Abstract in English:Abstract The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019 recognized the importance of Li-ion batteries and the revolution they allowed to happen during the past three decades. They are part of a broader class of electrochemical energy storage devices, which are employed where electrical energy is needed on demand and so, the electrochemical energy is converted into electrical energy as required by the application. This opens a variety of possibilities on the utilization of energy storage devices, beyond the well-known mobile applications, assisting on the decarbonization of energy production and distribution. In this series of reviews in two parts, two main types of energy storage devices will be explored: electrochemical capacitors (part I) and rechargeable batteries (part II). More specifically, we will discuss about the materials used in each type of device, their main role in the energy storage process, their advantages and drawbacks and, especially, strategies to improve their performance. In the present part, electrochemical capacitors will be addressed. Their fundamental difference to batteries is explained considering the process at the electrode/electrolyte surface and the impact in performance. Materials used in electrochemical capacitors, including double layer capacitors and pseudocapacitive materials will be reviewed, highlighting the importance of electrolytes. As an important part of these strategies, synthetic routes for the production of nanoparticles will also be approached (part I).
Abstract in English:Abstract In the second part of the review on electrochemical energy storage, the devolvement of batteries is explored. First, fundamental aspects of battery operation will be given, then, different materials and chemistry of rechargeable batteries will be explored, including each component of the cell. In negative electrodes, metallic, intercalation and transformation materials will be addressed. Examples are Li or Na metal batteries, graphite and other carbonaceous materials (such as graphene) for intercalation of metal-ions and transition metal oxides and silicon for transformation. In the positive electrode section, materials for intercalation and transformation will be reviewed. The state-of-the-art on intercalation as lithium cobalt oxide and nickel containing oxides will be approached for intercalation materials, whereas sulfur and metal-air will also be explored for transformation. Alongside, the role of electrolyte will be discussed concerning performance and safety, with examples for the next generation devices. Finally, a general future perspective will address both electrochemical capacitors and batteries.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province is associated with the distensive tectonics that caused the rupture of the Gondwana continent during the Lower Cretaceous and generated an intense volcanism that covers South America and the NW portion of Namibia in Africa. In Brazil, this volcanic sequence is named Serra Geral Group and predominantly consists of basalts and subordinated silicic rocks. The goal of this study is to characterize the geomorphological features observed in the Aparados da Serra region, southern Brazil, and to evaluate the relationship between these structures and the primary silicic volcanic structures. The geomorphological features were first identified using remote sensing and then correlated with flow structures observed in the field, as well as petrographic and geochemical data. AMS data were used to determine magnetic patterns and the direction of magmatic flow of the rocks. Despite the low degree of anisotropy, clear patterns of lineation and foliation were identified in the studied rocks. Our data shows that Units I and II correspond to silicic lava flows linked to effusive fissure eruptions, presenting a dome morphology caused by differential erosion. Unit III rocks may correspond to true volcanic domes, whereas the Unit IV corresponds to the effusive feeder structures.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Midwest region of Brazil has a high concentration of land and is the primary producer of grains and livestock in the country, activities with a negative impact on environment. Agrarian reform allows redistribution of land and reinforces family agriculture, which is considered to be favorable to environmental protection. The aim of this study was to use field and remote observations to verify the evolution of environmental preservation and land use in rural settlements in the Midwest region of Brazil. 54 settlements distributed in the region were analyzed. We used images from Landsat 5 satellite obtained by the Thematic Mapper sensor in 2004 and images from Landsat 8 satellite from 2014. The NDVI and NDWI vegetation indexes were used to classify urban, agricultural, pasture, savannah and forest areas. Forests declined in all states, however Mato Grosso, the only one with Amazonian forest, where settlements presented lowest compliance with environmental legislation. The evolution indicates the transformation of forest areas into savannah. Settlers predominantly engage in dairy farming, which requires large areas of land and thus exerts significant pressure on the environment. Productive areas are poorly exploited, and better technical assistance could have a significant impact on environmental protection.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study reported the effect of natural and anthropic environmental variables on the fish assemblages in the pampean streams, in the coastal strip along the Río de la Plata, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Five streams were sampled at 12 sites surrounded by land devoted to different uses. A correspondence analysis sorted the streams into two groups: a less impacted group formed by sites surrounded by livestock- raising pastures and a more impacted one passing through urban sites and including a stream adjacent to a modest rural urbanization with a dairy in the stream’s basin. The nutrient concentrations were significantly higher in the more impacted group; with species richness, diversity, abundance, and biomass being significantly lower. A canonical-correspondence analysis linked the more impacted sites to high concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus and impoverished fish assemblages, composed of species tolerant to environmental pollution. On the other hand, sites with higher oxygen concentrations and pH were related to richer assemblages pointing to good environmental conditions at the sites surrounded by livestock-raising pastures. The downstream sites on the less impacted streams contained fish assemblages in which the juvenile stages of species corresponding to the Río de la Plata were dominant.
Abstract in English:Abstract The knowledge of the frequency and magnitude of low flow events is necessary to mitigate social, economic and ecological impacts inside the basin. However, the measurement network in Brazil is still restricted to large drainage areas, while basins with less than 300 km2 remain ungauged. Among different flow estimation methods, we used a rainfall-runoff model designed specifically to estimate flow rates during the dry season in small ungauged basins: the Silveira Method (SM). We tested the model performance for the São Bartolomeu river basin (Minas Gerais, Brazil), a small ungauged basin that experienced severe droughts and water supply shortages in 2014-2016. We tested eleven different scenarios based on the time and duration of drought periods used to estimate the model parameters. In the best scenario, the model underestimated low flow rates by 31% for Q95 and was considered suitable to predict local low flow. Finally, the model results suggest that a water volume higher than the river can support has been granted concession during the dry season, which may lead to an unsustainable water supply scenario soon. This result showed the capacity of SM as a complementary tool for the evaluation of water potential in small basins.
Abstract in English:Abstract This research was implemented in the Colombian Amazon forest area; to assess the effect of Tween-80® surfactant in the degradation of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in bioremediation treatments under aerobic conditions in the laboratory and pilot-scale. One control treatment, Natural Attenuation (AT) and four biostimulation treatments with leonardite with four different dosages of Tween-80® were proposed. The efficacy of organic stimulators and nonionic surfactant in soil microbiota was studied at laboratory and pilot scales, the latter in a passive aeration reactor. The test that presented a better performance was carried out with a Convective Flow Reactor (CFR) at pilot-scale. The results showed that bioremediation strategies improved the natural degradation process; the best outcomes were obtained in a treatment that includes Leonardite and Tween-80® (1.5 g/L) with 52% TPH degradation in 80 days (d).Tween-80® produced an effect in TPH solubility, and increased the production of CO2 in distinctive bioremediation treatments in both periods. The kinetics of CO2 production showed that the system required a periodic addition of a co-substrate as well as an increase of soil microbiota through the addition of compost (pilot scale). In this stage more than 76% of contaminant was degraded in 60d.
Abstract in English:Abstract Extreme climatic events and their hazards have strong impact on society. Urban areas in Brazil are especially vulnerable to the impact of such events due to their rapid growth and inappropriate infrastructure. Viçosa is a mid-sized city in Southeastern Brazil that has been experiencing issues associated with urban expansion and population growth since the 1960s. Thus, this study aims to identify patterns of extreme climate events in Viçosa based on daily temperature and precipitation time series (1968-2017). Homogeneity tests were carried out in order to identify breaking points in these climate variables. Climate trends were analyzed through Mann-Kendall test and their magnitude was checked based on Sen’s slope. Results have evidenced statistically significant and increasing trends in annual minimum temperature since the 1990s. Moreover, statistically significant breaking points in extreme temperature indices have shown increasing number of warm days, and decreasing number of cold nights, in both annual and seasonal analyses. Extreme climatic events have been observed more often in recent years, mainly in the number of consecutive dry days and maximum and heavy precipitation days. Based on results, Viçosa experiences warmer conditions throughout the year, whereas more (less) torrential rainfall events have been occurring during Summer (Winter).
Abstract in English:Abstract The Chapada das Mesas National Park is a federal reserve located in the State of Maranhão, in an ecotonal region of the Brazilian Northeast Cerrado. Aiming to assess the influence of biogeographic patterns and support restoration actions for regions where information is scarce, we analyzed the floristic composition of savanna and forest Cerrado physiognomies, the floristic relationships with other Brazilian Cerrado areas and investigated the floristic relationships between the Cerrado and the Amazon, and the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes. A total of 242 species in 181 genera and 64 families are recorded in our study. Fabaceae was the most representative family. We report 50 new records of species for Maranhão, four new records for the Cerrado biome and one vulnerable species. The separation of the gallery forest from cerradão and typical cerrado by ordination shows the influence of water availability and soil characteristics on floristic composition. In Cerrado ecotonal regions, such as Mato Grosso and Maranhão, the presence of species shared with the Amazon is expressive. In addition to the Amazon, physiognomies had greater floristic connection with the Caatinga flora. Our data demonstrates that the marginal areas of the Brazilian Cerrado may present high species diversity.
Abstract in English:Abstract Benthic macroinvertebrates are organisms that are recognized as water quality bio-indicators. A wide variety of indices and metrics have been shown to respond to a variety of anthropogenic impacts, usually under a general condition of environmental impairment. The absence of a clear distinction in the relations between specific pollutants and biotic variables is very common and can lead to biased interpretation of biomonitoring. The aims of this research were to test taxonomic and non-taxonomic responses to specific environmental conditions instead to general conditions. For this purpose, we estimated the theoretical toxicity by comparing toxicity values published by EPA with metal concentrations in water and sediments. Then we tested the responses of biological variables to toxicity and other environmental conditions using the linear mixed effects models approach. We generated 32 models considering 24 different biological metrics and indices that were grouped in five levels. Taxonomic and abundance metrics were best predictor than functional or tolerance-based indexes. The strongest model was that which considered subfamily taxonomic resolution responding to Al_w and Cr_s.
Abstract in English:Abstract The pichi (Zaedyus pichiy; Cingulata: Chlamyphoridae) is an armadillo whose ectoparasite fauna is composed of ticks and fleas. Fleas were collected from 218 pichis in southern Mendoza, Argentina, in summer and winter of 2015 and 2016. Prevalences were analyzed and differences in the intensities of the total number of fleas related to host (age, sex, weight, size and physical condition) and environment-related (seasonality and year) factors evaluated. Phthiropsylla agenoris was the only species found. Intensities of fleas were higher in 2015, in juveniles, and in males. Individuals with poor physical condition were more parasitized than those with good or normal body condition. The main explanatory variable was sampling year. This factor was directly associated with precipitation. The extreme conditions and heavy rains during the El Niño event in 2015/2016 led to environmental changes that seem to have severely affected the life cycle of fleas.
Abstract in English:Abstract Two dimensions of the ecological niche (diet and habitat) of a snake assemblage from an endemic rich area in east-central Argentina, the Sierras de Ventania mountain chain, were analyzed. Field data collection was performed in 15-week study periods between 2010 and 2014. Snakes were hand-captured using transect surveys. Field observations on diet were analyzed together with stomach content data from museum specimens. Our results supported the partitioning of the snake assemblage by both habitat use and diet into at least three functional groups: species restricted to microhabitats under rocks and with a diet composed exclusively of ants (Epictia australis); species found mostly in stream microhabitats and feeding mainly upon anurans (Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus and Lygophis elegantissimus); and species found mostly in grassland microhabitats, with specialized diets of terrestrial prey items (Philodryas patagoniensis and Bothrops alternatus). Consistent with previous work, diet was more important than habitat in explaining ecological niche partitioning of this snake assemblage. Our results showed that high overlap values of microhabitat use were compensated by low overlap values of the trophic niche dimension, thus matching the traditional complementary niches hypothesis.
Abstract in English:Abstract The climate change projections for the Caatinga biome this century are for an increase in temperature and reduction in rainfall, leading to aridization and plant cover dominated by Cactaceae. The objective of this study was to model the potential distribution of Epiphyllum phyllanthus (L.) Haw., a cactus that is native to the Caatinga biome, considering two possible future climate scenarios, to assess this species’ spatio-temporal response to these climate change, and thus to evaluate the need or not for conservation measures. For this purpose, we obtained biogeographic information on the target species from biodiversity databases, choosing nine environmental variables and applying the MaxEnt algorithm. We considered the time intervals 2041-2060 and 2061-2080, centered on 2050 and 2070, respectively, and the greenhouse gas scenarios RCP4.5 and 8.5. For all the scenarios considered, the models generated for 2050 and 2070 projected drastic contraction (greater than 80%) for the areas of potential occurrence of the species in relation to the present potential. The remaining areas were found to be concentrated in the northern portion of the biome, specifically in the northern part of the state of Ceará, which has particular characteristics.
Abstract in English:Abstract Eimeriosis is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Eimeria and infection affecting most domestic animal species. The aim of this research was to comprehend the impact of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) on eimeriosis induced by Eimeria papillata in mouse jejunum, and how they work as antioxidants and anti-apoptotic agents against eimeriosis. The numbers of meronts, gamonts, and developing oocysts of E. papillata reduced after the infected mice were treated with the SeNPs. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and other oxidative stress-related molecules, such as glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were assayed. E. papillata was able to change the redox status of the jejunal cells; this was confirmed by the elevation of the MDA and NO levels, and the decrease of the GSH levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD. SeNP treatment significantly reversed this disturbance of the redox status. The expression levels of the apoptotic markers Bax and caspase-3 in the jejunal samples were evaluated using qRT-PCR. The SeNPs decreased the Bax and caspase-3 expression after being administered to the E. papillata-infected mice. Collectively, the SeNPs demonstrated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities against murine eimeriosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Oceanographic features influence the early stages of fish to a high degree. We investigated the influence of continental shelf-slope gradient on the ichthyoplankton composition and distribution off Northeastern Brazil. Two oceanographic campaigns were performed during July-August 2010 and 2012. The samplings were performed along three transects composed by three stations, covering the continental shelf and slope areas. Abiotic data were obtained by an ADCP and a CTD. The ichthyoplankton was sampled through diurnal and nocturnal hauls using a 500-µm bongo net from 200 m to the surface. A total of 1634 larvae and 4023 eggs, representing 91 genera and 76 species, were collected. Higher concentrations of fish eggs were found on the continental shelf, probably because of the North Brazil Undercurrent flux. Higher concentrations of larvae were found at night and could be associated with net avoidance or natural variation. Neritic, oceanic and transition groups of species association were determined. Larvae of neritic, demersal and pelagic fishes prevailed on the continental shelf, while larvae of oceanic, mesopelagic and bathypelagic fishes on the continental slope. Melanostomiidae, Scorpaena sp., Lestidium atlanticum, Lampadena sp. and Diaphus sp. were identified as indicators of the continental slope.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study describes the community diversity and gives a seasonal distribution of an intertidal macroalgal assemblage at Prainha Beach, Arraial do Cabo City in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Sampling was performed during four seasons of a 1-year period. Organisms were sampled and photographed using photoquadrats to quantify relative coverage. Ninety-six taxa of macroalgae were registered, including 23 chlorophytes, 19 ochrophytes, and 54 rhodophytes, while three barnacles, seven mollusks, one isopod, and one polychaete were recorded among the zoobenthos. In the upper intertidal zone, the coverage was frequently dominated by invertebrates. Macroalgae always dominated the middle and lower zones, covering almost 100 % in both zones. The highest values of species diversity (H’), richness (S), and turnover rates were found during the transition from spring to summer, which coincided with the upwelling period. A comparison with the 1980’s flora revealed that the major changes in the macroalgal assemblage were among species belonging to the same genera, unless new additions were provided. The combination of photoquadrats and minimally destructive sampling allowed a detailed description of the composition and structural characteristics of the intertidal zone, a methodology that should be applied to study protected marine areas.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present work evaluated the ecological risk of glyphosate by its commercial formulation (Roundup Original®) used to control floating aquatic macrophytes. Exposure analysis and ecological effects were performed from microcosm studies. The risk characterization was performed based on the calculation of the risk quotient. The commercial formulation of glyphosate had high toxicity when it was assessed separately. On the other hand, ecotoxicological evaluation of water samples from microcosms did not present toxicity to any tested organisms, however, glyphosate application is recommended exclusively to water bodies that have the surface completely covered by macrophytes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Eighty-one Hoplias malabaricus specimens were collected between February 2014 and June 2016. A total of 29 species of metazoan parasites were found, 13 of which were identified as monogeneans, seven were digenean species, seven of which were nematodes, and two of which were from the subclass Hirudinea. The highest prevalence values were presented by Contracaecum sp. and Tylodelphys sp. The highest mean abundance and mean intensity was recorded by Tylodelphys sp.; the values were 36.7 ± 61.8 and 55.65 ± 69.1, respectively. The abundance of the monogenean Urocleidoides cuiabai was found to be positively correlated with host weight. The abundance of Bucephalidae gen. sp. exhibited significant positive correlations with host weight and length. For Contracaecum sp., a significant negative correlation was found between its abundance and host length and weight. No significant differences between the diversity indexes (Margalef, Pielou and Shannon) of the parasites collected in the two points were found. The Sorensen similarity index, with a value of 0.82 between the two sampling points revealed that the parasitic diversity between them is similar. The findings from this study represent new records of occurrence of H. malabaricus, as well as of Urocleidoides margolisi, Scleroductus sp. and Helobdella sp.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study describes the histological characteristics and distribution of gastrointestinal tract endocrine cells (ECs) of Prochilodus lineatus (detritivorous fish) using immunohistochemical procedures. The digestive tract of P. lineatus was divided into seven portions: stomach (cardial and pyloric), pyloric caeca, and intestine (anterior, glandular, middle and posterior). A pool of specific antisera against cholecystokinin (CCK-8), -neuropeptide Y (NPY), -ghrelin (Ghre) and -leu-enkephalin (Leu-ENK) to identify ECs were used. According to the morphological characteristics of ECs, two different types were identified and classified as open or closed-type. The number of ECs varied throughout the gastrointestinal tract, though a high abundance was found in the anterior intestine and pyloric caeca. A large number of ECs immunoreactive to CCK-8 and NPY were recorded in the anterior, glandular and middle intestine. ECs immunopositive to Leu-ENK were distributed in the stomach and pyloric caeca. For Ghre, immunopositive ECs were restricted to the glandular intestine. The results of the present study indicate that P. lineatus presents an ECs distribution pattern with species-specific particularities. However, CCK showed a distribution similar to that of omnivores, which is possibly related to local signaling functions in order to achieve the correct digestion of the various organisms found in the detritus.
Abstract in English:Abstract Abstract: We studied the multiunit responses to moving and static stimuli from 585 cell clusters in area MT using multi-electrode arrays. Our aim was to explore if MT columns exhibit any larger-scale tangential organization or clustering based on their response properties. Neurons showing both motion and orientation selectivity were classified into four categories: 1- Type I (orientation selectivity orthogonal to the axis of motion); 2- Type II (orientation selectivity coaxial to the axis of motion); 3- Type DS (significant response to moving stimuli, but non-significant response to static stimuli); and 4- Type OS (significant orientation selectivity, but non-significant direction selectivity). Type I (34%), Type II (24%) and Type DS (32%) clusters were the most predominant and may be associated with different stages of motion processing in MT. On the other hand, the rarer Type OS (9%) may be integrating motion and form processing. Type I and unidirectional sites were the only classes to exhibit significant clustering. Type OS sites showed a trend for clustering, which did not reach statistical significance. We also found a trend for unidirectional sites to have bidirectional sites as neighbors. In conclusion, neuronal clustering associated with these four categories may be related to distinct MT functional circuits.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hedychium coronarium J. Koening, belonging to Zingiberaceae family, is a perennial herb with fleshly aromatic rhizomes. There are no information about the antiplatelet properties of essential oils (EOs) from rhizomes (HCR) and leaves (HCL) of this herb, additionally, there are reports about the antibacterial activity of the Zingiberaceae species, however, no studies have been carried out in the Colombian Amazon Region. The EOs were characterized by GC-MS, the antiaggregant activity was assessed by ADP and Collagen as platelet agonist and the antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and S. aureus were evidenced by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). A high content of oxygenated monoterpenes were found in HCL essential oil (EO) and 20 compounds were identified in HCR EO. The HCL EO showed antiaggregant activity when collagen was used and HCR EO showed a concentration-dependent activity against ADP and collagen, meanwhile only the HCR EO showed antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and S. aureus.
Abstract in English:Abstract Abstract: Trichiurus lepturus (Actinopterygii, Perciformes) is a commercially and economically important fish. A total of 60 specimens of this cutlassfish were collected of the coast the municipalities of Niterói and Cabo Frio, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fish were measured, necropsied, filleted and had their organs investigated for digenetic trematodes. Taxonomic identification was based on morphological and morphometric characters. The specimens of T. lepturus were parasitized with adult specimens of Lecithochirium monticellii. Parasite indices of prevalence, intensity, mean intensity, abundance, mean abundance, range of infection, and site of infection of parasitic species were evaluated. Notes on the taxonomy of the parasite were also included. This is the first report of L. monticellii parasitizing T. lepturus in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study was designed to investigate the potential defensive strategy of Sana Makki extract (SME) against Cd-induced in vivo nephrotoxicity and its underlying mechanisms. Male albino rats were used in a thirty days study comparing control, SME-treated, CdCl2-treated, and combined SME and Cd treatment. Pre-treatment with SME significantly reduced serum kidney biomarkers (urea and creatinine), the concentration of renal KIM-1, and kidney index values. Additionally, SME also attenuated CdCl2-induced oxidative and nitrosative stress in renal tissue; significantly reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations and significantly increasing antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissue. Molecularly, SME significantly upregulated antioxidant gene expression (SOD2, GR, GPx1, and CAT) caused by Cd. Notably, the augmented mRNA expression of nuclear-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by Cd was enhanced by SME administration. SME markedly suppressed the Cd-induced rise in pro-inflammatory cytokines. The combination of Cd and SME relieved the Cd-induced apoptotic damage by enhancing Bcl2 and suppressing Bax and Cas-3 levels in renal tissue. The renal tissue histoarchitecture confirmed the biochemical and molecular findings. Collectively, our data indicate that SME can counteract Cd-induced renal intoxication through anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.
Abstract in English:Abstract The current study focuses on the evaluation of culture parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam flour by Candida homilentoma strains. A 2-factor-5-level CCRD was used to evaluate the effect of pH and temperature on the hydrolysis process. For the S-47 strain, pH and both studied parameters were significant at 48 h and 96 h, respectively. Regarding S-81 strain, temperature was the only factor affecting the process, at 96 hours. The regression models were significant, and no lack of fit was observed for them.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cosmocercoides latrans n. sp. (Cosmocercidae) from the small intestine of Leptodactylus latrans (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Northeastern Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina is described. The new species can be distinguished from their congeners by a combination of the characters, among which stands out the number of rosette papillae, the lack of gubernaculum and the presence of lateral alae in both sexes. There are over 20 species in the genus Cosmocercoides, and Cosmocercoides latrans n. sp. represents the third species from the Neotropical realm and the second for Argentina. Additionally, seven previously known taxa are reported; Pseudoacanthocephalus cf. lutzi, Catadiscus uruguayensis, Rauschiella palmipedis, Aplectana hylambatis, Cosmocerca parva, Schrankiana sp. and Rhabdias elegans; providing literature records and information on distribution and host-parasite relationships.
Abstract in English:Abstract We address and discuss some of the many flaws exhibited by Costa et al. (2019) which tried to explain the twig-like camouflage of Cladomorphus phyllinus. Given the lack of both empirical and theoretical underpinnings in Costa et al. (2019), we call into question the validity of their conclusions, in particular, that horizontal gene transfer is a causal mechanism for the camouflage in C. phyllinus.
Abstract in English:Abstract Colebrookea oppositifolia is a highly used medicinal plant and an enriched source of essential oils. Therefore, the present study was designed with the aim to extract the chemical constituents and to evaluate its antioxidant potential. Fresh plant parts were subjected to the extraction of volatile chemical constituents by maceration using n-hexane as the menstruum. The resulting n-hexane fractions were purified and then subjected to GC-MS and FTIR analysis. In-vitro antioxidant abilities were evaluated by, DPPH, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) method against the standard solutions of (Gallic acid, Quercetin) as a positive control. The GC-MS analysis of leaves, stem and inflorescence showed a total of 100, 98 and 48 components out of which 47, 16 and 17 peaks were identified representing the 67.64 %, 73.16 % and 61.93 % of the total oily fractions, respectively. The FTIR spectrum indicated the presence of various functional groups. In-vitro antioxidant results exhibited that leaves showed the highest antioxidant potential by DPPH (3.365 ± 0.002), and the highest total phenolic content by FC method (203.00 ± 0.091). Foliar micromorphological features were found significant in the authentication of C. oppositifolia. Further pharmacognostic studies of this plant are recommended to evaluate its therapeutic potential.
Abstract in English:Abstract Blood samples from 330 lizards of 19 species were collected to investigate the occurrence of haemoparasites. Samplings were performed in areas of upland (terra-firme) forest adjacent to Manaus municipality, Amazonas, Brazil. Blood parasites were detected in 220 (66%) lizards of 12 species and comprised four major groups: Apicomplexa (including haemogregarines, piroplasms, and haemosporidians), trypanosomatids, microfilarid nematodes and viral or bacterial organisms. Order Haemosporida had the highest prevalence, with 118 (35%) animals from 11 species. For lizard species, Uranoscodon superciliosus was the most parasitised host, with 103 (87%; n = 118) positive individuals. This species also presented the highest parasite diversity, with the occurrence of six taxa. Despite the difficulties attributed by many authors regarding the use of morphological characters for taxonomic resolution of haemoparasites, our low-cost approach using light microscopy recorded a high prevalence and diversity of blood parasite taxa in a relatively small number of host species. This report is the first survey of haemoparasites in lizards in the study region. It revealed a high diversity of lizard haemoparasites and highlights the need to understand their impacts on hosts.
Abstract in English:Abstract Solanaceae is one of the most diverse families in the Americas, particularly in Argentina where it represents the fourth family in terms of species number. Although checklists for most South American countries have been published, some are outdated and there has been no analysis of Solanaceae diversity at country level. We present an updated summary of Solanaceae diversity in South America, an analysis of its distribution in Argentina, and preliminary conservation assessments for all species endemic to Argentina. Regression analyses were used for evaluating the ratio between taxa/area and endemic/total species, multivariate ordering methods were used to analyze the relationships between Argentine ecoregions, and the IUCN criteria were applied for conservation assessments. Results show that Solanaceae comprises 1611 species in South America. The highest diversity is in Peru, which, together with Ecuador, possesses more diversity than expected for the area; Chile and Brazil have the greatest percentage of endemic species. In Argentina, the Chaco ecoregion hosts the highest number of taxa, but largest number of endemic species is found in the Monte ecoregion. According to the IUCN criteria, 28 endemic species from Argentina are considered threatened. We discuss South American countries and Argentine ecoregions in terms of conservation priorities.
Abstract in English:Abstract Arsenic (As), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) accumulations were evaluated in the gills, hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, and muscles of Pontastacus leptodactylus (crayfish) (Eschscholtz, 1823). The highest metal accumulation was observed in the gills and hepatopancreas. It was detected a negative correlation between Cr-Pb, As-Cr in the muscle tissue. All other metals were displayed positive correlations with each other in the gills, hepatopancreas, and exoskeleton. Strong positive correlations were determined between Ni-Cd and As-Pb in the gills, Ni-Cd, As-Pb and Al-Zn in the hepatopancreas, Zn-Mn and Fe-Cu in the exoskeleton, Ni-Cd, As-Pb, Zn-Mn, Al-Mn, Fe-Cu and Al-Zn in the muscle (r= 1.000). PCA and cluster analysis generally were supported the correlations observed. The correlations between divalent metals may be expressed by the role of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) in the gathering of these metals.
Abstract in English:Abstract The ethyl acetate, n hexane and methanol extracts of six cyanobacterial species isolated from paddy fields in Egypt were assessed for their antimicrobial activity, using disc diffusion method. Oscillatoria acuminata, Oscillatoria amphigranulata and Spirulina platensis methanolic extracts showed the highest inhibition zones. Minimum inhibitory concentration of O. amphigranulata extract recorded lower values using agar streak dilution method. O. acuminata methanolic extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (6.58 and 34.60 % using DPPH (2, 2- diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) methods, respectively, followed by O. amphigranulata then S. platensis. Similarly, O. acuminata methanolic extract showed very strong cytotoxicity activity against HepG2 and HCT-116 cell lines and strong activity with MCF-7 cell lines. O. amphigranulata extract showed strong cytotoxicity for HepG2 and HCT-116 as well as moderate cytotoxicity for MCF-7 cell line. Whereas, S. platensis extract exhibited moderate cytotoxicity for all cell lines. Results of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis pointed out that the potential activity of these cyanobacterial extracts might be attributed to a synergistic effect between their pronounced contents of fatty acids, alkaloids, phytol, hydrocarbons, phenolics and phthalates, especially fatty acids. We recommend cyanobacteria as a rich source of natural products with potent pharmacological and medical applications.
Abstract in English:Abstract Research on the past use of animals in medicine, particularly in Brazil, is still scarce. This work aimed to perform a dialogical analysis of information retrieved from historical documents composed in the nineteenth century about the therapeutic use of animal species in Benedictine monasteries in Brazil and their contemporary medicinal applications. Cross-referencing of seven written codices from the nineteenth century Benedictine monasteries infirmaries was performed for taxonomic identification and with therapeutic indications. Animal species provided 13 zootherapeutic resources, which were related to 17 therapeutic indications. Insects, birds and mammals concentrated the greatest number of pharmaceutical actions (37%, 32% and 16% of the therapeutic indications). Medicinal animals used in the past are species commonly applied in the European medicine over centuries. This reveals that the practiced medicine in Benedictine monasteries was influenced by medical concepts from Europe. Also, it shows that still today this European medicine is the basis of therapeutic practice. Such research is essential for a better scientific understanding of the history of medicine, focusing on how different cultures have contributed to the actual therapeutic practice. In this way it is possible to trace a history zootherapy in Brazil, demonstrating the persistence of their use over the time.
Abstract in English:Abstract We surveyed 58 scientific articles published between 1987 and 2018 to evaluate the representative nature of the Fabaceae as hosts of insect galls in Brazil, and to gain a better understanding of the interactions between gall-inducing insects and plants and the evolutionary ecology of those insects and their plant hosts. A total of 438 gall morphotypes were reported as being generated by gall-inducing insects on 178 Fabaceae host species belonging to five subfamilies Caesalpinioideae (22 genera and 79 spp.), Cercidoideae (1 genus and 11 spp.), Detarioideae (6 genera and 17 spp.), Dialioideae (2 genera and 2 spp.), and Papilionoideae (26 genera and 69 spp.). The plant host genera demonstrating the greatest richness of gall-inducing insects were Inga, Bauhinia, and Copaifera; the super-host species were Copaifera langsdorffii, Bauhinia brevipes, and Copaifera sabulicola. Most of the galls were observed on leaves; they were mostly globoid, green, glabrous, isolated, and unilocular. The principal gall inducers belonged to Cecidomyiidae; the associated fauna was represented by Collembola, Coleoptera, Diptera, Formicidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Pseudoscorpionida, and Thysanoptera. Fabaceae are the principal super-hosts of galls and one of the most diverse families of angiosperms in Brazil, aggregating evidences for the hypotheses of floristic richness and taxon size.
Abstract in English:Abstract Human activity has prompted a rapid decline in the forested areas of the Amazon, resulting in an increase in the number of isolated forest fragments. Belém is the smallest and most deforested area of endemism in the biome. Its high level of degradation translates into great biodiversity vulnerability and the need for urgent measures to address these changes. The aim of this research was to analyze connectivity among the Belém’s remaining forest fragments and to classify them according to their importance for population dispersal. We used morphological spatial pattern analysis to characterize landscape structure and the integral index of connectivity to defi ne the importance of forest fragments. From a structural perspective, 55.28% of the forested area was classifi ed as core, 16.88% as edge. From a functional perspective, few fragments were classifi ed as highly important. In general, larger fragments were more important for connectivity. The protected areas seem to not have considered the forest connectivity in their planning, although the designation of priority areas has valued this variable. This study provides an important theoretical outline for considering connectivity in the planning phase and represents a contribution to more detailed research on how to maintain biodiversity in the Belém Area of Endemism.
Abstract in English:Abstract The common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, is widely distributed. However, information about its ecology and behavior in Brazilian waters is scarce especially about the ‘offshore’ ecotype, an Evolutionarily Significant Unit in the Southwest Atlantic. We report for the first time the occurrence, behavior and habitat use of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus truncatus, in two Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in Cabo Frio coast, Brazil. There were fifteen sightings of different groups throughout the year. An overall of 429 individuals were photo-identified. 90.7% dolphins did not present a degree of residence, 1.4% dolphins were considered with high residency to the area, 5.8% medium and 2.1% low. Our habitat use map indicated dolphins were more common off ~10km from Cabo Frio municipality and between depths around 20-70m. Bottlenose dolphins on Cabo Frio coast were more frequently observed performing travelling, followed by foraging and socio-sexual behavior. Group sizes varied from three to 120 individuals. Larger groups were observed when travelling and foraging. Despite the existence of two local Marine Protected Areas, the fast human development in Cabo Frio may threaten this important area for bottlenose dolphins in terms of food resources and shelter from predators.
Abstract in English:Abstract Natural products from plants are pulling in more interest in exploration due to their therapeutic properties like, mainly because of the drug-resistance in microbes against synthetic drugs. Thus, the present study was designed to assess the antimicrobial and antioxidant actions of some Agro-waste (garlic, ginger, onion, potato) peel extracts. Ginger peel extracts exhibited the highest FRAP (0.273±0.044 mm Fe2+ Eq/g dry weight) while garlic peel extracts exhibited the highest TAC (0.47±0.0452 mm AAE/g dry weight) values among all selections. The antimicrobial activity of the peels was evaluated against different pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains i.e.; Escherichia coli, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Colletotrichum falcatum, Fusarium moniliforme, and Rhizoctonia solani. Among all extracts, ginger peel extracts exhibited maximum inhibition against all bacterial strains, while onion peel extracts exhibited zero inhibition against any bacterial strains. All extracts exhibited maximum inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus except onion peel extracts. Positive inhibition against all fungal strains was observed for all samples, with maximum inhibition against Colletotrichum falcatum. The outcomes of the study, therefore reveal that Agro-wastes have a powerful antimicrobial and antioxidant potency and thus can be used for many medicinal purposes, which will likewise be helpful in waste management and environmental safety.
Abstract in English:Abstract The trematodes have developed several adaptations and strategies to complete their life cycle in the intermediate host, without even reaching the definitive host. Thus, metacercariae through progeny can produce viable eggs by self-fertilization in the second intermediate host. We analyzed 30 specimens of Rhamdia quelen Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Siluriformes, Heptapteridae) collected in the Jacaré-Pepira River, Ibitinga. Among the specimens analyzed, only one host was parasitized by the progenetic metacercariae of Crocodilicola pseudostoma Willemoes-Suhm 1870 (Digenea: Proterodiplostomidae) presenting prevalence of 3.3%, mean intensity of 68.0 ± 12.4 and mean abundance of 2.3 ± 0.4. This is the first record of progenesis in the metacercariae of C. pseudostoma in the Jacaré-Pepira River, as well as the first partial sequence of COI gene obtained from this species in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Foraminifera are diversified protists with high ecological and bioindicator importance. Physical-chemical parameters of the environment can be evaluated through the taphonomic analysis of the test coloring, because once they settle in the sediment their tests begin to behave as sedimentary particles. Five urbanized tropical Brazilian beaches were sampled in this study in order to characterize the diversity, abundance, taxonomic and taphonomic structure of Foraminifera assemblages. General environmental characterization such as granulometric analysis, temperature and salinity was also performed. A total of 69 foraminiferan species were found, dominated by Quinqueloculina lamarckiana, Archaias angulatus, Amphistegina lessonii, Ammonia tepida and Eponides repandus. A large predominance of dead tests (>90%) was found, and only them were considered in further analyses. The cluster based on the taxonomic composition formed two groups, separating Miramar from the other beaches. Miramar was dominated by Ammonia tepida (18.9%), Sorites marginalis (16.8%), Quinqueloculina lamarckiana (13.9%) and Textularia agglutinans (10.2%), and had the highest density, number of species and diversity, what may be related with the sheltered nature of this beach and the dominance of fine sand. The other four beaches have high oceanic influence and the medium and coarse sand predominated. In these beaches Quinqueloculina lamarckiana dominated, representing between 30.9 and 38.7% of total foraminiferans. The taphonomic analysis indicates that Miramar presents a high deposition of tests and a low hydrodynamic energy, since the majority of tests were white. In Bessa, Manaíra and Seixas most of the tests were brownish, which is characteristic of beaches with high hydrodynamic energy, which causes the tests to be constantly brought to the oxidation zone.
Abstract in English:Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increase of premature appearance of several disorders such as cardiac complications. Thus, we test the hypothesis that a combination of a high fat diet (HFD) and low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) recapitulate a suitable mice model of T2DM to study the cardiac mitochondrial disturbances induced by this disease. Animals were divided in 2 groups: the T2DM group was given a HFD and injected with 2 low doses of STZ, while the CNTRL group was given a standard chow and a buffer solution. The combination of HFD and STZ recapitulate the T2DM metabolic profile showing higher blood glucose levels in T2DM mice when compared to CNTRL, and also, insulin resistance. The kidney structure/function was preserved. Regarding cardiac mitochondrial function, in all phosphorylative states, the cardiac mitochondria from T2DM mice presented reduced oxygen fluxes when compared to CNTRL mice. Also, mitochondria from T2DM mice showed decreased citrate synthase activity and lower protein content of mitochondrial complexes. Our results show that in this non-obese T2DM model, which recapitulates the classical metabolic alterations, mitochondrial function is impaired and provides a useful model to deepen study the mechanisms underlying these alterations.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Hancornia speciosa latex reveals angiogenic, osteogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, which present its potential for developing of wound healing drugs; however, the latex compounds responsible for angiogenesis remain unknown. One strategy to screen these active compounds is evaluation of latex fractions. This study aimed to obtain different fractions of latex and evaluate its angiogenic activity separately using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The serum (SE) fraction was responsible for angiogenesis, which was subject to biochemical characterization and computational simulations in order to understand the contribution of H. speciosa latex in wound healing process. Our results revealed weak antioxidant potential and absence of antimicrobial activity in the SE fraction. Phytochemical analysis identified chlorogenic acids (CGA) as the main compound of SE fraction. CGA bioactivity predictions identify different molecules associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, such as metalloproteinases, which also are overexpressed in our CAM assay experiment. Docking simulations revealed the interactions between CGA and matrix metalloproteinase 2. In conclusion, SE latex fraction stimulates angiogenesis and may influence ECM remodeling. These properties may contribute to the wound healing process, and also confirm the widespread use of this plant.
Abstract in English:Abstract Abstract: COVID-19 emerged in December 2019 in China, and since then, has disrupted global public health and changed economic paradigms. In dealing with the new Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the world has not faced such extreme global fragility since the “Spanish flu” pandemic in 1918. Researchers globally are dedicating efforts to the search for an effective treatment for COVID-19. Drugs already used in a clinical setting for other pathologies have been tested as a new therapeutic approach against SARS-CoV-2, setting off a frenzy over the preliminary data of different studies. This work aims to compile and discuss the data published thus far. Despite the potential effects of some antivirals and antiparasitic against COVID-19, clinical studies must confirm real effectiveness. However, non-pharmacological approaches have proven to be the most efficient strategy to date.
Abstract in English:Abstract The world is undergoing a profound demographic change with a rapid increase in the prevalence of aged individuals. The finitude of life, the burden of senescence and the search for strategies to prolong human life span have troubled humanity since ancient times. However, only in the past few decades we started to understand how organisms age and how life span can be manipulated. Here I give an historical perspective of the aging field and conclude with the notion that aging is controlled by signals from the adipose tissue which are tightly controlled by small non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: to evaluate the acute effects of expiratory positive airway pressure on cardiac autonomic modulation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during spontaneous breathing and slow deep breathing. Methods: 17 patients were evaluated. The R-R intervals were collected (Polar® S810i) during spontaneous breathing (10 minutes) and slow deep breathing (4 minutes), with and without 5 cmH2O expiratory positive airway pressure. Stable signals were analyzed by Kubios®. Heart rate variability indices were computed in time domain and in frequency domain. Results: Expiratory positive airway pressure application affected low frequency (spontaneous breathing: 62.5±4.1 vs slow deep breathing: 28.2±4.2, p<0.001) and high frequency (spontaneous breathing: 37.4±17.3 vs slow deep breathing: 58.9±18.1, p<0.001). Interactions were observed between expiratory positive airway pressure effect and slow deep breathing effect for low frequency (p<0.001), high frequency (p<0.001) and low frequency/high frequency ratio (p<0.001). When patients were stratified by disease’s severity, we identified a significant low frequency reduction (p<0.001) and high frequency increase (p<0.001) for all stages when slow deep breathing was associated with expiratory positive airway pressure. Conclusion: A 5 cmH2O expiratory positive airway pressure during spontaneous and slow deep breathing can elicit an acute response, resulting in a cardiac autonomic control improvement in moderate-to-very severe patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objectives of this study are to prepare a 5 wt% lidocaine/aspirin ionic liquid drug-loaded gelatin/polyvinyl alcohol composite film using a freeze-thaw procedure and to evaluate their physicochemical characteristics, in vitro drug release, and stability. Lidocaine/aspirin ionic liquid drugs can be prepared by an ion-pair reaction between the hydrochloride salts of lidocaine and the sodium salts of aspirin, which showed a significant change in their thermal properties when compared to those pure drugs. The results showed that a transdermal patch could feasibly be used in pharmaceutical transdermal patches with good physicochemical properties. A chemical interaction between the drug and polymer base was not found. Decomposition of the lidocaine/aspirin ionic liquid drug was found in the patch; however, the properties of the patch were not changed after drug loading. The patch controlled the drug release and showed good stability during the studied period of three months when kept at 4°C more than at ambient temperature and 45°C.
Abstract in English:Abstract The high consumption of sugars is linked to the intermediate hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance associated with obesity, inducing the prediabetes. However, the consequences of excessive invert sugar intake on glucose metabolism and genomic stability were poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of invert sugar overload (32%) in rats, analyzing changes in obesity, glucose tolerance, pancreatic/hepatic histology and primary and permanent DNA damage. After 17 weeks, the rats became obese and had an excessive abdominal fat, as well as presented impaired glucose tolerance, caused by higher sugar caloric intake. Primary DNA damage, evaluated by the comet assay, was increased in the blood, however not in the pancreas. No protein carbonylation was seen in serum. Moreover, no increase in permanent DNA damage was seen in the bone marrow, evaluated using the micronucleus test. Some rats presented liver steatosis and that the pancreatic islets were enlarged, but not significantly. In this study, invert sugar altered the glucose metabolism and induced primary DNA damage in blood, but did not cause significant damage to the pancreas or liver, and neither changes in the levels of oxidative stress or permanent DNA damage.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study compares the prevalence of overweight and obesity between WHO/IOTF criteria. A total of 17,277 Portuguese children aged 3-10 years old were analysed. The prevalences of overweight-obesity were higher at WHO classification (19.8%-20.7%) than at IOTF classification (8.2%-16.1%), (p<0.001). Agreement between the criteria were substantial for overweight (Kappa= 0.67, p<0.001) and moderate for obesity (Kappa= 0.47, p<0.001). The prevalences ratio for inequality between criteria were greater for boys than for girls and lesser for children aged 6-7 than children aged 8-10 years old. The disparities between the two criteria and the higher overweight obesity prevalences highlight the needs to develop more studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Publishing profiles can help institutions and financing agencies understand the different needs of knowledge areas and regions for development within a country. Incites ® (Web of Science) was used to see where Brazilian authors were publishing, the impact, and the cost of this publishing. The USA was the country of choice for publishing journals, along with Brazil, England, and the Netherlands. While Brazilian authors continue to publish in hybrid journals, they are more often opting for closed access, with 89% of the papers published in Brazil being open access, compared with 21% of papers published abroad. The correlation between the cost of publishing and the number of citations was positive and significant. Publishing patterns were different depending on the area of knowledge and the Brazilian region. Stagnation or reduction in publications with international collaboration, industry collaboration, or in high impact open access journals may be the cause of a reduction in citation impact. These data can help in elaborating public and institutional policies for financing publications in Brazil, especially when looking at unfavourable changes in currency exchange rates.
Abstract in English:Abstract This work evaluated the effect of grape juice, red wine and resveratrol in liver parameters of rats submitted to high-fat diet. Experimental model was conducted with groups of adult females Rattus norvegicus: control (CG); high-fat (HG); grape juice (JG); red wine (RW) and resveratrol solution (RG). The high-fat diet significantly altered hepatocytes and Kupffer cells in all treated groups. HG group presented severe steatosis followed hepatocyte ballooning and tissue damages. JG group minimized hepatic histological lesion caused by high-fat diet and WG group also induced steatosis and inflammation in hepatocytes, similar to HG. Still, resveratrol protected the tissue against fatty liver disease by reducing fat infiltration and inflammation, indicating possible therapeutic effects on the liver. Cell cycle analysis showed that HG promoted damage to the tissue, reducing the viable cell content and increasing apoptosis, even when associated with wine consumption or isolated resveratrol. However, JG protected the liver against cell damage generated by the diet. Consumption of grape juice, even associated with a high-fat diet, represents a promising protection of the liver against cellular damage, but red wine further affects the tissue, and resveratrol alone was able to reduce damage but did not minimize cellular damage to the liver.
Abstract in English:Abstract Sildenafil is a potent selective inhibitor of phosphosdiesterase-5 previously used in erectile dysfunction and subsequently approved in 2005 for pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment. Since oral administration of sildenafil shows pharmacokinetic problems with mean absolute bioavailability of 41%, the goal of this work was to develop a novel sildenafil self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for oral absorption improvement and management of dosage. One pharmaceutical solution and four SEDDS containing sildenafil were successfully obtained and SEDDS formed O/W nanoemulsion with droplet size less than 300 nm. The stability studies evidenced that the SEDDS containing 3.3% w/w of sildenafil yielded the best results. The safety of 2-pyrrolidone/isobutanol in oral formulations was assessed in mice and no lethality was achieved in the placebo groups with LD50 of 490 mg/Kg for SEDDS II-3.3, suggesting it as a safe excipient for humans. Therewithal, in silico studies using PBPK models provided the pharmacokinetic profile of sildenafil SEDDS. Subsequently, in silico evaluation indicated that the sildenafil SEDDS droplet size influenced its bioavailability, enhancing absorption, assuring a good pharmacokinetic profile. These findings suggest that the formulations developed here presented the potential to enhance drug oral absorption with the possibility to control drug dosage as they are liquid pharmaceutical formulations.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To elucidate the acute effect of different high-fat meals accompanied by water or orange juice on subjective appetite sensations. Methods: This acute, postprandial study included 39 healthy women (aged 20 to 40 years): 22 participants received a high-monounsaturated fat meal (MUFA) (≈1000 kcal, 56.3% Energy from MUFA) and 17 participants received a high-saturated fat meal (SFA) (≈1000 kcal, 37.6% Energy from SFA). Both interventions were accompanied by 500 ml of water or orange juice. The subjective appetite sensations were evaluated before (fasting) and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours after the meal intake using the visual analog scale. Results: The subjective area under curve (AUC) appetite sensations and AUC appetite scores were equal after the consumption of high-fat meals from SFA and MUFA. Moreover, the consumption of a high-SFA meal raises the prospective desire to eat something fatty. In addition, the high-SFA meal consumption reduces subjective AUC appetite sensations and AUC appetite scores along the time, compared to a high-MUFA meal, when orange juice consumption followed those meals. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that high-MUFA meal consumption decreased the desire to intake something fatty, and the high-SFA meal, when followed by orange juice intake, has postprandial appetite sensations suppressed.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) extract (YME) on oxidative stress parameters and pathological changes in the lungs of mice chronically exposed to hand-rolled cornhusk cigarette (HRC) smoke. Twenty-four male Swiss mice were divided into four groups exposed to the following treatments: control (ambient air), HRC, YME, and HRC plus YME. The animals were exposed to four HRCs per session, with 3 sessions/day, every day for 30 days. Twenty-four hours after the last inhalation, the mice were killed, and the left lungs were removed. The results showed that HRC contains elevated levels of tin and carbon oxide, but less arsenic, cobalt, manganese, and selenium than commercial cigarettes. YME administration reversed fibrosis, alveolar enlargement, and hemorrhage induced by HRC smoke. In addition, the YME and HRC significantly reduced the production of oxidants, oxidative damage and promoted a significant increase in total thiol. In conclusion, exposure to HRC smoke compromised pulmonary histoarchitecture by promoting structural changes and increasing oxidative stress in tissues. However, concomitant treatment with YME regulated the redox state and reduced the harmful effects of HRC smoke exposure in the lungs.
Abstract in English:Abstract Solidago microglossa is used as an anti-inflammatory agent in traditional Brazilian medicine, and this work evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential of the crude ethanolic extract of the flowers of S. microglossa in vivo, as assayed by paw edema models induced by carrageenan, prostaglandin E2, bradykinin and compound 48/80. In the chemical profile, we identified compounds by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and quantified them by HPLC-DAD. Additionally, this study analyzed the potential to activate the in vitro transcriptional activity of PPARγ, which is a nuclear receptor linked to the anti-inflammatory response. It was possible to identify five compounds: quinic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and rutin. In the paw edema evaluation, it was possible to show the potential of reducing edema during the inflammatory process. The crude ethanolic extract of the flowers of S. microglossa activated PPARγ compared to the full agonist rosiglitazone and in a dose-response manner. It is possible to conclude that the extract of the flowers of S. microglossa showed anti-inflammatory activity, and the phenolic compounds present in this species might be responsible for this activity.
Abstract in English:Abstract Breast cancer is the most frequent and lethal neoplastic disease among women worldwide. Psidium Guajava is a promising functional food against cancer, owing to a variety of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to evaluate the anticarcinogenic potential of Pedro Sato (PS), Hitigio (HI) and Tsumori (TS) guava cultivars fruit pulp extracts in MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts and their effect on cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed. Additionally, the concentration of carotenoids, total phenolics, ascorbic acid and other physicochemical parameters were evaluated. PS pulp extract showed the highest in vitro antioxidative activity by all tested methods, as well as the highest content of lycopene and total phenolics, while TS pulp extract presented the highest concentration of β-carotene. After 48 hours treatment, all guava cultivars’ extracts caused reduction of MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 cells viability, with PS and HI being the most effective extracts. All guava extracts caused MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 cell count reduction in G0/G1 and G2/M phases and increased apoptosis. The present results strongly suggest that guava pulp exerts antiproliferative effect on breast adenocarcinoma cells.
Abstract in English:Abstract Meta-analysis is a probabilistic technique that combines results from several studies that approach the same topic and produce a result that sums up the whole. In the agricultural field, it is used to make empirical estimates of efficiency for the development of productivity and economic research on agriculture. Meta-analysis can be applied through software such as R, which is executed through commands, and produces results without providing user interactivity, nor does it reproduce a friendly and easy-to-understand interface. This paper presents the creation of a computer system, the WMA, which aims to simplify the execution of meta-analysis, providing a graphical interface and improves the display of the results through an interactive visualization using the Hierarchical Information Visualization Technique Bifocal Tree. For validation, the meta-analysis was applied in the agricultural area in a case study that grouped studies that used the fungicide fluquinconazole to combat the soybean rust disease, the results obtained through the application of the meta-analysis were analyzed using the WMA proposed tool.
Abstract in English:Abstract Abstract: Kinetics of color and texture changes in coated button mushrooms were investigated as a function of coating agent’s rate (1%, 2% and 3% w/v chitosan). The inner and outer surface colours of mushrooms in terms of CIELAB parameters L*, a*, b*, C*, ° h, ∆E, and Browning Index (BI), and their textural properties in terms of firmness were evaluated. The color values on both sides of the mushrooms except for L* values increased and their firmness decreased with the coating treatment. The color changes of the inner and outer surface of mushrooms and their texture changes followed zero-order reaction models with higher R2 (0.9987-0.9999) and lower RMSE (4.8448 x 10-5-1.6690) and χ2 values (3.9120 x 10-9-4.6425). The 2% chitosan solution was determined to be the most effective coating agent among the coating agents used to extend the post-harvest shelf life by optimally preserving the color parameters of the mushrooms together with their texture properties.
Abstract in English:Abstract The degradation kinetics of vitamin C in different citrus juice types (tangerine, grapefruit, orange and lime) were investigated during four hours storage at temperatures of 4 and 25°C under different storage conditions in terms of light and oxygen presence. The loss of vitamin C at each sample followed the first-order kinetic model. During storage, predicted half-life of vitamin C ranged from 137.586 to 467.486 min for tangerine; 105.444 to 203.100 min for grapefruit; 365.702 to 1044.668 min for orange and 540.076 to 722.016 min for lime juices. These results indicated that the highest and lowest retentions of vitamin C were observed in orange and grapefruit juices respectively during storage. Additionally, storage time, light penetration and oxygen presence were the most effective factors on vitamin C degradation while the storage temperature revealed no significant effect on the vitamin C content.
Abstract in English:Abstract The influence of magnesium on roasting vanadium slag was investigated by simulating the roasting process of vanadium by mixing V2O5 and MgO. The calcination products of V2O5 reacted with MgO at different temperatures which were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). There were two mass loss intervals, three endothermic peaks and one exothermic peak appearing during the reaction by the integrated thermal analysis as the temperature increased from room temperature to 1273.15 K. The samples of mixed V2O5 and MgO began to melt at 573.15 K and reacted at 773 K, and the shape of the particles changed from block to ovoid or irregular sphere at 773.15 K. With increasing the reaction temperature from 973.15 to 1073.15 K, the intermediate of VO2 was produced, and MgV2O6 was partially decomposed at 1073.15 K. During this process, the particle shape gradually returned to block shape. The conversion rate of vanadium is 99.4% with MgO of 1.65%.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this article is to evaluate the efficiency of cities of the State of Rio de Janeiro in relation to municipal expenditures on education, as well as to identify the reasons that lead to inefficiency. In order to achieve the initial goal, this study uses DEA technique. The DMUs are 69 cities of the State of Rio de Janeiro. This paper uses following variables as inputs: municipal expenditure on elementary school, number of teachers of 9th grade of elementary school and number of students enrolled in 9th grade of elementary school. The following variables are used to compose output information: number of students who achieved advanced or proficient level in Portuguese and number of students who achieved advanced or proficient level in Mathematics. All data refer to the year 2013. In this study, output-oriented BCC model is used and, for its application, SIAD V3.0 software was used. GIS-DEA integration and some variables external to modelling were used to identify aspects that led to the inefficiency of some DMUs. This study concludes that cities that displayed a good performance are located in the least economically developed regions and that teachers’ average salary is an important motivational factor.
Abstract in English:Abstract Chaos-based image encryption schemes shuffle the position of the pixels (confuse), change their values (diffuse), to camouflage the identity of the original image. In this paper, a symmetric image cryptosystem based on permutation is proposed. Permutation, used both to change the position of the pixel and modify its value, is undertaken using the Bogdanov map. First, the input image is permuted using the Bogdanov map so that the pixel positions are changed. Thereafter, the resultant scrambled image is sliced into bit-planes which are again separately subjected to the Bogdanov map. The encrypted image is constructed by encrypting the scrambled bit-planes with the key generated using dyadic transform. The experimental results exhibited random behavior in the distribution of the pixel values of the encrypted image. The cryptosystem is simple and fast, as it is permutation-based and, secure, it may be used in real-time transmission.
Abstract in English:Abstract To preserve freshness and nutritional quality of fruits and vegetables is required large energy expenditure due to most storage techniques require low temperatures, making the product difficult to transport and store. Purpose: To reduce energy expenditure, dehydration processes are being improving by pretreatments and changing frozen stage. Method: Alkaline emulsion pretreatment was introduced to freeze-drying method to reduce the drying time of grapes and obtain significant energy savings. Results: Dehydration process for untreated fresh grape samples was 22 hours, using industrial freeze-drying equipment. It was obtained a high quality product with range 3 % to 7% of final humidity, without losing natural characteristics and organoleptic properties of the grapes. Conclusions: it was found by modifying standard equipment frozen method, using dry ice (CO2) and applied coconut oil alkaline emulsion pretreatment, a 54% energy saving. Even more the dehydration process decreased the microbial load in the fruit. A product with low number of microorganisms may be consumed by patients with low defenses as cereals, nutritional bars, salads, yogurts, etc. Finally, if all enterprises involved in this field take into account these findings and improve constantly their process they will stop emitting several kg of CO2 into the atmosphere.