Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Volume: 92, Issue: 4, Published: 2020
  • A brief summary of the impact and performance of different scientific fields at the AABC Editorial Note

    KELLNER, ALEXANDER W.A.
  • Physical exercise during coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Recommendations to remaining active in periods of confinement Letter To The Editor

    LETIERI, RUBENS VINÍCIUS; FURTADO, GUILHERME EUSTÁQUIO

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The period of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic has led people to adopt behaviors that were not previously part of their routines. The need to maintain an active lifestyle, with the adoption of an exercise regimen, has been reinforced by the scientific community for the maintenance of the immune and mental condition. Thus, we point out the need to observe the scientific guidelines on physical exercises during social isolation.
  • Science funding crisis in Brazil and COVID-19: deleterious impact on scientific output Letter To The Editor

    OLIVEIRA, EDUARDO A.; MARTELLI JÚNIOR, HERCÍLIO; SILVA, ANA CRISTINA SIMÕES E; MARTELLI, DANIELLA R. BARBOSA; OLIVEIRA, MARIA CHRISTINA L.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Brazilian scientific community and health care workers are working hard to provide support for the political health measures to deal with this unprecedented crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic. Paradoxically, while the society is looking forward for an immediate response of the scientific community, Brazilian scientists are facing a dramatic reduction in financial support for research and graduate programs.
  • Cardiac glycosides and COVID-19: would it be a promising therapeutic approach? Letter To The Editor

    SINIORAKIS, EFTYCHIOS; ARVANITAKIS, SPYRIDON; ELKOURIS, MAXIMILIANOS

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Cardiac glycosides have been found to have an anti-viral effect. This was noted in the past during various epidemics including MERS and SARS. It is due to their inhibitory effect on the Na, K-ATPase membrane pump. Furthermore, they exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. These preclinical observations may prove useful in further clinical utility of these well-known compounds in the current COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Problems of Interpreting Diagnostic Tests for SARS-CoV-2: Analytical Chemistry Concerns Letter To The Editor

    MATTIOLI, ISABELA A.; CRESPILHO, FRANK N.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak made the development of reliable, sensitive, and reproducible testing methods crucial throughout the world. Without proper analytical validation, testing results can be misinterpreted, leading to a certain degree of misinformation in the clinical area. To accurately assess the methods, the determination of an analytical linear range of response of the assay is fundamental. Based on this curve, the evaluation of some parameters as sensitivity, limit of detection, and limit of quantification can be done, as well as the establishment of cut-off values. Statistical treatments of the collected data can be performed for reproducibility and reliability evaluations. In this context, there is a wide range of analytical concerns that should be in-depth discussed in medical, biomedical and chemical areas. This letter aims to briefly clarify some analytical chemistry concepts, as sensitivity, cut-off and limit of detection, and their application towards clinical diagnosis.
  • Unwrapping the long-term impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on Brazilian academic mothers: the urgency of short, medium, and long-term measures Letter To The Editor

    HIPÓLITO, JULIANA; DIELE-VIEGAS, LUISA M.; CORDEIRO, TÁBATA E.F.; SALES, LILIAN P.; MEDEIROS, ADRIANA; DEEGAN, KATHLEEN R.; LEITE, LUCIANA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, publications have highlighted the disproportionate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on academic mothers, mostly focusing on the impact of social distancing and quarantine. A few months later, despite the lack of effective vaccines or therapeutics in sight, many economic activities are being resumed. Nurseries and schools are expected to be among the latest to reopen, which will amplify the impacts of the pandemic on academic mothers. In this letter, we unwrap the pandemic impacts on academic mothers and describe a set of specific short-, medium- and long-term policies that, if implemented, could reduce setbacks for gender equality during the pandemic and can help to level the playing field for academic mothers.
  • A glance upon Epigenetic and COVID-19 Letter To The Editor

    FREITAS, NATÁLIA L. DE; AZEVEDO, PEDRO RICARDO G.; BRANDÃO, FABIANA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Epigenetics studies focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection to assist in the perception of pathophysiology can direct prospective approaches for the COVID-19 treatment. There is an intrinsic relationship between epigenetic marks and the adaptation of the immune system, which determines the outcome of the pathogen-host interaction. Recently, studies have shown that there is an increased expression of the ACE2 receptor in individuals with Lupus, the origin of this phenomenon is from DNA’s methylation deregulation process that consequently, become this group more suitable to be infected by SARS-CoV-2. There is evidence for the use of some epigenetic modifiers known as Epidrugs, which might be a promising approach to be deeper investigated. Here we emphasize the importance of this glance upon Epigenetic and its modulators in the promising therapeutic in the COVID-19 disease context.
  • Not everything is condemned by COVID-19 Letter To The Editor

    JÚNIOR, WALDEMAR DE PAULA; NETO, FRANCISCO F. DE LIMA; GRABE-GUIMARÃES, ANDREA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The increase in the number of studies related to the health of university students has attracted attention at the time of COVID-19. This initiative contributes to preparing the school environment for the return of face-to-face activities with conducts that minimize the damage caused by the pandemic. The role of each actor in the educational scenario is fundamental for us to be able to reap good fruits after this storm.
  • Worldwide COVID-19 spreading explained: traveling numbers as a primary driver for the pandemic Biological Sciences

    RIBEIRO, SÉRVIO P.; DÁTTILO, WESLEY; BARBOSA, DAVID S.; COURA-VITAL, WENDEL; CHAGAS, IGOR A.S. DAS; DIAS, CAMILA P.; SILVA, ALCIDES V.C. DE CASTRO E; MORAIS, MARIA HELENA F.; GÓES-NETO, ARISTÓTELES; AZEVEDO, VASCO A.C.; FERNANDES, GERALDO WILSON; REIS, ALEXANDRE B.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the distribution of cases worldwide followed no clear biogeographic, climatic, or cultural trend. Conversely, the internationally busiest cities in all countries tended to be the hardest hit, suggesting a basic, mathematically neutral pattern of the new coronavirus early dissemination. We tested whether the number of flight passengers per time and the number of international frontiers could explain the number of cases of COVID-19 worldwide by a stepwise regression. Analysis were taken by 22 May 2020, a period when one would claim that early patterns of the pandemic establishment were still detectable, despite of community transmission in various places. The number of passengers arriving in a country and the number of international borders explained significantly 49% of the variance in the distribution of the number of cases of COVID-19, and number of passengers explained significantly 14.2% of data variance for cases per million inhabitants. Ecological neutral theory may explain a considerable part of the early distribution of SARS-CoV-2 and should be taken into consideration to define preventive international actions before a next pandemic.
  • PCR-based detection of Helicobacter spp. in animal facilities of a University in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Biomedical Sciences

    MATOS-RODRIGUES, GABRIEL E.; MASSERON, CAROLINNE C.; SILVA, FABIO J. MOREIRA DA; FRAJBLAT, MARCEL; MOREIRA, LILIAN O.; MARTINS, RODRIGO A.P.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Pathogenic microbial detection and control in laboratory animal facilities is essential to guarantee animal welfare, data validity and reproducibility. Helicobacter spp. are known to affect mice health, what may interfere with experimental outcomes. This study aimed to screen for Helicobacter spp. in mice from animal facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using a PCR-based method. Primers designed to specifically identify Helicobacter spp. were used to amplify feces or intestine DNA extracted of mice from four different animal facilities. The expected 375 base pairs (bp) amplicon was purified, sequenced and a similarity of 95% was observed when compared to deposited sequences of H. hepaticus and H. bilis. In our screening, Helicobacter spp. was detected in ~59% of fecal and ~70% of intestine samples. Our study is the first to screen for Helicobacter spp. in mouse facilities of a Rio de Janeiro University using a low cost, rapid molecular diagnostic test. Although Helicobacter spp. screening is not mandatory according to Brazilian animal welfare regulation it is recommended by institutional animal health monitoring programs guidelines worldwide, including ARRIVE, AAALAC and FELASA.
  • Maternal and developmental toxicity after exposure to formulation of chlorothalonil and thiophanate-methyl during organogenesis in rats Biomedical Sciences

    SILVA, JAQUELINE N. DA; MONTEIRO, NAYARA R.; ANTUNES, PATRICIA A.; FAVARETO, ANA PAULA A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Chlorothalonil and thiophanate-methyl are fungicides widely used in agriculture. The aim of this study was to assess maternal toxicity and embryotoxic potential of exposure to chlorothalonil and thiophanate-methyl during organogenesis period in rats. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups: control and exposed to 400 (CT400), 800 (CT800) and 1200 mg-1kg bw-1 day (CT1200) of commercial formulation constituted of 200 g of thiophanate-methyl kg−1 and 500 g of chlorothalonil kg−1 by gavage, from 6th to 15th gestational day. Maternal toxicity, liver, kidney and placenta histology, reproductive performance, and external, skeletal and visceral malformations of fetuses were evaluated. Maternal liver weight was decreased in CT1200 group and focal necrosis and microvesicular steatosis, inflammatory infiltrate and hepatocytes with pyknotic nucleus were observed in CT800 and CT1200 groups. Reproductive performance was similar among groups. The percentage of fetuses small for pregnancy age was increase in CT400 and CT800 groups. Moreover, incidence of skeletal anomalies was increased in the three groups exposed to fungicides. Chlorothalonil and thiophanate-methyl exposure showed affect the prenatal development and induce maternal toxicity.
  • Epigallocatechin gallate-capped gold nanoparticles enhanced the tumor suppressors let-7a and miR-34a in hepatocellular carcinoma cells Biomedical Sciences

    MOSTAFA, SHADY M.; GAMAL-ELDEEN, AMIRA M.; MAKSOUD, NABILA ABD EL; FAHMI, ABDELGAWAD A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), major constituent of green tea, possesses antioxidant, antiviral, and anticancer activities. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) play an important role in drug delivery due to their stability, ease of surface functionalization, and unique optical properties. This study aimed to investigate the influence of EGCG-capped AuNPs on tumor suppressor miRNAs (miR-34a and let-7a) and their targeted cell death mediators in HepG2 cells, compared with celastrol. EGCG-AuNPs were prepared and characterized. antioxidant activity was estimated by DPPH scavenging assay; cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay; let-7a and miR-34a expression was analyzed by qPCR; and miRNAs targets (c-Myc and caspase-3) were assessed by ELISA and immunocytofluorescence, respectively. The average size of EGCG-AuNPs was 35 nm, with a λmax of ~535 nm. EGCG-AuNPs exerted cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells stronger than that of EGCG alone. EGCG-AuNPs and EGCG presented half-maximal radical scavenging concentrations (SC50) of 539 µg/ml and 45 µg/ml, respectively. The expression levels of let-7a and miR-34a were significantly elevated in HepG2 cells after EGCG-AuNP treatment for 72 h. c-Myc protein expression was reduced, whereas caspase-3 expression was increased following treatment with EGCG-AuNPs. In conclusion, Au-NPs are effective carrier for EGCG, and EGCG-AuNPs are promising anti-cancer agent.
  • The contribution of the 20th century discoveries on the circulating DNA as biomarkers for cancer screening Biomedical Sciences

    ALVES, GILDA; CHANTRE, MARIANA; DELMONICO, LUCAS

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Circulating DNA can be released in the biological fluids by a physiological process and by different pathological conditions. The first reports detecting circulating DNA in human plasma date from the late 40s. Even when specific pathological conditions were analyzed, the clinical importance of circulating DNA remained unclear. After PCR introduction, genetic and epigenetic alterations in circulating DNA gained more prominence for understanding the mechanisms of cancer development and progression. Nowadays, the circulating DNA assays are highlighted for their clinical relevance for cancer screening in liquid biopsy. In this review, we described the landscape of studies on circulating DNA isolated from human plasma or serum and the molecular tools used to obtain these findings throughout the 20th century and the current application in cancer.
  • Anti-inflammatory and Anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress Effects of catalpol Against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats Biomedical Sciences

    BI, FANGJIE; XU, YUJIA; CHEN, GUANGXIN; WANG, PAN

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The current study was designed to investigate the effects and the mechanism of catalpol on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in a diabetic rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into DM + sham, DM +I/R, and DM +I/R + C groups and diabetes was induced using single injections of streptozotocin (STZ; 70 mg/kg; i.p). After confirming the induction of diabetes, rats were administered physiological saline and catalpol (10 mg/kg; i.p.) daily for 28 days. Subsequently, rats were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded throughout surgery, and following sacrifice, hearts were isolated for biochemical, histopathological, and molecular analyses. Catalpol treatment significantly ameliorated MI/R injury by improving cardiac function, normalizing myocardial enzyme activities and markers of oxidative stress, and by maintaining myocardial architecture. Furthermore, expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 were decreased in biochemical and immunohistochemical studies. Additionally, the cardioprotective effects of catalpol were partly related to reductions in myocardial endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). In conclusion, catalpol exerts cardioprotective effects in diabetic rats by attenuating inflammation and inhibiting ERS.
  • Seseli petraeum M. Bieb. (Apiaceae) Significantly Inhibited Cellular Growth of A549 Lung Cancer Cells through G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest Biomedical Sciences

    CINAR, AHSEN S.; BAKAR-ATES, FILIZ; ONDER, ALEV

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Seseli L. is an important genus of the Apiaceae family, with a large number of aromatic species. It is used in traditional medicine extensively, but there is quite limited information on their phytochemicals and biological activities. Seseli petraeum M. Bieb. grows in Northern Anatolia, and there are no phytochemical studies on this species. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the extracts of S. petraeum on A549 lung cancer cell proliferation. For this purpose, the antiproliferative effect was determined via MTT assay, and the extracts obtained from the root of S. petraeum showed a significant inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. The hexane extract of the root exhibited potent inhibition on A549 cancer cell growth at the 24th hour with 3.432 mg/mL IC50 value. The results also showed that the hexane extract had displayed cytotoxic effect through an arrest at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and induced apoptosis as well as DNA damage of A549 cells. Consequently, this study demonstrated the antiproliferative potential of the extracts from S. petraeum, especially hexane extract from the roots. Further studies are required to identify the mechanisms underlying these effects.
  • Anti-inflammatory effects of vinpocetine in LPS-stimulated microglia via activation of AMPK Biomedical Sciences

    ZHOU, QIN; GUO, DONGKAI; LI, XINJIA; WANG, YIXUAN; YE, XIAOLI; XUE, SUDONG; WANG, XIAOYU

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Microglia are the resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS), which play important roles in the repair of neuroinflammatory injury. The present study investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of vinpocetine induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in BV2 microglia. BV2 microglia were pretreated with vinpocetine, and then stimulated with LPS (100 ng/mL). The cytotoxicity of BV2 microglia was assessed by MTT assay. The expression levels of nitrite oxide were measured by Griess assay. Proinflammatory cytokines and mediators were determined by Western blot, ELISA, or quantitative real-time PCR. Vinpocetine significantly decreased the generation of nitric oxide-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, vinpocetine decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β. Furthermore, it was observed that phosphorylation levels of AMPK (Thr-172) decreased in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. Vinpocetine treatment increased AMPK phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. AMPK inhibition by siRNA blocked the anti-inflammatory effects of vinpocetine induced by LPS in BV2 microglia. The overall results demonstrate that vinpocetine has anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia via inducing phosphorylation of AMPK, suggesting that vinpocetine is a potential therapeutic agent in neuroinflammatory injury.
  • Potentiation of the Effect of Lonidamine by Quercetin in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through downregulation of MMP-2/9 mRNA Expression Biomedical Sciences

    OZKAN, ERVA; BAKAR-ATES, FILIZ

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Combination therapies are becoming increasingly important to develop an effective treatment in cancer. Lonidamine is frequently used in cancer treatment, but it’s often preferred to be used in combination with other drugs because of its side effects. In the present study, the efficacy of the combination of lonidamine with quercetin, a flavonoid of natural origin, on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells was evaluated. The results showed that the combined use of the compounds significantly increased cytotoxicity compared to administration alone (p<0.0001). In addition, while lonidamine induced a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, administration of quercetin and its combination with lonidamine arrested the cell division at S point, indicating the synergistic strength of quercetin on cytotoxicity. The combination of quercetin and lonidamine significantly induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells (p<0.0001) and increased caspase levels (p<0.0001). In this study, the combination of quercetin and lonidamine has been evaluated for the first time and the combination treatment decreased MMP-2/-9 mRNA expression more potently than the effects of the compounds alone. The results showed that lonidamine was more effective when combined with quercetin, and their combination may be a candidate for a novel strategy of treatment for breast cancer.
  • D-Pinitol Increases Insulin Secretion and Regulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism in Msg-Obese Mice Biomedical Sciences

    SILVA JÚNIOR, JOEL A. DA; SILVA, AMANDA C.V.F. DA; FIGUEIREDO, LETÍCIA S.; ARAUJO, THIAGO R.; FREITAS, ISRAELLE N.; CARNEIRO, EVERARDO M.; RIBEIRO, ELANE S.; RIBEIRO, ROSANE A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract D-pinitol is one of the major inositol found in plants and studies suggest its potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic actions in diabetic rodents. Here, we investigated the actions of D-pinitol on adiposity, and in lipid and glycemic homeostasis in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese mice. Swiss mice received daily subcutaneous injections of MSG [(4g/kg of body weight (BW)] or saline [1.25g/kg BW; control (CTL)] during their first five days of life. From 90-120 day-old, half of the MSG and CTL groups received 50 mg D-pinitol/kg BW/day (MPIN and CPIN groups) or vehicle (saline; MSG and CTL groups) by gavage. MSG mice displayed higher abdominal adiposity and hepatic triglycerides (TG) deposition, and increased hepatic expression of lipogenic genes (SREBP-1c, ACC-1 and FASN), but downregulation in AMPKα mRNA. MSG mice also exhibited hyperinsulinemia, islet hypersecretion and hypertrophy, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. D-pinitol did not change adiposity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, but increased hepatic triglycerides (TG) content in MPIN mice, which was associated with increases in gene expressions of SREBP-1c and FASN, but reduction in AMPKα. Furthermore, D-pinitol enhanced insulin secretion in MPIN and CPIN groups. Therefore, D-pinitol enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion, which may account to enhances hepatic lipogenesis and TG deposition in MPIN mice.
  • Does Sciaena umbra (Linnaeus 1758) otolith protect tissues against nephropathy, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by ethylene glycol? Biomedical Sciences

    AKSOY, LAÇINE; YAYLALI, MESTURİYE; SUYUNDIKOV, MUKHRİDDİN

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Sciaena umbra is a species of fish with large otoliths. These otoliths are used for treatment of kidney stone disease with high morbidity among the public. In present study, the first group was determined as a control. Group 2 was applied to rats by adding 1% ethylene glycol to drinking water. Group 3 rats were given 50 mg/kg otolith by gavage daily. Group 4 rats were administered by adding ethylene glycol and otolith was given. Group 5 rats were added ethylene glycol for the first 30 days. Then next 15 days, the rats were given only otolith. the Serum CREA and BUN levels and urine calcium, phosphate and pH levels were determined to be damaged by ethylene glycol. Free radicals and oxidative damage caused by ethylene glycol were determined from oxidative/antioxidative parameters. Ethylene glycol has also been shown to be inflammatory. There is no positive effect on oxidative stress. From the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in renal tissue, SUO has shown the triggering effect of inflammation. All data indicate that otolith is not an agent that can be used in nephropathy in the kidney. It is thought that caution should be exercised regarding its use.
  • Evaluation of hematology, general serum biochemistry, bone turnover markers and bone marrow cytology in a glucocorticoid treated ovariectomized sheep model for osteoporosis research Biomedical Sciences

    COELHO, CATARINA A.; BORDELO, JOÃO P.; CAMASSA, JOSÉ A.; BARROS, VERA A.; BABO, PEDRO S.; GOMES, MANUELA E.; REIS, RUI L.; AZEVEDO, JORGE T. DE; REQUICHA, JOÃO F.; FAÍSCA, PEDRO; CARVALHO, PEDRO P.; VIEGAS, CARLOS A.; DIAS, ISABEL R.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Osteoporosis is a metabolic disorder characterized by a loss of bone mass and structure and increasing the risk of fragility fractures, mostly among postmenopausal women. Sheep is a recognized large animal model for osteoporosis research. An experimental group of ewes (3-4 years old) was subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) and weekly glucocorticoid (GC) application for 24 weeks and compared with a sham control group. Blood and bone marrow parameters were analyzed before and 24 weeks after OVX and GC administration. Osteopenia was confirmed through micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis of L4 vertebra in the study end. A statistically significant increase was observed in mean corpuscular volume, mean cell hemoglobin and monocytes and a decrease in red blood count and eosinophils (p<0.05). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, magnesium and α1-globulin increased, and creatinine, albumin, sodium and estradiol decreased (p<0.05). A slight decrease of bone formation markers (bone ALP and osteocalcin) and an increase of bone resorption markers (C-terminal telopeptides of collagen type 1 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) were observed, but without statistical significance. This study aims to contribute to better knowledge of sheep as a model for osteoporosis research and the consequences that a performed induction protocol may impose on organic metabolism.
  • Scenarios for the Spread of COVID-19 in Manaus, Northern Brazil Health Sciences

    BITAR, SANDRO; STEINMETZ, WILHELM ALEXANDER

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract We use a compartmental model to project scenarios for the spread of COVID-19 in the city of Manaus, with different degrees of social distancing and isolation of infectious individuals. In a scenario without any containment measures, our projections point to more than 50,000 (simultaneously) infectious individuals before the end of April 2020. Only in a scenario with strict and extensive social distancing (lockdown), implemented and observed as of March 23rd, 2020, would this number be less than 50,000 in the first half of June. Furthermore, an increase in the number of tests or in the collective awareness among the population regarding the importance of strict distancing measures would have only had a significant impact if implemented before the end of March.
  • Effects of Emulsion Formulations of Oleuropein Isolated from Ethanol Extract of Olive Leaf in Diabetic Rats Health Sciences

    AGGUL, AHMET G.; GULABOGLU, MINE; CETIN, MELTEM; OZAKAR, EMRAH; OZAKAR, RUKIYE S.; AYDIN, TUBA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study was designed to investigate the effects of emulsion formulations of oleuropein isolated from ethanol extract of olive leaf in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The rats were treated with the administration of the emulsion containing oleuropein at a low (150 mg/kg b.wt.) and high (225 mg/kg b.wt.) dose for 30 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn from the heart of the rats to determine blood glucose, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase levels. In addition, their liver tissues were dissected to determine the levels of glutathione and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and superoxide dismutase activity. According to the results for both dose treatments, a statistically significant increase in superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione levels of the treated diabetic rats was observed when compared with those of the diabetic control rats. On the other hand, a statistically significant decrease in the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase of the treated diabetic rats was determined. It should be highlighted that the administrations at the high dose were more effective compared to that of the low dose. Furthermore, a substantial decrease in the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats exposed to the high dose was observed.
  • Schizophrenia-like behavior is not altered by melatonin supplementation in rodents Health Sciences

    AFONSO, ARLINDO C.; PACHECO, FELIPE D.; CANEVER, LARA; WESSLER, PATRICIA G.; MASTELLA, GUSTAVO A.; GODOI, AMANDA K.; HUBBE, ISABELA; BISCHOFF, LAURA M.; BIALECKI, ALEX VICTOR S.; ZUGNO, ALEXANDRA I.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract An emerging area in schizophrenia research focuses on the impact of immunomodulatory drugs such as melatonin, which have played important roles in many biological systems and functions, and appears to be promising. The objective was to evaluate the effect of melatonin on behavioral parameters in an animal model of schizophrenia. For this, Wistar rats were divided and used in two different protocols. In the prevention protocol, the animals received 1 or 10mg/kg of melatonin or water for 14 days, and between the 8th and 14th day they received ketamine or saline. In the reversal protocol, the opposite occurred. On the 14th day, the animals underwent behavioral tests: locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition task. In both protocols, the results revealed that ketamine had effects on locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition, confirming the validity of ketamine construction as a good animal model of schizophrenia. However, at least at the doses used, melatonin was not able to reverse/prevent ketamine damage. More studies are necessary to evaluate the role of melatonin as an adjuvant treatment in psychiatric disorders.
  • COVID-19 pandemic outbreak: the Brazilian reality from the first case to the collapse of health services Health Sciences

    MELO, CRISTIANE M.L. DE; SILVA, GUILHERME A.S.; MELO, ALANNE R.S.; FREITAS, ANTÔNIO C. DE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Coronavirus is associated with several infectious diseases that cause outbreaks in humans, such as SARS in 2002-2003 and MERS in 2012. In December 2019, COVID-19, promoted by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, was first reported in Wuhan (China) as a new coronavirus disease. This outbreak quickly reached a pandemic status, affecting at least 185 countries and territories to date on all continents. The first case of COVID-19 reported in São Paulo city (Brazil) occurred in February 26th. Days later, 182 suspected cases in 16 states were being monitored. In May 30th, 514,849 cases and 29,314 deaths were confirmed in Brazil comprising all 26 states and Federal District. The primary measure in order to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 involved social isolation. At that time there were not enough diagnostic tests to identify infected individuals and data were strongly associated with sub notifications. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of this measure largely depends on the individual’s social responsibility. This measure has a severe economic and social impact, as in other countries. In this review, we present an overview and scientific perspectives of the evolution of COVID-19 from Brazilian databases in which climate and economic situations differ from China, European countries, and the USA.
  • Hemostatic abnormalities in COVID-19: A guided review Health Sciences

    SATHLER, PLÍNIO C.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has already taken on pandemic proportions, affecting over 213 countries in a matter of weeks. In this context, several studies correlating hemostatic disorders with the infection dynamics of the new coronavirus have emerged. These studies have shown that a portion of the patients affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), elevated D-dimer levels and other fibrinolytic products, antithrombin (AT) activity reduced and decrease of platelet count. Based on these hallmarks, this review proposes to present possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the hemostatic changes observed in the pathological progression of COVID-19. In this analysis, it is pointed the relationship between the downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and storm cytokines action with the onset of hypercoagulability state, other than the clinical events involved in thrombocytopenia and hyperfibrinolysis progression.
  • Topical hydrogel containing Achyrocline satureioides oily extract (free and nanocapsule) has anti-inflammatory effects and thereby minimizes irritant contact dermatitis Health Sciences

    MACHADO, VANESSA S.; CAMPONOGARA, CAMILA; OLIVEIRA, SARA M.; BALDISSERA, MATHEUS D.; SAGRILLO, MICHELE R.; GUNDEL, SAMANTA DA S.; SILVA, ANA PAULA T. DA; OURIQUE, ALINE F.; KLEIN, BRUNA; WAGNER, ROGER; SANTOS, ROBERTO C.V.; SILVA, ALEKSANDRO S. DA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Inflammatory dermatoses are prevalent worldwide, with impacts on the quality of life of patients and their families. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of Achyrocline satureioides oily extracts and nanocapsules on the skin using a mouse model of irritant contact dermatitis induced by croton oil, and a skin inflammation model induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. The mice were treated with 15 mg/ear oily extract (HG-OLAS) or nanocapsules (HG-NCAS) of A. satureioides incorporated into Carbopol® 940 hydrogels. We found that HG-OLAS and HG-NCAS formulations reduced ear edema in croton oil-induced lesions with maximum inhibitions of 54±7% and 74±3%, respectively. HG-OLAS and HG-NCAS formulations decreased ear edema induced by UVB radiation (0.5 J/cm2), with maximum inhibitions of 68±6% and 76±2% compared to the UVB radiation group, respectively. HG-OLAS and HG-NCAS modulated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity after croton oil induction. Furthermore, croton oil and UVB radiation for 6 and 24 h, respectively, stimulated polymorphonuclear cells infiltration. The topical treatments reduced inflammatory processes, as shown by histological analysis. Together, the data suggest that topical application of A. satureioides oily extracts and nanocapsules produced antiedematogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. They constitute a compelling alternative for treatment of skin injuries.
  • Whole purple grape juice increases nitric oxide production after training session in high level beach handball athletes Health Sciences

    MIRANDA NETO, MANOEL; TOSCANO, LYDIANE L.T.; TAVARES, RENATA L.; TOSCANO, LUCIANA T.; PADILHAS, ORRANETTE P.; SILVA, CÁSSIA S.O. DA; CERQUEIRA, GILBERTO S.; SILVA, ALEXANDRE S.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims to evaluate the effect of whole purple grape juice intake in the recovery of oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle injury after an intense training session. Fifteen high level men athletes were randomly distributed in supplemented (GJG; n=8; 28.7 ± 3.5 years) or control group (CG; n=7; 24.8 ± 2.7 years). 400 ml of juice or water was ingested immediately before (200 ml) and after (200 ml) a training session. Blood samples was collect before and post-training session as well as 180 minutes after this session (recovery) to analysis of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive ultrasensitive protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite. The nitrite values at the end of recovery moment of the GJG group were significantly higher than the same moment in the CG group (p<0.05), and the intra-group analysis showed a significant increase in nitrite values only in the GJG group in the end of recovery period moment when compared to the moments pre-training (p<0.001) and post-training (p<0.05). MDA, CRP, LDH and CK did not differ neither groups. Acute supplementation with 400 ml of grape juice increases the serum concentration of nitrite, a nitric oxide metabolite that has antioxidant activity.
  • Evaluation of Epicardial Adipose Tissue by Echocardiography and Its Correlation with Aortic Velocity Propagation and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Health Sciences

    ASOĞLU, RAMAZAN; ÖZDEMİR, MAHMUT; ALADAĞ, NESİM; ASOĞLU, EMİN

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) is associated with aortic stiffness in diabetic patients. In this study, we aimed to determine if there is an association among the parameters of EFT, aortic velocity propagation (AVP), and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. This study included 55 non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients and 40 non-diabetic control patients. For all participants, EFT and AVP were determined by echocardiographic method and CIMT was calculated using an ultrasonographic exam. The EFT and CIMT values were found to be significantly increased in the non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus group. On the other hand, aortic velocity propagation was decreased in the non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus group compared to non-diabetic patients (EFT; 8.43 ± 1.68 versus 6.36 ± 2.21 mm, p < 0.001; CIMT; 0.92 ± 0.24 versus 0.58 ± 0.18 mm, p < 0.001; and AVP; 28.20 ± 16.02 versus 58.10 ± 17.50, p < 0.01, respectively). Significantly higher EFT and CIMT values were found in addition to lower AVP values in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients. Moreover, we demonstrated that there was a strong correlation between EFT, CIMT, and AVP.
  • Tissue reaction and anti-biofilm action of new biomaterial composed of latex from Hancornia speciosa Gomes and silver nanoparticles Health Sciences

    BONETE, JÉSSICA M.; SILVA, GUILHERME D.; GUIDELLI, ÉDER J.; GONÇALVES, PABLO J.; ALMEIDA, LUCIANE M.; BAFFA, OSWALDO; KINOSHITA, ANGELA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this work, the natural latex extracted from Harconia speciosa was incorporated with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) to compose a functional biomaterial associating the intrinsic angiogenic activity of the latex and the antimicrobial activity of AgNP. Tissue reaction after subcutaneous implantation in dorsum of rats of membranes without AgNP and with 0.05%, 0.4% AgNP was compared at 3, 7 and 25 days. No statistically significant difference in the tissue response of the different biomaterials was observed, indicating that AgNP did not interfere with the inflammatory reaction (p > 0.05) or with the angiogenic activity of latex. Biomembranes were also tested against bacterial biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and the antimicrobial activity of the new biomaterial can be found with bacteria crenation (0.05% AgNP) and no biofilm deposition (0.4% AgNP). Therefore, this biomaterial has interesting properties for the tissue repair process and may be feasible for future applications as dressing.
  • Dietary cucurbitacin E reduces high-strength altitude training induced oxidative stress, inflammation and immunosuppression Health Sciences

    XIE, HEZHI; TUO, XINLING; ZHANG, FENG; BOWEN, LAURA; ZHAO, WEI; XU, YUYOU

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Professional athletes conduct high-intensitive hypoxic training often accompanied by the increase of many inflammatory-related cytokines and immunosuppression. Cucurbitacin E (CucE), as a triterpenoid isolated from Cucurbitaceae plants, exert potential anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory. However, it is unknown whether that the CucE could be used as dietary supplement for athletes to improve inflammatory response and immunosuppression. In this study, we established the simulative hypoxic training rat and monkey models and evaluated the effects of CucE on immune- and inflammation-related factors. Obvious improvement on pro-inflammatory factors and pro-lymphocyte proliferation activities were showed in CucE treated rats compared with the control. Further supplement of CucE in professional meals for cynomolgus monkeys with 4-weeks high-intensitive hypoxic training also exert effects on altitude-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and immunologic function. Furtherly, we explored the underlying mechanism of CucE in human Jurkat T cells and results showed that CucE may exhibit immunosuppressive effect by attenuating critical cytokine expression through down-regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, CucE is expected to be a potential dietary supplement for athletes to ameliorate the inflammation and immunosuppression caused by high-intensitive exercise.
  • Anti-urolithiatic activity of Salvia hispanica L. seeds in ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis rat’s model Health Sciences

    SALEEM, UZMA; AHMAD, NAZIR; SHAH, MUHAMMAD AJMAL; ANWAR, FAREEHA; AHMAD, BASHIR

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Urolithiasis is a disorder of kidneys in which stones formation occur due to the excessive deposition of minerals in the urinary tract. It affects 12% of the population worldwide. Salvia hispanica seeds are rich source of quercetin which has preventive role in renal stone formation. The study objective was to explore scientifically the anti-urolithiatic effect of Salvia hispanica seed’s methanol extract using in vitro and in vivo urolithiasis models. For in-vitro study nucleation, growth and aggregation assays were performed. In vivo study was performed on rats and they were divided into six groups (n=6). Group-I was given vehicle only. Group-II was disease control, treated with 0.75% EG in drinking water which triggered urolithiasis. Groups-III received cystone (750 mg/kg, orally). Groups IV–VI were treated with extract at 100, 300 and 700 mg/kg doses orally once daily. Groups III-VI additionally received 0.75% EG in drinking water. In vitro study revealed concentration dependent increase in percentage inhibition of crystal’s nucleation, growth and aggregation. In vivo study revealed anti-urolithiatic activity by lowering oxalate, calcium, phosphate, sodium and potassium levels in the urine and the serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, total proteins and total albumin. Salvia hispanica seeds are good alterative of allopathic anti-urolithiatic drugs to treat urolithiasis.
  • Effects of green tea extract combined with brisk walking on lipid profiles and the liver function in overweight and obese men: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-control trial Health Sciences

    ZHANG, TENGFEI; LI, NINGXIA; CHEN, SI; HOU, ZHENQING; SAITO, ATSUSHI

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study was aimed to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) combined with brisk walking on lipid profiles and the liver function in overweight and obese men. Twenty-four participants were randomized to either the GTE group or the placebo group for 12 weeks with a 4-week follow-up. The walking program consisted of four 60-min-sessions/week and all participants were asked to consume two GTE (150mg) or placebo tablets daily. After 12-week intervention, GTE group resulted in a significant difference in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) levels when compared to placebo group (P < 0.01). There was also a significant reduction in the aspartate aminotransferase levels (P < 0.01) in the GTE group, but no change in the placebo group (P >0.05). There was no change in the triglyceride or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the placebo group, but a significant reduction was noted in the HDL-C levels in the GTE group (P < 0.05). GTE combined with brisk walking resulted in a significant change in the LDL-C and TC levels, however, a significant reduce in HDL-C in the GTE group. The study has a more positive effect on the liver function than brisk walking alone.
  • Promising Nanostructured Materials against Enveloped Virus Health Sciences

    TOLEDO, GABRIEL G. DE; TOLEDO, VICTOR H.; LANFREDI, ALEXANDRE J.C.; ESCOTE, MARCIA; CHAMPI, ANA; SILVA, MARIA CRISTINA C. DA; NANTES-CARDOSO, ISELI L.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The development of self-disinfectant devices is highly needed to prevent and control infections, mainly caused by virus. In the past years, coronaviruses have been a threat to humanity, causing severe epidemics of respiratory infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), in 2003, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012, and presently the SARS-CoV2 is causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous studies have demonstrated that surface contamination play a significant role in the spreading of viruses. These studies demonstrated that the production of highly reactive species by copper alloys contributes to rapid elimination of viruses. Nanostructured materials such as semiconductors TiO2, Co3O4 CuO, NiO, and TiO2, and silver nanoparticles can decrease the virus viability on the surfaces when associated with polymers and textiles, especially in conditions of light exposure. In addition, graphene oxide is rising as a promising material for inactivation of viruses due to its capacity of destroying the viral envelope and capsid. The virucidal property of these materials can be enhanced by increasing their functionalization with photosensitizers. The present mini-review brings subsidies for the development of new advanced self-disinfectant materials that can be used in the manufacture of gloves, masks, and a variety of other devices.
  • Taurine Chloramine decreases cell viability and cytokine production in blood and spleen lymphocytes from septic rats Health Sciences

    DALL’IGNA, DHÉBORA M.; LUZ, JAQUELINE M. DA; VUOLO, FRANCIELI; MICHELS, MONIQUE; DAL-PIZZOL, FELIPE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Taurine (Tau) is an abundant amino acid in polymorphonuclear leukocytes that react with hypochlorous acid to form taurine chloramine (TauCl) under inflammatory conditions. We investigated potential interactions between lymphocytes and TauCl in rats submitted to cecal ligation. Animals were divided into sham or CLP groups (24 or 120 h) to isolate lymphocytes from blood and spleen. Lymphocytes were cultured at a concentration of 1×106 cells/mL and activated by concanavalin A. Tau and TauCl were added at 1, 10, and 100 μM. Cells were incubated with MTT to evaluate cell viability and cytokine concentration in the supernatant was determined. TauCl decreased lymphocyte viability and altered the secretion pattern of important inflammatory mediators in non-specific-phenotype manner. The effort to a is elucidate mechanisms of immune cell (dys)function in sepsis is important to better understand the complex regulation of immune system during sepsis development, and further studies are necessary to confirm TauCl as potential target in this context.
  • Leaf extracts of Campomanesia xanthocarpa positively regulates atherosclerotic-related protein expression Health Sciences

    CUNHA, EDUARDO B.B.; SILVA, NATÁLIA F. DA; LIMA, JEAN DE; SERRATO, JULIA A.; AITA, CARLOS A.M.; HERAI, ROBERTO H.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Atherosclerosis is caused by a monocyte-mediated inflammatory process that, in turn, is stimulated by cytokines and adhesion molecules. Monocytes are then differentiated into macrophages, leading to the formation of arterial atherosclerotic plaques. Recently, guavirova leaf extracts from Campomanesia xanthocarpa (EG) have shown potential effects on the treatment of plaque formation by reducing cholesterol, LDL levels and serum oxidative stress. We evaluated the effect of EG on the viability of human monocytic and endothelial cell lines at three time points (24, 48 and 72 hours) and whether it can modulate the migration and in vitro expression of CD14, PECAM-1, ICAM-1, HLA-DR and CD105. Cell viability was affected only at higher concentrations and times. We observed decreased ICAM-1 expression in cells treated with 50 μg/ml EG and CD14 expression with IFN-γ and without IFN-γ. CD14 also decreased endothelial cell expression in the presence of IFN-γ and GE. We also found decreased expression of PECAM-1 when treated with EG and IFN-γ. In addition, EG-treated endothelial cells showed higher migration than the control group. Reduced expression of these markers and increased migration may lead to decreased cytokines, which may be contributing to decreased chronic inflammatory response during atherosclerosis and protecting endothelial integrity.
  • Effects of grape juice consumption on muscle fatigue and oxidative stress in judo athletes: a randomized clinical trial Health Sciences

    GOULART, MARIA JÚLIA V.C.; PISAMIGLIO, DANIELA S.; MÖLLER, GABRIELLA B.; DANI, CAROLINE; ALVES, FERNANDA D.; BOCK, PATRÍCIA M.; SCHNEIDER, CLÁUDIA D.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Physiological levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important for intracellular and extracellular redox regulation in signaling and defense processes. Strenuous exercise can also contribute to this imbalance, and the muscle fatigue, evidenced by impaired strength or power generation, can be caused by various reasons, including oxidative stress. Antioxidants can prevent the formation of ROS by intercepting free radicals. Twenty judo athletes were included in this randomized, double-blind clinical trial into grape juice and placebo groups, and they consumed grape juice or placebo daily for 14 days in a crossover model. The outcomes were analyzed before and after combat simulations. The upper limb strength was higher in the grape juice group than in the placebo (p [group] = 0.003). The lipid damage levels were 10% higher in the placebo group (p [interaction] = 0.048). During the pre-exercise, the placebo group showed 19% more DNA damage than the grape juice group. The superoxide dismutase activity was 80% lower in the grape juice group (p [interaction] < 0.001). The consumption of grape juice can improve parameters of oxidative stress by reducing the lipid and DNA damage.
  • Development of nanoparticles coated with cassava bagasse pectin (Manihot esculenta Crantz) containing β-carotene for mucoadhesive applications Health Sciences

    COELHO, BIANCA; MAZZARINO, LETÍCIA; PITZ, HELOÍSA S.; FELTRIN, CLARISSA; VOYTENA, ANA PAULA L.; COELHO, DANIELA S.; SCHNEIDER, NAIRA F.Z.; NEUBERT, ENILTO O.; SIMÕES, CLÁUDIA M.O.; MARASCHIN, MARCELO

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Pectin (PC) extracted from a solid residue from cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was used to coat nanoparticles (NP) containing β-carotene (BC) aiming at the gastrointestinal administration of this lipophilic nutraceutical. The NP were prepared by spontaneous emulsification method using food grade components. Pectin-coated NP have been successfully prepared as confirmed by the increased particle size and negative surface charges due to the pectin’s anionic nature. NP showed spherical shape and monodisperse distribution, with a mean size of 21.3 nm (polydispersity index (PDI) 0.29) for BC PC T80-NP (nanoparticle with β-carotene, pectin and Tween 80) and 261.4 nm (PDI 0.1) for BC PC T20-NP (nanoparticle with β-carotene, pectin and Tween 20). BC was encapsulated at amounts of 530 and 324 µg/ml for BC PC T80-NP and BC PC T20-NP, respectively, with high encapsulation efficiency (> 95%), increasing its antioxidant capacity in vitro, besides no cytotoxic effect. However, only BC PC T20-NP was stable over a 90 days storage period (4°C) and revealed a strong interaction between pectin and mucin. These results suggest that pectin-coated BC PC T20-NP is a promising strategy to improve the bioavailability and permeation of BC for administration through mucosal surfaces.
  • Effects of the inclusion of açai oil in diet of prepartum Holstein cows on milk production, somatic cell counts and future lactation Health Sciences

    SANTOS, DAIANE S. DOS; KLAUCK, VANDERLEI; SOUZA, CARINE F.; BALDISSERA, MATHEUS D.; THEISEN, CLEITON; BORDIGNON, BRUNA; ALBA, DAVI F.; REIS, JOÃO H.; GEBERT, ROGER R.; VEDOVATTO, MARCELO; SILVA, ALEKSANDRO S. DA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract We measured the effects of açai oil in the diets of prepartum cows to evaluate health, milk production and quality. Sixteen Holstein cows were divided into two groups: SOY used as control, and AÇAI, test group. Occurred inclusion of 4% soybean or açai oils was provided in the concentrate starting at 20 days prepartum [d -20 to d 0 (partum-day)]. The AÇAI diet increased (P=0.01) milk production (d 10 and 20) and reduced somatic cell count (d 20). In milk, no effects were detected (P≥0.10) for concentration of fat, lactose or protein as well as in terms of serum concentration of calcium, albumin or triglycerides. AÇAI diet tended to increase (P=0.09) serum concentrations of total protein, glutathione transferase (d 4), and total antioxidant capacity (d 4 and 10) and increased (P≤0.05) globulin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (d 4). Further, AÇAI diet reduced the serum concentration of creatine kinase (P≤0.05) (d 0, 4 and 10), reactive oxygen species (d 0 and 4) and lipoperoxidation (d 0) and tended to reduce aspartate transaminase activity (P=0.07; d 0 and 4). Açai oil in the diets in prepartum cows improved their health as well as milk production and quality.
  • Relationship between the hsa miR 150-5p and FTO gene expression in white subcutaneous adipose tissue with overweight/obesity, lipid profile and glycemia Health Sciences

    MORAES, VITOR N.; QUEIROZ, ANDRÉ L.; MARTONE, DANIEL; RODRIGUES, JHENNYFER A.L.; GOMES, MATHEUS M.; SALGADO JÚNIOR, WILSON; BUENO JR, CARLOS ROBERTO

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The overweight population is growing in the world, and the search for obesity-associated mechanisms is important for a better understanding of this disease. Few studies with the FTO gene and miRs show how they associate to obesity and how they can impact this disease. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between the FTO gene and the hsa-miR-150-5p expression with overweight/obesity, lipid profile, and fast blood glucose. Men and women (18 years older or above), with body mass index ≥ 18.5 kg/m2, were enrolled in the present study and the FTO gene and hsa-miR-150-5p expression, biochemical parameters of blood and anthropometric measurements were analyzed. The results highlight that the FTO gene expression is associated to obesity (p 0.029), LDL-C (p 0.02) and fasting blood glucose (p 0.02), but not with triglycerides (p 0.69), total cholesterol (p 0.21), and HDL-C (p 0.24). The hsa-miR-150-5p is not associated to obesity (p 0.84), triglycerides (p 0.57), total cholesterol (p 0.51), HDL-C (p 0.75), LDL-C (p 0.32), and fasting blood glucose (p 0.42). The FTO gene expression is related to obesity, LDL-C and blood fasting glucose, representing a good molecular marker for obesity.
  • Clinico-epidemiological and sociodemographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients who are co-infected with Toxoplasma gondii in the border region of Brazil Health Sciences

    MORO, JANIELLE C.; MOREIRA, NEIDE M.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The present study assessed clinico-epidemiological and sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients who were co-infected with T. gondii in the border region of Brazil. HIV-positive patients who were attended by the Expert Assistance Service in Foz do Iguaçu city were assessed using a questionnaire and medical records. Of the 332 patients with HIV/autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who were evaluated, 111 had serology for toxoplasmosis, which could be attributed to the location of the city (i.e., border region) and tourism that encourages the intense flow of people. Toxoplasmosis infection was prevalent among patients who were 18-60 years old, had education up to the 4th grade of elementary school, ate raw vegetables from home, handled soil without gloves, drank untreated water, and allowed street cats to enter their homes. These findings contribute to assessments of the toxoplasmosis profile of HIV/AIDS patients who have a high rate of toxoplasmosis. The results may contribute to improving public health, especially in border regions with characteristics that are similar to this study. Effective measures need to be implemented to control morbidity and mortality that are associated with HIV/AIDS and toxoplasmosis in the evaluated population.
  • Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. to combat the biofilm-dependents diseases in vitro Health Sciences

    SETTE-DE-SOUZA, PEDRO HENRIQUE; SANTANA, CLEILDO P. DE; SOUSA, ILZA MARIA O.; FOGLIO, MARY ANN; MEDEIROS, FRANCINALVA D. DE; MEDEIROS, ANA CLÁUDIA D. DE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent of the biofilm-dependent diseases. With numerous side effects on the use of chlorhexidine, the search for new safe therapeutic alternatives for microorganisms involved with these diseases increases every day. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of extracts made from the bark of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. against five oral microorganisms and analyze their phytochemical and thermal degradation profile. The liquid-liquid partition was performed with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The identification and quantification of the chemical marker was done. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated based on the minimum inhibitory concentration. The cytotoxicity was analyzed based on the hemolysing potential of the samples. The thermal degradation profile was performed by two different methods. Gallic acid was identified as the main compound of the samples and showed the highest amount in the chloroform fraction. All samples were able to inhibit the growth of the microorganisms tested and showed no cytotoxicity. The ethanol extract absorbs less heat than the fractions. All samples exhibited exothermic peak consistent with degradation of gallic acid. Based on the results, the samples used are potential candidates for use in dental formulations for biofilm control.
  • Chitosan gels for buccal delivery of Schinus molle L. essential oil in dogs: characterization and antimicrobial activity in vitro Health Sciences

    ALVES, MELINA C.C.; CHAVES, DOUGLAS S.A.; BENEVENUTO, BYANCA R.; FARIAS, BEATRIZ O. DE; COELHO, SHANA M.O.; FERREIRA, THAIS P.; PEREIRA, GERALDO A.; SANTOS, GABRIELA C.M. DOS; MOREIRA, LEANDRA O.; FREITAS, JULIANA P. DE; CID, YARA P.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Periodontal disease is considered the main oral cavity disorder in dogs. Essential oils have the potential for use in the prevention and treatment of oral diseases. The antimicrobial activity of Schinus molle L. essential oil (SMEO) has already been reported. Chitosan, a natural product with antimicrobial activity and good biocompatibility has potential in biodental applications. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of SMEO against bacteria associated with periodontal disease in dogs, developed and evaluated the physicochemical properties of a novel chitosan-based buccal delivery system containing SMEO. SMEO showed antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria associated with canine periodontitis, with MIC values of 750 µg.mL-1 for Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp, 1000 µg.mL-1 for Corynebacterium spp. and 1250 µg.mL-1 for Pseudomonas spp. All formulations evaluated presented adequate physicochemical properties, good stability, and pH values close to buccal pH (5.0–7.0). Chitosan gel loaded with SMEO showed potential as a SMEO delivery system, having the ideal physicochemical and rheological properties (pseudoplastic and apparent viscosities) required for application on buccal tissue. Thus, we can conclude that formulation has the potential to be used for buccal mucosa delivery in the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease in dogs.
  • Molluscicidal activity of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) stem bark ethanolic extract against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818): a novel plant-derived molluscicide? Health Sciences

    SILVA, YASMIM R.R.; SILVA, LUCIANA D.; ROCHA, THIAGO L.; SANTOS, DANIELA B. DOS; BEZERRA, JOSÉ CLECILDO B.; MACHADO, KARINE B.; PAULA, JOELMA A.M. DE; AMARAL, VANESSA C.S.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Plant-derived molluscicides have been indicated as biodegradable and low-cost strategies for control of Biomphalaria spp., intermediate host for the Schistosoma. This study evaluated whether the crude ethanolic extract of the Persea americana stem bark has molluscicidal activity against embryos, newly-hatched and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata. The extract was obtained, characterized and its toxicity analyzed by snail embryotoxicity test (144 h) and acute toxicity test with newly-hatching and adult snails (96 h). Results showed the presence of flavonoids, anthraquinone heterosides, coumarins and tannins in the crude ethanolic extract, which showed molluscicidal activity against all life cycle stages of B. glabrata. The LC50 for embryos, newly-hatched and adults were 27.06, 30.60 and 55.55 ppm, respectively. Embryos exposed to the extract at 50 ppm showed hatching inhibition and at 6.2 and 25 ppm had the highest rates of morphological alterations, such as shell malformations and coagulation of the perivitelline substance. Adult snails exposed to the extract at 75 ppm showed a peak of behavioral changes, such as lethargy and shell reclusion, in addition to answers like hemolymph release in most concentrations. Further studies are required, prioritizing toxicity testing on non-target organisms and further elucidation of the active molecules.
  • Ammonia exposition during gestation induces neonatal oxidative damage in the brain and long-term cognitive alteration in rats Health Sciences

    DOMINGUINI, DIOGO; DALL’IGNA, DHÉBORA M.; NOGUEIRA, LAURO; STECKERT, AMANDA V.; GONÇALVES, RENATA C.; MICHELS, MONIQUE; QUEVEDO, JOÃO; RITTER, CRISTIANE; BARICHELLO, TATIANA; DAL-PIZZOL, FELIPE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Ammonia is involved in the pathogenesis of neurological conditions associated with hyperammonemia, including hepatic encephalopathy. Few is known about the effects of gestational exposition to ammonia in the developing brain, and the possible long-term consequences of such exposure. We aimed to evaluate the effects of ammonia exposure during the gestation and the possible long-term cognitive alterations on pups. Eight female rats were divided into two groups: (1) control (saline solution); (2) ammonia (ammonium acetate, 2,5mmol/Kg). Each rat received a single subcutaneous injection during all gestational period. The brains from 1-day-old rats were obtained to the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), protein carbonyl and nitrite/nitrate levels. Some animals were followed 30 days after delivery and were subjected to the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. It was observed a significant increase in protein carbonyl, but not TBARS or nitrite/nitrate levels, in pups exposed to ammonia. Rats exposed to ammonia presented long-term cognitive impairment. Gestational exposition to ammonia induces protein oxidative damage in the neonatal rat brain, and long-term cognitive impairment.
  • Antioxidant activitiy of Lactobacillus plantarum , Lactobacillus sake and Lactobacillus curvatus strains isolated from fermented Turkish Sucuk Health Sciences

    DÜZ, MÜRÜVVET; DOĞAN, YAĞMUR NİL; DOĞAN, İLKAY

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In recent years, it is very important to find more safe and natural antioxidants than biological sources to replace synthetic antioxidants. The antioxidant properties of 22 lactic acid bacteria were investigated in vitro in the present study. The conducted in vitro antioxidant assays included scavenging the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) free radical, metal (Fe+2) ion chelation, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging properties, and anti-lipid peroxidation. Analysis of DPPH free radical scavenging property of microorganisms demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum IH14L (90.34 ± 0.40%) strain exhibited the highest activity. The highest Fe+2 chelation activity was observed with Lactobacillus curvatus GH5L (75.98 ± 5.35%), while the lowest chelation activity was observed with L. plantarum IH14L (19.80 ± 0,05). The highest and lowest hydroxyl radical scavenging strains were L. plantarum IH16L (82.25 ± 1.60%) and L. plantarum IH26L (35.60 ± 4.50) strains, respectively. Comparison of superoxide radical scavenging activities of the microorganisms demonstrated that these activities ranged between 21.63 ± 1.32% and 7.22 ± 0.04%. A positive correlation was identified between the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the microorganisms and the anti-lipid peroxidation property. It was found that they had the potential for use in nutritional and probiotic applications as protective and natural antioxidants.
  • Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use During Pregnancy: A Global Perspective Health Sciences

    TAVELLA, RONAN A.; DE ABREU, VICTÓRIA O.M.; MUCCILLO-BAISCH, ANA LUIZA; DA SILVA JÚNIOR, FLÁVIO M.R.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The World Drug Report 2019 presented an alarming figure to the world: more than 5% of the world’s population has been using some type of illicit drug, and that number is growing every year. While its use increases, its abuse during pregnancy has become a global public health problem, resulting in medical and social challenges related to maternal and child health. In this context, the objective of this review was to determine the prevalence of illicit drug use during gestation across the globe, alongside with a critical review of the evaluated studies. Research was performed by simultaneously searching terms (“pregnant woman OR pregnant” OR “gestation” OR “pregnancy” AND “illicit drugs” OR “street drugs”) in the databases of the Scientific Electronic Library Online, PubMed, and Web of Science. Comparisons between studies were performed in software Statistica 10.0. The data presented worrying results in relation to the variation in prevalence of illicit drug use during pregnancy, when comparing studies based on interviews or questionnaires (self-reported) (1.65%) and studies based on toxicological analysis (12.28%). In addition, we emphasize the high prevalence (5.16%) of illicit drug use among adolescent pregnant women and the low number of studies on this population. This study reveals worrying data about pregnant drug-user population, mainly the underestimation of prevalence in studies that use only questionnaires or similar methods in comparison to studies that use toxicological analysis of biological matrices. This scenario reveals necessity for health systems in different countries to establish specific public health policies for this population.
  • FAS gene polymorphisms (rs3740286 and rs4064) were not associated with pre-eclampsia risk Health Sciences

    TANAKA, SARAH C.S.V.; ORLANDO JÚNIOR, IVANIR C.; HORTOLANI, ANDREZZA C.C.; CINTRA, MARIÂNGELA T.R.; BALARIN, MARLY A.S.; SILVA, SUELI R. DA; PISSETTI, CRISTINA W.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Pre-eclampsia results in real risk and significant impact on indicators related to maternal and child health. The only known treatment is delivery of the fetus and placenta. Despite intensive research, the causes of PE remain to be elucidated. It is suggested that pre-eclampsia is caused by a global maternal inflammatory response to a damaged placenta. Besides inflammation, cytotoxic and apoptotic mechanisms are also implicated in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Considering the importance of apoptosis to pre-eclampsia genesis, the aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of the genotypes for FAS gene polymorphisms (rs3740286 and rs4064) and to associate these with pre-eclampsia development. Women with and without pre-eclampsia were investigated. Accordingly, peripheral blood was collected, and DNA extracted, followed by genotyping using Real-time PCR with hydrolysis probe. The results showed no association between genotypes and pre-eclampsia development for both polymorphisms studied (χ2=3.39; p=.177, for rs3740286 and χ2=0.119; p=.94 for rs4064). Women with familiar history of pre-eclampsia and primiparity showed more probability to develop the condition, by multiple logistic regression analysis (OR=8.61, CI=3.39-21.86, p<0.0001; OR=6.64. CI=2.94-14.99, p<0.0001, respectively). It seems that FAS gene polymorphisms (rs3740286 and rs4064) might not be important candidates for the development of pre-eclampsia.
  • Impact of prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure on the development of rats Health Sciences

    SILVA, MARINA G.; DAROS, GUILHERME C.; SANTOS, GABRIELA M.; ANGELINO, ISABELLA P.; BITENCOURT, RAFAEL M.; FORTUNATO, JUCÉLIA J.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The intrauterine environment is infl uenced by several factors, genetic or environmental, which are essential in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of some diseases. In this study, the aim was to investigate the impact of prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure on the development of rats. Fifty pregnant rats received intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (100 µg/kg), or saline at the same dose, on the 9.5th day of pregnancy. The offspring of these rats were analyzed for indicators of brain and somatic development and maturation of physical characteristics. Refl ex ontogenesis was also analyzed by vibrissae placement, negative geotaxis, palmar grasp, precipice aversion, decubitus recovery and acceleration reaction. Administration of lipopolysaccharide on the 9.5th gestational day caused delayed opening of the auditory pavilion, reduction in the length of the tail, body, cranial axes, and body weight. Thus, maternal infections can interfere in the intrauterine environment, impairing functional and structural aspects of the central nervous system, as well as the maturation of physical characteristics.
  • Protease from Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262: Evaluation of several specific protease activities and purification of a fibrinolytic enzyme Health Sciences

    NASCIMENTO, THIAGO P.; CONNIFF, AMANDA EMMANUELLE S.; MOURA, JOSÉ ARION S.; BATISTA, JUANIZE MATIAS S.; COSTA, ROMERO MARCOS P.B.; PORTO, CAMILA S.; TAKAKI, GALBA MARIA C.; PORTO, TATIANA S.; PORTO, ANA LÚCIA F.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The industrial demand for proteolytic enzymes is stimulating the search for new enzyme sources. Fungal enzymes are preferred over bacterial enzymes, and more effective and easier to extract. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of protease production by solid state fermentation (SSF) of Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262, evaluate different specific activities, purify and partially characterize the enzyme in terms of biochemical as to the optimal pH and temperature. Initially, the enzyme crude extract was screened for 3 different proteolytic activities, collagenolytic (161.4 U/mL), keratinolytic (39.6 U/mL) and fibrinolytic (26.1 U/mL) in addition to conventional proteinase activity. After ammonium sulfate precipitation, the active fractions with fibrinolytic activity were dialyzed in 15 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8, loaded onto DEAE-Sephadex A50 ion-exchange column and gel filtrated through Superdex 75 HR10/300. The enzyme showed a fibrinolytic maximum activity at 40 C and pH 9,0. The purified enzyme showed activity against a chromogenic chymotrypsin substrate, SDS-PAGE showing a molecular mass of approximately 70 kDa and, the specific activity of 25.93 U/mg. These characteristics suggest that the enzyme could be and efficiently produced in a simple and low-cost way using Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262 in SSF.
  • Anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of the terpenoid fraction from Eugenia pruniformis leaves Health Sciences

    ALBUQUERQUE, RICARDO D.D.G.; OLIVEIRA, ADRIANA P.; FERREIRA, CHRISTIAN; PASSOS, CARLOS L.A.; FIALHO, ELIANE; SOARES, DEIVID C.; AMARAL, VERONICA F.; BEZERRA, GABRIELLE B.; ESTEVES, RICARDO S.; SANTOS, MARCELO G.; ALBERT, ANDRÉ L.M.; ROCHA, LEANDRO

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania and includes cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral clinical forms. Drugs currently available for leishmaniasis treatment present high toxicity, and development of parasite resistance. Plants constitute an important source of compounds with leishmanicidal potential. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of the terpenoid fraction of Eugenia pruniformis leaves (TF-EpL). TF-EpL was active against the promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. amazonensis with IC50(24h) value of 43.60μg/mL and 44.77μg/mL, respectively. TF-EpL altered the cell cycle of the parasite, increasing 2.32-fold the cells in the Sub-G0/G1 phase. TF-EpL also changed the ΔΨm and increased ROS and the number of annexin-V-PI positive promastigotes, which suggests incidental death. β-sitosterol, ursolic acid, corosolic acid and asiatic acid were isolated from TF-EpL. The results showed the antileishmanial activity of E. pruniformis terpenoids and its potential for further studies as a source of new drugs for leishmaniasis.
  • Gene Expression Profiling in Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells in Response to Treponema pallidum Subspecies pallidum Health Sciences

    WU, FAN; SHEN, KANGJIE; XIE, YI; WANG, HONGYE; SUN, YIFAN; WANG, QIANQIU

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Neurosyphilis (NS) is a neurological disorder caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum), but how T. pallidum attach to and cross the blood−brain barrier (BBB) and how BBB response to this bacteria remain unclear. To explore how the human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) response to T. pallidum, the Agilent SurePrint G3 Human Gene Expression 8×60K microarray was used. The results revealed that 249 genes were differentially expressed in HBMECs infected with T. pallidum. In particular, genes encoding proteins involved in bacterial adhesion, endothelial cell activation and immune response were regulated by T. pallidum. Furthermore, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to determine the biological functions of differentially expressed genes. In summary, T. pallidum changes the gene expression profile in HBMECs, and differentially expressed genes are associated with widespread biological and pathophysiological functions. Above all, this is the first paper reporting the effects of T. pallidum on HBMECs. These data develop a new platform for further molecular experiments on the pathogenesis of NS.
  • Impact of different exercise intensities on pregnant rats and on their offspring Health Sciences

    NETTO, ALINE O.; MACEDO, NATHÁLIA C. DIAS; GALLEGO, FRANCIANE Q.; SINZATO, YURI K.; VOLPATO, GUSTAVO T.; ZAMBRANO, ELENA; DAMASCENO, DÉBORA C.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed at evaluating the levels of different maternal exercise intensities on maternal and fetal outcomes. Wistar rats were mated and the pregnant rats were distributed into four experimental groups (n = 13 animals/group): Control (Not exercise group - 0% of the anaerobic threshold- AT), mild (20%), moderate (80%), and heavy-exercise intensity (140% of AT). These AT were matched to the load of 0, 1, 4 and 7% of the body weight of the animal related to swimming-induced physical intensity. In pregnancy, biomarkers related to maternal blood gases, oxidative stress, metabolism, and reproductive performance, and outcomes of their offspring were analyzed. The mild and moderate-swimming caused no change on implantation, live fetus numbers and oxidative stress status. However, the rats submitted to mild-exercise presented respiratory alkalosis and the heavy-exercise group showed respiratory acidosis. In addition, fetuses of the heavy-exercise dams were smaller for gestational age and lower serum adiponectin levels compared to those of other groups. In conclusion, the moderate-exercise intensity caused beneficial effects for maternal environment and the mild and moderate-exercise presented similar fetal repercussions. Nevertheless, the heavy-exercise intensity caused maternal metabolic alterations that damaged the fetal growth. Therefore, these findings confirm that physical intensity should be carefully conducted to avoid maternal complications and, consequently, compromised fetal repercussions.
  • Resistance training prevents the reduction of insulin-mediated vasodilation in the mesenteric artery of dexamethasone-treated rats. Health Sciences

    ARAUJO, JOÃO E.S.; MACEDO, FABRÍCIO N.; OLIVEIRA, DAVI P.M.; BRITTO, RAQUEL M.; QUINTANS, JULLYANA S.S.; BARRETO, ROSANA S.S.; SANTOS, MARCIO R.V.; QUINTANS-JUNIOR, LUCINDO J.; BARRETO, ANDRÉ S.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated whether resistance training (RT) could prevent glucocorticoid-induced vascular changes. Wistar rats were divided into groups: control (CO), dexamethasone (DEX), and Dexamethasone+RT (DEX+RT). On the eighth week, dexamethasone was administered in the DEX and DEX+RT groups. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were used to assess the lipid profile, glucose and insulin. Vascular reactivity to insulin and phenylephrine (Phe) were evaluated. The DEX+RT group presented an improvement in the lipid profile, fasting glucose, and insulin levels compared to the DEX group. In addition, vasodilation was reduced in the DEX group compared to the CO group, and was increased in the DEX+RT group. After inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, DEX group showed contraction, in which it was in the DEX + RT group. When nitric oxide synthase (NOS) participation was evaluated, the DEX group presented a contraction compared to the CO group, with no contractile effect in the DEX+RT group. Moreover, vasoconstriction caused by NOS inhibition was abolished by BQ123 (endothelin receptor antagonist). In respect Phe response, there was an increase in tension in the DEX group compared to the CO group, being reduced in the DEX+RT group. The results suggest that RT prevented damage to vascular reactivity.
  • Antimicrobial potential of Pectis substriata essential oil (Asteraceae) against drug-resistant Staphylococcus strains Health Sciences

    JESUS, GENILSON S. DE; MICHELETTI, ANA C.; TAKAHASHI, KAREN M.; MATAYOSHI, TATIANA; POTT, ARNILDO; YOSHIDA, NÍDIA C.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Resistant bacterial infections represent one of the major threats in worldwide health services. In this scenario, plant essential oils are considered promising antimicrobial agents. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Pectis substriata essential oil alone and in combination with antibiotics, against clinical drug-resistant bacterial strains. The essential oil from the plant aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation. Antimicrobial activity was assessed against standard and clinical bacterial strains by broth microdilution method, and the synergistic effect was evaluated by checkerboard microtiter assay. The oil alone showed significant activity against clinical Staphylococcus warneri (62.5 µg.mL-1), and was moderately active on Staphylococcus aureus (standard strain) and clinical Staphylococcus intermedius (125 and 250 µg.mL-1, respectively). Synergism was achieved for the combinations of essential oil and ampicillin on S. warneri and of oil and kanamycin on S. intermedius. Additive effects were also observed. This is the first report of the chemical composition of P. substriata essential oil, and the results revealed the presence of compounds with proven antimicrobial activity. The oil proved active against resistant Gram-positive cocci, and showed synergism with antibiotics, revealing its potential use as adjuvant or in the development of new alternative treatments of drug-resistant antimicrobial infections.
  • Antifungal and anti-biofilm effect of the calcium channel blocker verapamil on non-albicans Candida species Health Sciences

    SCORZONI, LILIANA; MENEZES, RAQUEL T. DE; PEREIRA, THAIS C.; OLIVEIRA, PRISCILA S.; RIBEIRO, FELIPE DE CAMARGO; SANTOS, EVELYN LUZIA DE SOUZA; FUGISAKI, LUCIANA R.O.; OLIVEIRA, LUCIANE D. DE; AMORIM, JOSÉ BENEDITO O.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Candida is a human fungal pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases. Candida albicans is the main etiologic agent in these diseases; however, infections can be caused by non-albicans Candida species. Virulence factors such as biofilm production, which protect the fungus from host immunity and anti-fungal drugs, are important for the infection. Therefore, available antifungal drugs for candidiasis treatment are limited and the investigation of new and effective drugs is needed. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker with an inhibitory effect on hyphae development, adhesion, and colonization of C. albicans. In this study, we investigated the effect of verapamil on cell viability and its antifungal and anti-biofilm activity in non-albicans Candida species. Verapamil was not toxic to keratinocyte cells; moreover, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata were susceptible to verapamil with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1250 μM; in addition, this drug displayed fungistatic effect at the evaluated concentrations. After treatment with verapamil, reduced viability, biomass, and mitochondrial activity were observed in biofilms of the non-albicans Candida species C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. These findings highlight the importance of the study of verapamil as an alternative treatment for infections caused by non-albicans Candida species.
  • Oral and uterine leiomyomas exhibit high immunoexpression of Cripto-1 compared to normal myometrium Health Sciences

    SILVA, ANDRÉ F.; SILVA, EMMILY C.C. DA; OLIVEIRA, CLÁUDIA N.; ROCHA, KEYLA B.F.; MIGUEL, MARCIA C.C.; PEREIRA, JOABE S.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors in women. Many of them are associated with significant morbidity. The present study aimed to analyze histomorphological and histochemical characteristics and immunoexpression of Cripto-1 in oral leiomyomas (OL), uterine leiomyomas (UL), and normal myometrium (NM). Sample was composed of ten OL, 11 UL and 11 NM. Histomorphological characteristics were analyzed at 100 and 400x magnifications with HE staining. The immunoexpression of Cripto-1 was analyzed in five high-power fields. Statistical analysis considered a significant difference when p<0.05. Six OL disclosed moderate/intense inflammatory infiltrate, while ten UL exhibited mild infiltrate (p=0.024). When analyzing all leiomyomas together, 20 exhibited hyalinization, whereas no NM exhibited this alteration (p<0.001). There was no statistical difference in the distribution of mast cells among the lesions. The median Cripto-1 was higher in UL (9.0), followed by OL and NM (4.0). Associations of the Cripto-1 expression between leiomyomas (separately and together) and NM were statistically significant (p<0.001). These results indicate that OL and UL exhibit similar histomorphological and histochemical characteristics, as well as differences to NM. The higher immunoexpression of Cripto-1 in leiomyomas compared to NM suggests that this protein may influence cell proliferation and tissue architecture of oral and uterine leiomyomas.
  • Fasted condition in multicomponent training does not affect health parameters in physically active post-menopausal women Health Sciences

    RODRIGUES, JHENNYFER A.L.; CUNHA, THAÍS H.A.; FEREZIN, LETÍCIA P.; BUENO-JÚNIOR, CARLOS R.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Diet and exercise are the main modifiable factors for cardiovascular disease and may be particularly important in older adults. We investigated the effects of fasting during 12 weeks of multicomponent training in the context of the aging process in physically active post-menopausal women. Method: 25 women (60.6 ± 8.9 years) were randomized into two groups: fed (FED, n=12) or fasted (FASTED, n=13) and submitted to multicomponent training. The participants underwent anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure, biochemical blood and physical fitness assessments. Results: There was a reduction in both groups for waist circumference [FED: 100.4±6.8 and 99.1±7.1 cm before and after the intervention, respectively; F = 4.214, p = 0.048; FASTED: 93.1±10.2 and 92.2±8.4 cm before and after the intervention, respectively; p = 0.039]. No significant changes were observed for the other outcomes. Discussion: The current research results, the first in the context of aging, agree with previous studies that analyzed chronic effects of fasting, showing that fasted exercise training did not improve anthropometric measurements, body composition, or blood markers compared to the fed condition after long-term exercise training. Together, these findings suggest that fasting during multicomponent training does not affect health parameters in physically active post-menopausal women.
  • Physical exercise associated with vitamin D chronic supplementation reduces kidney injury induced by monosodium glutamate Health Sciences

    ZANUZO, KÉSIA; GUARESCHI, ZOÉ M.; DETOGNI, ANNA CAROLINY; HUNING, LUIZ PIERRE; RODRIGUES, PATRICK F.; PORTO, ELAINE M.; GRASSIOLLI, SABRINA; AMORIM, JOÃO PAULO A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic vitamin D (VD) supplementation associated with regular swimming over renal histomorphometric aspects in obese rats. Thirty Wistar male rats (5 days old) were used. Twenty four rats were given subcutaneous injections of monosodium glutamate (MSG; 4 g/kg), and six control rats were given an equimolar saline solution. At 21-days-old, the MSG-treated rats were randomly distributed among sedentary animals (S) and exercised (E, swimming; 3x/week). These groups were subdivided into groups orally supplemented with VD (12 μg/kg; 3x/week) or not supplemented (NS), totaling Five experimental groups (n = 6 rats/group): MSG, MSG-SVD, MSG-ENS, MSG-EVD and control groups. In MSG-obese rats, there was such as a decrease in the diameter of the, glomerular tuft, Bowman’s capsule, Bowman’s space areas, and renal cortical thickness, compared to the control group. In MSG-SVD, MSG-ENS, and MSG-EVD animals, there was an increase in the cortical thickness in relation to the MSG group. In MSG-ENS and MSG-EVD animals, there was a reduction of tubular degeneration in relation to the MSG group. We conclude that physical exercise associated with Vitamin D supplementation can prevent of renal injury, increasing the thickness of the renal cortex and decrease the tubular degeneration.
  • Role of the endocannabinoid system on the antihyperalgesic action of gabapentin in animal model of neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation Health Sciences

    BUFFON, ALEXANDRE C.; JAVORNIK, MARCELO A.; HEYMANNS, ANA C.; SALM, DAIANA C.; HOREWICZ, VERÔNICA V.; MARTINS, DANIEL F.; PIOVEZAN, ANNA P.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Gabapentin has antihyperalgesic action, decreasing central sensitization in neuropathic pain models; this effect depends on the mobilization of endogenous pain control pathways. This study aims to investigate the contribution of the endocannabinoid system to the antihyperalgesic action of gabapentin. Mus musculus Swiss, male, were submitted to PSL. On the 7th and 14th days post PSL, different groups were treated with CB1 receptor antagonist, AM281 via i.t. (2 μg/5 μl) or i.pl. (10 μg/20 μl) or CB2, AM630 via i.t. (5 μL i.t.) or (20 μL i.p.) and 15 min after gabapentin (30 mg / kg orally). Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured by the frequency of paw removal by the von Frey monofilament. Gabapentin demonstrated antihypernociceptive action, which was attenuated in animals pretreated with AM281 in both the i.t. and i.pl routes on the 7th and 14th days, differently from animals pretreated with AM630 that did not achieve a significant reduction with administration i.t. only on the 14th day with administration i.pl. The results show that endocannabinoid system contributes to the antihyperalgesic action of gabapetin in neuropathic pain by PSL, suggesting participation in the medullary and peripheral levels of CB1 receptors, and the peripheral performance of CB2 receptors.
  • Production of HPMC-films for lactase administration Health Sciences

    SILVA, HELOÍSA R.P. DA; STEVANATO, NATÁLIA; GARCIA, VITOR A.S.; SILVA, CAMILA DA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The present work aimed to develop and characterize HPMC-films (HFs) based on hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) with the addition of lactase for later application in the reduction of lactose in whole milk. The HFs were produced by the casting technique, with the addition of 1, 3, 5 and 7 g of lactase per 100 g of filmogenic solution. All the formulations presented a high capacity of film formation, but the thickness and time of disintegration increased according to the added lactase concentration. Regardless of the formulation developed, HFs in whole milk, a reduction in the lactose content (~ 80%) occurred, classifying the product as zero lactose. Thus, the HPMC-films with the addition of lactase can be considered as a good alternative for solubilization in foods which have a high concentration of lactose.
  • Antimicrobial potential of Copaiba Oil (Copaifera multijuga Hayne-Leguminosae) against bubaline mastitis multiresistant isolates Health Sciences

    OLIVEIRA, DIVÂNIA F.F. DE; NASCIMENTO, THIAGO P.; RODRIGUES, CLÁUDIO HENRIQUE; BATISTA, JUANIZE M.S.; LIU, TATIANA P.S.L.; MEDEIROS, ELIZABETH S. DE; MOTA, RINALDO A.; COSTA, ROMERO MARCOS P.B.; PORTO, TATIANA S.; PORTO, CAMILA S.; PORTO, ANA LÚCIA F.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Copaiba oil is a natural product used by Amazonian populations and recognized for its medicinal properties because it has significant antimicrobial activity for several pathogenic microorganisms. The present work aimed to evaluate and characterize the effect of natural oil produced by copaiba – Copaifera multijuga against multiresistant isolates of bubaline mastitis. The nitrocefin test was performed with isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bubaline mastitis, which were 100% positive for beta-lactamase enzyme detection. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of 25% to 3.12% was obtained for Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli and 50% and 25% for S. aureus, but Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis were resistant. MBC with 12.5% and 6.25% oil were obtained for most multiresistant bubaline mastitis isolates from the states of Pernambuco, Ceará, Bahia and Alagoas. The results demonstrated the great potential of using copaiba natural oil in the treatment of buffalo mastitis.
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