution of some species, and their associated reproductive behaviors through exploration of vocalizations at different sites. The spatial and temporal distribution of the species seems to adapt to abiotic and biotic factors of their environment.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the province of Misiones (Argentina), the filling of the Yacyretá Reservoir (Argentina-Paraguay) to its final dimensions in 2011 formed new aquatic ecosystem, e.g., Garupá Stream was converted into a subreservoir. Reports have been made in this stream of adult individuals and spawning of the Family Sciaenidae, excellent colonizers of modified environments. The larvae of this family are morphologically similar, particularly among Pachyurus and Plagioscion species, making taxonomic differentiation difficult. In the present work, sciaenidae larvae were characterized molecularly at the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene in order to determine which species use this environment for reproduction. Additionally, genetic distances, Barcode Index Number (BIN) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery method (ABGD) were estimated and phylogenetic trees were reconstructed. The results indicated the presence of Plagioscion ternetzi and Pachyurus bonariensis larvae, and for the first time in tributaries of the region, Plagioscion squamosissimus. The incorporation of P. bonariensis and P. squamosissimus to the faunistic assemblage of ichthyoplankton in the Garupá Stream supports better characterization of the species richness of this secondary watercourse modified by the Yacyretá Reservoir, and advancement in our understanding of use of this area for reproduction.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cadmium, present in the environment, accumulates in different organs of animals and humans, and has deleterious effects on the kidney. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of the methanolic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus in comparison with silymarin on renal function in cadmium-intoxicated rats for five days. Rats intraperitoneally injected with cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg). These rats were treated with either P. ostreatus extract (200 mg/kg) or silymarin to investigate the protective effects of the extract. Cadmium treatment induced significant histopathological impairments and increased cadmium levels, DNA fragmentation, and renal oxidative stress. However, treatment with P. ostreatus extract or silymarin improved the pathology, reduced the level of cadmium in renal tissue, and restored DNA fragmentation. In addition, a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species levels, and a significant increase in the levels of glutathione and catalase activity were observed. Thus, protective effects of P. ostreatus extract to its components. Chromatographic analysis of the P. ostreatus confirmed the presence of five phenolics (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, propyl gallate, and cinnamic acid) that exhibit strong antioxidant properties as free radical scavengers. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that treatment with P. ostreatus extract protects against cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in female rats.
Abstract in English:Abstract Biodiversity is much more than what we see. Biodiversity also includes a number of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses, many of which cause disease in animals, plants and man. In the Amazon, many of these organisms live in the body of repository animals that are in the forest and can jump to humans, with the potential to cause new epidemics and pandemics. In the region, we cannot discard plants as repositories for these microorganisms too. It is necessary to reduce deforestation, mining, cattle ranching at the heart of the forest and strive for “One Health” approach, improving social organization, including policies, legislation and science.
Abstract in English:Abstract Circulating miRNAs presenting in plasma in a stable manner have been demonstrated their potential role as a promising biomarkers in many human diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, melanoma and ovarian carcinoma. However, few circulating miRNAs could be used for breast ductal cancer diagnosis. Here, we identified miR-1273g-3p as a biomarker for detecting breast ductal cancer. We detected miR-1273g-3p levels in the plasma of 39 sporadic breast ductal cancer patients and 40 healthy donors by Stem-loop Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed the plasma miR-1273g-3p level were significantly up-regulated in breast ductal cancer patients compared with healthy donors (p=0.0139). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve also revealed the significantly diagnostic ability of miR-1273g-3p in patients (p=0.0414). In addition, the plasma level of miR-1273g-3p was closely related to IIIB-IIIC TNM stage. We also confirmed the higher expression level of miR-1273g-3p in breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (4.872±0.537) than normal breast cells (Hs 578Bst). Taken together, miR-1273g-3p could represent as a potential biomarker for early breast ductal cancer diagnosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract To investigated the role of HIF-1α in myocardial inflammatory injury in rats induced by CME and its possible mechanism. Forty SD rats were separated randomly and equally into four groups, i.e. CME+HIF-1α stabilizer dimethyloxalyl glycine (CME+DMOG) group, CME+HIF-1α inhibitor YC-1 (CME+YC-1) group, CME group, and Sham group. HBFP staining, myocardial enzyme assessment, and cardiac ultrasound were used to measure microinfarct, serum c-troponin I (cTnI) level, and Cardiac function. ELISA and western blot were applied for detecting NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling level.Pro-inflammatory factors of IL-18, IL-1β and TNF-α increased their expression levels after CME, which indicated inflammatory responses in the myocardium. Additionally, in the inflammatory process, NLRP3 inflammasome and TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling were involved. DMOG reverses these effects of CME, whereas YC-1 aggravates these effects. HIF-1α may attenuate myocardial inflammatory injury induced by CME and improve cardiac function, which can perhaps be explained by the fact that TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway activation is inhibited.
Abstract in English:Abstract Skin is the outermost and largest organ of the human body that protects us from the external agents. Among the various types of diseases affecting the skin, melanoma (skin cancer) is the most dangerous and deadliest disease. Though it is one of the dangerous forms of cancer, it has a high survival rate if and only if it is diagnosed at the earliest. In this study, skin cancer classification (SCC) system is developed using dermoscopic images. It is considered as a classification problem with the help of Bendlet Transform (BT) as features and Support Vector Machine (SVM) as a classifier. First, the unwanted information’s such as hair and noises are removed using median filtering approach. Then, directional representation based feature extraction system that precisely classifies curvature, location and orientation is employed. Finally, two SVM classifiers are designed for the classification. The performance of the SCC system based on Bendlet is superior to other image representation systems such as Wavelets, Curvelets, Contourlets and Shearlets.
Abstract in English:Abstract The periosteum is a rich source of osteoprogenitor cells and periosteal grafts can be used as an alternative method to replace bone grafts. The low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has often been used as a noninvasive method to stimulate osteogenesis and reduce the fracture healing time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ultrasound exposure on the rat tibia periosteum. Group I (7 animals) received LIPUS therapy on the left tibia for 7 days and group II (7 animals) on the left tibia for 14 days. After euthanasia, the tibias were processed. Number of periosteal cells and vessels and thickness of the periosteum were analyzed. The number of periosteal cells was higher in stimulated periosteum compared to controls at 7 and 14 days, but the number of vessels and the thickness only were higher in the group stimulated at 14 days. Furthermore, the ultrasound treatment for 14 days was more effective than 7 days. The ultrasound stimulation of the periosteum prior to grafting procedure can be advantageous, since it increases periosteal activity, and LIPUS may be an alternative method for stimulating the periosteum when the use of periosteal grafts in bone repair is needed.
Abstract in English:Abstract The characteristic of immersion, involvement and motivation have made serious games an important tool to be used in the medical field. However, there are people that, having some sort of physical disability, are not able to, or do not feel motivated to play. This work presents a strategy to support human- computer interactions for children with a disability in their upper limbs through a wearable device, with the objective of improving access to digital games for the target audience. For the development of this work, the wearable device Myo was used to control a puzzle game as a means of providing the interaction between the individual and the game. In this context, the game is controlled with the movement of the user's upper limb that presents the disability, through the Myo device. For the validation of this research, the game developed was made available for individuals presenting a disability in the upper limbs, from an age range between five and fifteen years old, of the Association of Assistance to the Disabled Child (AACD). Soon, it was noticed that the participants of the research soon could play while utilizing the deficient limb with Myo's support and felt more motivated to play. On the long run, it is expected to contribute to the motivation of patients through technological innovation, so that the process of body consciousness is made more interactive.
Abstract in English:Abstract Given the scarcity of studies with elderly and the existence of studies investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation in PEH (post exercise hypotension), this study evaluated the effect of a single megadose of vitamin D on resting blood pressure (RBP) and post-exercise hypotension (PEH) in the elderly. 11 hypertensive elderly women (70.3 ± 1.7 years) received a single megadose of 200.000 IU of cholecalciferol or a placebo, orally, through capsules. On day 7, the subjects performed 30 minutes of aerobic exercise with blood pressure measurement before exercise and every 10 minutes after exercise during 60 minutes, besides cardiac autonomic modulation. RBP did not significantly change. Exercise promoted significant systolic PEH only in one moment post exercise in treated group and in the placebo group promoted significant systolic PEH at four moments. Significant diastolic PEH did not occur in any of the groups. Sympathovagal activity increased at post exercise balance in supplemented subjects at 20 min, 40 min, 50 min and 60 min when compared to rest; this increase was not observed in the placebo. A megadose of vitamin D did not reduce RBP, promoted partial inhibition of systolic PEH and increased sympathovagal balance.
Abstract in English:Abstract Despite numerous studies evaluating influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), there is still a lack of knowledge about them, especially in tropical countries. We compared the relative importance of respiratory viruses by examining their spatiotemporal patterns, age-specific hospitalization data and mortality data for 2007-2012 obtained from official sources. The data were aggregated into “respiratory infection seasonal zones” formed combining states that had similar seasonal patterns of pneumonia and influenza (P&I). Equatorial-North where P&I peaks in the middle of the year, Equatorial-South where P&I peaks in the first semester and coincides with the rainy-season, Subtropical where P&I peaks are clearly concentrated in the winter season, and Tropical Midwest and South-East where P&I peaks are a transition between the South-Equatorial and the Sub-tropical. Our analyses indicate that RSV has higher impact than influenza in equatorial region of Brazil, which was particularly evident during the circulation of the 2009pdm strain, and suggests that seasonal influenza may have a lower impact in Equatorial Brazil (and perhaps in other tropical regions of the world) than previously considered. Accordingly, we suggest that the broad assumption that influenza is the main cause of viral respiratory hospitalizations and death in equatorial regions be questioned with greater emphasis in future studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study investigated the encapsulation of β-galactosidase in carrageenan, pectin and its hybrid hydrogels by using the ionotropic gelation method. The material obtained was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of pH, temperature and storage time were evaluated in terms of the catalytic activity of the free and encapsulated enzyme. Addition studies were conducted evaluating the performance of catalytic activity in vitro conditions. Carrageenan, pectin and hybrid hydrogels presented encapsulation efficiency of 58 ± 1%, 72 ± 1% and 77 ± 2%, respectively. The pectin hydrogel showed the higher β-galactosidase activity in pH and temperature tests. However, the carrageenan hydrogel exhibited best stability after been stored for three months. Carrageenan and pectin hydrogels were 2.0 and 2.4 times more efficiently than commercial tablet in the releasing β-galactosidase under in vitro conditions, respectively. The results suggest that pectin and carrageenan hydrogels may be useful for the development of new formulation of β-galactosidase.
Abstract in English:Abstract Malocclusions are changes in the development of craniofacial structures of high prevalence. Associated risk factors are diverse and nutritional and non-nutritional suction habits are the most reported. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malocclusions in the mixed dentition and to study possible association with practices of breastfeeding and suction habits among Brazilian schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study involving a sample of 664 6-year-old children and their families was carried out. Data collection was done through interviews with mothers in the homes and oral examinations of children in schools. Multivariate analyses were performed using the Poisson regression with a robust estimator. The prevalence of overjet over 4 mm was 21.1% and of posterior crossbite was 12.2%; 91.9% of the children were breastfed, 79.0% used a nursing bottle and 49.4% used a pacifier. Significant and independent associations were observed between father’s unemployment, private school, interruption of breastfeeding before the fourth month and pacifier use with certain malocclusions. High rates of malocclusion were found in the studied sample. Socioeconomic conditions, breastfeeding practices and suction habits were shown to be statistically associated with their occurrence.
Abstract in English:Abstract Studies have shown improvement of the cardiac autonomic balance in post-bariatric patients. Most of these studies included patients using drugs interfering in the autonomic nervous system. This study assessed the time course of changes in the sympathovagal balance after bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) in 26 women free from drugs. A 10-min electrocardiographic recording was obtained at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after surgery. Temporal and spectral domains of heart rate variability were analysed. The time domain components of cardiac vagal modulation increased progressively after surgery. In the frequency domain, high frequency power increased from 24.9 at baseline (18.0 to 46.3) to 44.5 at 3 months (23.4 to 65.6), and 54.1 at 6 months after surgery (37.6 to 64.0) (median and IQR in normalized units). Low frequency spectral power decreased from 56.2 at baseline (39.6 to 74.4) to 36.8 at 6 months after surgery (24.9 to 53.9) (P= 0.036). Low frequency/high frequency ratio decreased from 2.3 at baseline (1.0 to 4.2) to 0.8 at 6 months after surgery (0.4 to 1.3) (P= 0.038). Progressive shift towards predominance of vagal tonus was detected in the follow-up. Most of the patients recovered low frequency/high frequency at 6 months after surgery.
Abstract in English:Abstract Uncaria tomentosa (UT) extracts have been shown to have promising anti-tumor activity. We hypothesized that its incorporation into nanostructured systems could improve the anticancer properties. Here, poly-e-caprolactone (PCL) and poly-d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) were employed to generate nanoparticles loaded with UT extract in a single emulsion solvent evaporation method. The nanoparticles were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, morphology and entrapment efficiency along with stability and release profiles. The nanoparticles presented entrapment efficiencies above 60% and a mean diameter below 300nm. UT-PCL nanoparticles presented higher entrapment efficiency and mean particle size as well as a slow release rate. The UT-PLGA nanoparticles showed higher drug loading. Two prostate cancer cell-lines, LNCaP and DU145 that were derived from metastatic sites, served as model systems to assess cytotoxicity and anti-cancer activity. In vitro, both formulations reduced the viability of DU145 and LNCaP cells. Yet, the UT-PLGA nanoparticles showed higher cytotoxicity towards DU145 cells while the UTPCL against LNCaP cells. The results confirm that the incorporation of UT into nanoparticles could enhance its anti-cancer activities that can offer a viable alternative for the treatment of prostrate canner and highlights the potential of nanostructured systems to provide a promising methodology to enhance the activity of natural extracts.
Abstract in English:Abstract Obesity is characterized by the excess of body fat and, therefore, may cause musculoskeletal alterations that can negatively influence the tendons. Such overweight-influenced alterations are exercise sensitive though. Morphological and biochemical alterations were reported in the calcaneal tendon of mice submitted to a lipid-rich diets along with practicing exercises, with the following groups: normal diet without exercise (ND), normal diet with exercise (NDex), lipid-rich diet without exercise (LD), lipid-rich diet without exercise (LDex). The calcaneal tendons were removed and subjected to histological and biochemical analysis. Layers of the tissue were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Picrosirius Red and Von Kossa while a protein dosage was conduce by the Bradford method. The morphologicals analysis there was no statistical difference concerning the number of fibroblasts among the groups. Groups submitted to exercises showed higher amount of collagen and non-collagenous protein deposition. The lipid-rich diet without exercse group had a more disorganized collagen matrix with intense basophilia. The same group had areas of calcification confirmed by Von Kossa technique. Practicing physical activity, such as swimming, can improve the changes caused in the calcaneal tendon in mice submitted to a lipid-rich diets, having a better collagen organization and the synthesis.
Abstract in English:Abstract the focus ofthis study was to testthe hypothesisthatthere would be no difference betweenthe biocompatibility of silicon dioxide nanofilms used as antimicrobial agents. Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n=15): Group C (Control,Polyethylene), Group AR (Acrylic Resin), Group NP (Acrylic Resin coated with NP-Liquid), Group BG (Acrylic Resin coated with Bacterlon).the animals were sacrificed with 7,15 and 30 days and tissues analyzed as regardsthe events of inflammatory infiltrate, edema, necrosis, granulation tissue, mutinucleated giant cells, fibroblasts and collagen. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests was used (P<0.05). Intense inflammatory infiltrate was shown mainly in Groups BG and AR, with significant difference from Control Group inthe time interval of 7days (P=0.004). Necrosis demonstrated significant difference between Group BG and Control Group (P<0.05) inthe time intervals of 7 days. For collagen fibers,there was significant difference betweenthe Control Group and Groups AR and BG inthe time interval of 7 days (P=0.006), and between BG and Control Groups inthe time intervals of 15 days (P=0.010).the hypothesis was rejected. Bacterlon demonstratedthe lowest level, and NP-Liquid Glassthe highest level of tissue compatibility, and best cell repair.the coating with NP-Liquid Glass was demonstrated to be highly promising for clinical use.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cytarabine is effectively used in the treatment of adult acute leukemia, but it has a dose-limiting side effect of fatal pulmonary oedema because it increases the vascular permeability of the alveolar capillaries. The aim of the present study was to conduct a radiological, biochemical and histopathological investigation of the effect of rutin on cytarabine-associated pulmonary oedema in rats. Rats were treated with a combination of rutin+cytarabine by administering oral rutin at a dose of 50 mg/kg; other rat groups were orally administered the same volume of physiological saline. One hour after administration of rutin or saline, the rutin+cytarabine and cytarabine groups received an intraperitoneal injection of cytarabine (200 mg/kg). This administration procedure was repeated once a day for 14 days. Radiologically, 50% of the animals given cytarabine alone showed lung oedema, but the rutin+cytarabine group showed no oedema. The inclusion of rutin decreased the amounts of cytarabine-associated malondialdehyde, tumour necrosis factor-α, and nuclear factor-κB in the lung tissue. Rutin also inhibited the reduction of total glutathione by nitric oxide. These findings suggest that rutin may be a beneficial adjunct that can minimise the development of cytarabine-associated pulmonary oedema.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Commelina erecta L. (C. erecta) also known as erva-de-santa-luzia is reported by local population to have medical properties against some pathological conditions. In this study, two extracts of C. erecta leaves (aqueous and ethanolic) were phytochemically analysed and evaluated for their in-vitro antioxidant activities by DPPH, TBARS, NO assays and cell viability assays. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of rutin and caffeic acid in aqueous and ethanolic extract. The total polyphenols in aqueous and ethanolic extracts found were 142.7 ± 3.0 and 123.1 ± 5.8 μg/mL of GAE, respectively. The ethanolic extract (5 mg/mL) inhibits TBARS by 33.8%, and the aqueous extract (5 mg/mL) exhibited scavenger property against nitric oxide derivatives to an extent of 77.8%. In cell culture, both extracts improved cell survivability under H2O2 induced oxidative stress. Thus, C. erecta extract is a good candidate to become a phytotherapic medicine.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fosamprenavir calcium is an amprenavir prodrug of the protease inhibitors class used in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Different solid forms of this drug are described in patents, in this sense studies on the physico-chemical characterization and stability are relevant for the selection of a solid form with adequate features for pharmaceutical purposes. In the present work form I (commercial) and amorphous of fosamprenavir calcium were characterized by the techniques of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry (TGA), Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the chemical and polymorphic stability of the commercial form were evaluated by DSC, PXRD, FTIR and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In the studies of characterization, thermal analyses allied to spectroscopic methods (PXRD and FTIR) demonstrated that the presence of water in the crystalline structure of Form I is fundamental for maintaining its crystallinity. In studies of accelerated stability the techniques of DSC, PXRD and FTIR showed that Form I does not suffer phase change when submitted to controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. Moreover, HPLC and FTIR proved the chemical stability of this solid form of fosamprenavir, thus demonstrating its suitability for pharmaceutical purposes.
Abstract in English:Abstract The modern human has the most flexed cranial base among all living animals. The flexure allowed a larger cranial volume to accommodate a greater brain. Spheno-occipitalis synchondrosis (SOS) has been largely responsible for cranial base flexion, between the sphenoid and the Pars basilaris of the occipital bone. The objective of this work is to evaluate the real place of skull base flexure. Analysis based on 50 magnetic resonance imaging from normal adult subjects were used to evaluate normal place for cranial base angulation (CBA). The vertex of the cranial base angle in all individuals occurred intrinsically in the sphenoid bone. In humans, cranial base flexure had a specific pre-chordal origin, rather than in the transition between pre-chordal and chordal plates and occurred in the inner sphenoidal bone.
Abstract in English:Abstract The therapeutic effects from Citrus reticulata on painful inflammatory ailments are associated to its flavonoids constituent and phytochemical studies with Citrus genus affirm that the peels have important amounts of it. These bioactive compounds have been a considerable therapeutic source and evaluate potential application of the peel extract is significant. This research aims to investigate the influence of ethanolic crude extract from the peels of Citrus reticulata and its possible mechanism of action in different animal models of pain. The extract reduced hyperalgesia in the second phase of formalin test (vehicle: 501.5 ± 40.0 s; C. reticulata extract 300 mg/kg: 161.8 ± 41.1 s), in the carrageenan model (vehicle at 4th h: 82.5 ± 9.6 %; C. reticulata extract 300 mg/kg at 4th h: 47.5 ± 6.5 %) and in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant model (vehicle: 501.5 ± 40.0 s; C. reticulata extract 300 mg/kg: 161.8 ± 41.1 s). The possible contribution of opioidergic and adenosinergic systems in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of C. reticulata extract was observed after treatment, with non-selective antagonists for both systems, which produced reversal effects. In conclusion, these properties of C. reticulata extract suggest a potential therapeutic benefit in treating painful conditions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Risk factors can lead to clinical conditions, like metabolic syndrome, that predisposes the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and which risk factors cause more impact in metabolic syndrome in patients with established atherosclerosis disease. A cross-sectional study was performed as a subanalysis of Programa Alimentação Cardioprotetora Brasileira. Weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose were collected. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized criteria. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between number of components of metabolic syndrome and risk factors. 82 patients were included and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 84.1%. Being overweight was associated with an increase by 0.55 point in diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome in crude analysis (95%CI 0.09-1.00) and 0.64 in adjusted analysis (95%CI 0.18-1.09), while former/current smoker status was responsible for raising by 0.48 the number of components of metabolic syndrome, only in adjusted analysis (95%CI 0.04-0.92). Overweight and former/current smoker status are associated with MS, increasing the probability of atherosclerotic events. A healthy lifestyle, that includes avoiding tobacco exposure and proper weight control, must be encouraged in this high-risk population.
Abstract in English:Abstract Zika virus appeared in South America in 2015, generating alarm worldwide as it causes microcephaly and autoimmunity. This study aims to determine the serological footprint of the incoming epidemic in a student community and to characterize the memory functional cell response during post convalescence. In a cross-sectional study, Zika-specific IgG using LIA immunoassay was found in 328 university students (CI=95%), while in the second phase, the functional cellular memory response for IFN-γ and IL-2 was quantified using post-stimulus ELISpot with inactivated virus, starting with individuals seropositive for Zika and control individuals (seropositive only for Dengue and seronegative for Zika-Dengue). Depending on the antigen used, memory humoral response (IgG) against Zika Virus was observed in >60% of the population; seropositivity for NS1 was 21.1% higher than E antigen with high intensity. The analysis of cell functionality in 22 individuals seropositive for Zika virus revealed either IFN-γ+ or IL-2+ cells in 86.3% of cases (Th1 profile), presenting multifunctionality in 50% (11 individuals), 64% of which presented> 6 SFC/104 PBMCs (>600 SFC/106 PBMC), reflecting memory circulating cells. A good agreement (Kappa= 0.754) was observed between the coexistence of both cellular and humoral responses but not in their intensity.
Abstract in English:Abstract Herbal-flavonoids (HF) as polyphenolic secondary metabolites are taken in the daily diet to join in many metabolic processes in the human organism. Anti-proliferative activities and human serum albumin (HSA) binding capacities of herbal-flavonoids namely 7,5’-dimethoxyisoetin (HF1), homoorientin-6’’-4-O-methyl-myo-inositol (HF2), (2R, 3R)-(+)-dihydrokaempferol-7,4’-dimethylether (HF3), eriodictyol-7,4’-dimethylether (HF4) and flavonoids isoorientin (HF5) and genkwanin (HF6) were investigated. Anti-proliferative activities were determined by the xCELLigence system by treatment with human prostate (PC3) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. The binding capacities were studied by two-dimensional (2D-FL) and three-dimensional (3D-FL) fluorescence spectroscopy. HeLa and PC3 cell lines were treated with flavonoids at 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL concentrations over a 48 hour period. Stable anti-proliferative efficacy plots were obtained for tested flavonoids. From the flavonoids, HF3 and HF4 showed the strongest anti-proliferative effect against PC3 and HeLa cell line. HF1 and HF2 exhibited the strongest binding capacity to the HSA corresponding to Kb values of 3.81 x 104 M-1 and 6.00 x 104 M-1, respectively. The studies revealed that the flavonoids form the basis of in vivo preclinical studies as important nutraceuticals of the daily diet, as well as modelled in medical and pharmacological applications.
Abstract in English:Abstract Ayurveda oil contains numerous source of biological constituents which plays an important role in reducing the pain relief caused during bone fracture. The aim of the study is to fabricate the polyurethane (PU) scaffold for bone tissue engineering added with ayurveda amla oil using electrospinning technique. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the fabricated nanocomposites showed reduced fiber diameter (758 ± 185.46 nm) than the pristine PU (890 ± 116.91 nm). Fourier Infrared Analysis (FTIR) revealed the existence of amla oil in the PU matrix by hydrogen bond formation. The contact angle results revealed the decreased wettability (116° ± 1.528) of the prepared nanocomposites compared to the pure PU (100° ± 0.5774). The incorporation of amla oil into the PU matrix improved the surface roughness. Further, the coagulation assay indicated that the addition of amla oil into PU delayed the blood clotting times and exhibited less toxic to red blood cells. Hence, the fabricated nanocomposites showed enhanced physicochemical and better blood compatibility parameters which may serve as a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering.
Abstract in English:Abstract: The Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) was employed to simulate transient one-dimensional flow in variably saturated porous media, as well as radioactive waste transport within different layers (a solid waste pile, nearby soil, and a granular aquifer) towards the edge of a uranium mining installation under institutional control. Computational codes, written using the Mathematica software system, were implemented and tested for solution of the coupled advection-dispersion equations for an arbitrary number of daughter products within a radioactive chain migrating in saturated and unsaturated soil layers. The computer simulations were verified in great detail against results obtained using the built-in routine NDSolve of the Mathematica platform and the HYDRUS-1D software system. The present work reports the main results for 238U chain radionuclide transport using data extracted from a safety assessment of solid waste repositories at a uranium mining and milling installation in Caetité, state of Bahia, Brazil, operated by INB (Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil). Concentration evolutions of the various radionuclides obtained with the simulations were analyzed for five different cases to explore variations in the infiltration and recharge rates, the effect of assuming physical equilibrium or non-equilibrium transport conditions, and of different initial concentrations of some of the radionuclides.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to verify the dynamics of milk production in Southern Brazil, analyzing the spatial distribution, evolution and structure of bovine milk production systems in the dairy-specialized microregions. To this end, annual data from 2000 to 2015 are drawn from the Municipal Livestock Survey, reported by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, and the Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar, reported by the Banco Central do Brasil. Location quotient analyses, principal component analyses and clustering analyses are applied. Results of the location quotient analysis indicate that, of the 94 microregions in Southern Brazil, 36 are specialized in milk production. Two principal components were identified (mechanized production and family production) capable of explaining 78.3% of the variation in the data. Among microregions specialized in milk production, cluster analysis identifies four groups that are differentiated by productivity levels and predominance of family versus commercial production. Furthermore, results reveal that there is substantial heterogeneity among microregions specialized in bovine milk production in Southern Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aims to examine the development of Indonesian micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in utilizing the internet for their businesses. This is a descriptive study in nature, which analyses secondary data on MSMEs. It also reviews key literature on the use of ICT by MSMEs in developing countries. It shows that MSMEs, dominated by MSEs, have been the main player in Indonesian domestic economic activities as they accounted for more than 90 per cent of all firms and contributed to more than 50 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). But, only a small fraction of total MSEs in Indonesia that utilize the internet for business, and the intensity of internet usage by MSEs varies by province and type of business. This is the first macro-level study ever conducted in Indonesia on the use of internet by MSEs based on national data from 2016 Economic Census conducted. Thus, findings of this study may add new empirical evidence to the literature on the utilization of ICT by MSMEs in developing countries.
Abstract in English:Abstract Some researchers point out the decline in contemporary cities of the use of public spaces, whether free or restricted access. In this sense, the present essay proposes a reflection on a “public sphere of organized presence”, according to Habermas classification, as a rescue of the importance of this space for the exercise of citizenship and social-environmental responsibility. The reflection was based on the results obtained from a study in the district of Riacho Grande, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil, in which the environmental perception of the participants of the meetings about the region was known by documentary analysis, direct observation and interviews with questionnaires. It was possible to verify that this public space can facilitate a greater integration between the public administrators and citizens, helping even in the defense to the environment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Science museums are powerful places not only for science communication, informal science teaching, and leisure but also for promoting science and technology in an equitable, diverse, and inclusive mode. The paper presents an overview of accessibility in Latin American science museums and centers, based on a questionnaire comprised of open and closed questions in Portuguese and Spanish. The answers received from directors and other personnel responsible for 109 institutions in twelve countries were analyzed using an accessibility indicator tool. The findings suggest that these institutions generally offer some physical accessibility resources and fewer communicational and attitudinal accessibility resources. Data also show that there is an absence of institutional practices that might underpin any endeavor to take into consideration the inclusion of people with disabilities. More funding must be made available for practices and research in this area. We also recommend that persons with disabilities play a greater role as protagonists and professionals and likewise as a research public in the realm of science communication and at the region’s science museums and centers.
Abstract in English:Abstract To assist Ecuadorian chia seed producers in their quest for internationalisation. This article uses a case study to present a methodology which assists in the selection of the most suitable export market for a product. It is based on a diverse range of indicators grouped into 7 dimensions that were used to analyse the 27 member countries of the European Union in order to determine the most suitable export market for chia seeds from Ecuador. Germany is the biggest European importer of chia seeds with a 55% share, followed by the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Spain. It presents a methodology for market selection that can be employed as a tool for international expansion which can easily be used by companies in search of the most suitable export market for their products.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper analyses the Tourism Wellbeing Scale, a new measure in the tourism sector built from Positive Psychology variables: wellbeing, creativity, optimism, and spirituality. It empathizes the importance of multidisciplinary work and thus it focuses on a psychological approach to understand wellbeing in tourism. The empirical research used Exploratory Factor Analysis (n=429) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (n=428). Reliability through Cronbach’ Alpha was .874 and evidence of convergent validity was found with the Creative personality scale-short form, Global wellbeing scale, optimism scale, and spirituality scale. A final 8-item structure, with a one-factor solution and confirmatory analysis with: a) Normed Chi-squared (χ2/df) =1.076; b) Root Mean Square Residual (RMR) =.041; c) Goodness of Fit (GFI) =.992; d) Adjusted Goodness of Fit (AGFI) =.977; e) Comparative Fit Index (CFI) =.999; and f) the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) =.013 was obtained. Overall, this instrument has an adequate goodness-of-fit and acceptable psychometric quality to be used in the field. This study is an innovation in bringing a new instrument to the field based on psychological principles with the potential to help stakeholders in the development of new marketing products where wellbeing can be a major turn-point for the tourism industry.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Brazilian Congress of Soil Science (Congresso Brasileiro de Ciência do Solo - CBCS) is the oldest soil science event in South America. The CBCS had 29,643 participants and 23,621 publications in 30 thematic areas between 1947 and 2017. There were only five editions of the CBCS (1947-1979) in which Soil Fertility did not produce the highest number of papers. Standardization of Soil Study Methods and Representation/Soil Teaching was the most prolific in one year, and Soil Genesis, Morphology, and Cartography produced the most papers in the other four years. Subsequently, the area renamed as Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition had the highest number of papers. By grouping papers into the scientific divisions of the Brazilian Society of Soil Science (Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo - SBCS), we verify that the division of Soil Use and Management had the most papers in most congresses. In 2017, the number of papers and the number of male researchers in the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development were associated for each thematic area. The trends in CBCS publications were influenced by the natural and historic-economic characteristics of the country, in addition to changes that occurred in SBCS, universities, research institutes, and legislation.