Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of Eucalyptus trees in a silvopastoral system on the microclimate and the capacity of that to mitigate the effects of climate change on pasturelands. This study included an open pasture of Piatã palisadegrass and an adjacent pasture that contained both palisadegrass and East-to-West rows of Eucalyptus trees, with 15 m between rows, 2 m between trees within rows. The micrometeorological measurements were collected at several distances from the tree rows and in the open pasture. The silvopastoral system was associated with greater between-row shading when solar declination was high and greater near-tree shading when solar declination was around -22°. Both soil heat flux and temperature were influenced by solar radiation, wind speed, and the ability of tree canopies to reduce radiation losses. Wind speed was consistently lower in the silvopastoral system, owing to the windbreak effect of the Eucalyptus trees. The present study demonstrated that silvopastoral systems can be used to attenuate the effects of climate change, as trees can protect pastureland from intense solar radiation and wind, thereby reducing evapotranspiration and, consequently, improving soil water availability for the understory crop.
Abstract in English:Abstract Effective microorganisms (EM) are inoculants formed by fungi and bacteria isolated from soil. EM are commonly used by farmers on agronomic crops to stimulate plant growth, but their composition and their benefits has been controverted. This study aimed to analyze the diversity of microorganisms growing in three EM inoculants, as well as to evaluate their efficiency in the germination of palisade grass seeds. The total DNA of the three EM inoculants was extracted, the 16S rRNA and ITS genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Germination tests were conducted with three type of the EM, in three concentration and two times of the immersion. The bacterial group was the most abundant in EM, followed by fungi. Bacterial operational taxonomic units OTUs were shared by all EMs. Pre-treatments of palisade grass seeds with EMs resulted in a higher germination percentage (% G) and germination speed index (IVG) when EM was used at concentration of 1 or 2% in water. Seed immersion for 5 min was more efficient than immersion for 24 h. We can conclude that EM of different origin can share microbial groups and diversity of microorganisms, besides being an alternative to increase palisade grass seeds germination.
Abstract in English:Abstract Contamination of water sources due to herbicide is of great concern. Clomazone is a pesticide with a high contamination potential which could possibility lixiviate to water streams. Changes caused by residual herbicide include flora modifications which are generally detrimental for some species. The lack of morphological studies performed in aquatic plants exposed to herbicide-contaminated environments has encouraged the development of our research. For the first time, we present a study that aimed to evaluate leaf injuries visible to the naked eye as well as microscopical effects which may be caused by clomazone on Pistia stratiotes. Pistia stratiotes was subjected to five concentrations of clomazone. Our analysis showed leaf injuries, especially after 15 days of clomazone application. Hormesis was observed when the water lettuce was subjected to the lower concentrations. Total leaf area showed increase following by reduction while injured until reaching the highest concentration. Although the concentrations of clomazone tested in our study are not lethal to water lettuce, such herbicide have still caused morphoanatomical damages on leaves which advocates for the use of P. stratiotes as a bioindicator of the presence of herbicides such as clomazone in water.
Abstract in English:Abstract In Brazil and in other countries of the world, studies have been conducted to identify Listeria monocytogenes in cattle meat that is preferably consumed undercooked and, when marketed without meeting strict phytosanitary requirements, may cause outbreaks of listeriosis. In the such, foodborne outbreaks, the methods used for the detection of the pathogen and the efficiency associated with them are crucial for the proper assessment. In this study, we used the techniques biochemical and molecular for identification of the L. monocytogenes isolated from 30 samples of the fresh beef, marketed in ten butchers’ shop of the free-fair from a municipality from the Bahia, Brazil. The results obtained from biochemical tests (catalase, motility, β-hemolysis and carbohydrate fermentation), as well as PCR analysis for the hly gene (hemolysin production is an important factor in the pathogenesis of listeriosis) revealed that 50% of butchers shops presented bovine meat contaminated with bacteria of the Listeria sp. and confirmed that 54.16% of the analyzed meat samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. This study highlights the importance of microbiological surveillance in free-fair to minimize the exposure of consumers to this foodborne pathogen.
Abstract in English:Abstract The study investigated native solitary bee species that nest in pre-existing cavities in the Baturité Massif, State of Ceará, Brazil, their preference for nest substrates and aspects of these bee communities. Samples were taken in four distinct areas of the Baturité Massif using three types of trap-nests: dried bamboo internodes, cardboard tubes and rational boxes. Out of the 185 nests offered, 34 were colonized and 24 of them produced 131 bees, belonging to two families (Apidae and Megachilidae) and five genera (Centris, Mesocheira, Euglossa, Megachile and Coelioxys) from six species, including parasitic ones. Nesting preference was observed to certain types of substrates (χ²=17.89, p<0.001), with bamboo internodes being preferred by bee to build their nests, while monthly variation in temperature and humidity did not affect bee emergency. Spite of few nests foundations and the few species sampled, this work contributed to an unprecedented knowledge about the species that use pre-existing cavities in the Baturité Massif that may contribute to assist in the maintenance and conservation of this mountainous area and can be useful for pollination services of native and agricultural plants.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to estimate variance components for performance and carcass traits in a paternal broiler line. The (co)variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method applied to the animal model, including the fixed effect of group (sex and hatch) and additive genetic and residual as random effects. Estimated heritability for performance traits ranged from 0.09 to 0.42. The genetic correlations between traits ranged from -0.50 to 0.97. The heritability estimates of feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion from 35 to 41 days of age were of low magnitude. The genetic correlations among them were favorable to genetic selection. These results suggest that moderate genetic gain can be obtained to the feed intake and weight gain when the selection criterion is the body weight and prime cuts traits. The feed conversion that had low heritability estimation and low genetic correlation with the body weight and prime cut traits needs to pay greater attention due to the economic importance in the high-meat production lineage breeding programs.
Abstract in English:Abstract Several countries included the assessment of environmental drift contamination risk for the registration of pesticides. This practice is not yet totality effective in Brazil; however, due to the large number of pesticides in use, it is important to identify the real contamination risk during pesticide spraying. Therefore, this study determined the indices of environmental risks for exposure to drift from terrestrial applications of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides that are used in soybean crops under Brazilian climate conditions and established buffer zones for the application of these products. Based on the three prediction drift models for soybeans in Brazil, risk indices were computed for aquatic organisms and terrestrial organisms according to the modelling procedures proposed by the POCER (Pesticide Occupation and Environmental Risk) and HAIR (Harmonized Environmental Indicators for Pesticide Risk) methodologies. In general, aquatic organisms are the most sensitive to drift contamination, being chlorothalonil, trifluralin and chlorpyrifos the ones that presented the higher risk indexes. No risk was found for earthworms; in contrast, the insecticides chlorpyrifos, spinosad and thiamethoxam presented risks to bees regardless of the nozzle (droplet size) used for the determination of the drift curve, resulting in the demand for different buffer zones.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of wing bands and the behavior of Anastrepha fraterculus in the presence of Megafreya sutrix. The first experiment used specimens of M. sutrix (n = 40), 20 males and 20 females of A. fraterculus and Musca domestica. The second experiment used 20 individuals of M. sutrix (10 males and 10 females) and 120 of A. fraterculus (20 males and 20 females) for each treatment. Marks were made on the wings of the flies: a group with painted wing bands (n = 40) with their wings fully painted; another with highlighted wing bands (n = 40) and normal bands (n = 40). Recordings were made for 15 min or until the fly was preyed upon. The analyses were performed through observation of the recordings and Chi-square test with Yates correction for continuity. The values found for predation of A. fraterculus were significant when compared to M. domestica when evaluating the predation factor, showing that, A. fraterculus is less predated than M. domestica. It was found that the wing patterns did not influence the predatory behavior of M. sutrix.
Abstract in English:Abstract The yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Reeve, 1854) is a sand mollusc with historical and socioeconomic importance in Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. A guaranteed form to access a successful reestablishment of the species in their natural environment is directly linked to their reproduction biology. Then, our report introduces the embryonic and larval development of the yellow clam reared in laboratory for such purposes. M. mactroides broodstock were selected as specimens who possess a mean total shell length and weight of 66 ± 3.82 mm and 27.15 ± 4.07 g for an afterwards spawn induction through stripping technique. Regarding the embryonic development, newly fertilized oocytes exhibited a mean diameter of 51.20 ± 6.64 μm. The first polar corpuscle, trochophores and D-veliger appeared at 20 min, 18 and 24 h after fertilization, respectively. Umbonate and pediveliger larvae were noticed on the 8th and 25th day, respectively, with complete metamorphosis occurring only at the 27th day, when all larvae were retained in a 200 μm nylon mesh. Therefore, with that basic understanding of the embryonic and larval development of M. mactroides in the laboratory, forwards studies will focus in establish a technological package for this species.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the Holopothrips fulvus Morgan (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) population dynamics and to identify dwarf cashew genotypes less infested by the pest in 2015 and 2016, under field conditions. H. fulvus population evaluations were carried out by monthly observations in the plants and using a score scale varying from 0 to 4. H. fulvus infestation occurred from October to December, and in the cashew genotypes CAP 112/8, CAP 121/1, CAP 131/2, CAP 145/2, CAP 145/7, CAP 128/2, CAP 120/4, CAP 123/6, CAP 130/1, and CAP 157/2 was dependent on the flowering period of the crop in 2015. In 2016, there was dependence in all evaluated genotypes between H. fulvus infestation and the cashew flowering period. In 2015, no significant differences were observed between the evaluated genotypes regarding H. fulvus infestation. In 2016, genotypes CAP 105/5, CAP 143/7, CAP 150/3, CAP 155/2, CAP 158/8, CAP 161/7, CAP 163/8, CAP 31, CAP 71, CAP 92, CAP 113, CAP 120, CAP 155, CAP 165, CAP 106/1, CAP 111/2, CAP 127/3, CAP 157/2, and BRS 226 were less infested. H. fulvus occurs from October to December and we could identify the dwarf cashew genotypes less infested by the pest.
Abstract in English:Abstract Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera) is a major pest of soybean in the Brazil. It is known that the reduction of proteolytic activity by the ingestion of protease inhibitors reduces digestion and larval development of the insects. Control via inhibition of the digestive enzymes necessitates deeper knowledge of the enzyme kinetics and the characterization of the inhibition kinetics of these proteases, for better understanding of the active centers and action mechanisms of this enzyme. Trypsin-like proteases found in the gut of Anticarsia gemmatalis were purified in a p-aminobenzamidine agarose column. Kinetic characterization showed KM 0.503 mM for the L-BApNA substrate; Vmax= 46.650 nM s-1; Vmax/[E]= 9.256 nM s-1 mg L-1 and Vmax/[E]/KM= 18.402 nM s-1 mg L-1 mM. The Ki values for the inhibitors benzamidine, berenil, SKTI and SBBI were 11.2 µM, 32.4 µM, 0.25 nM and 1.4 nM, respectively, and all revealed linear competitive inhibition. The SKTI showed the greatest inhibition, which makes it a promising subject for future research to manufacture peptide mimetic inhibitors.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pereskia grandifolia Haworth (PGH) and Pereskia aculeata Miller (PAM) are recognized sources of proteins; dietary fiber; vitamins and minerals make this plant leaves, raw, cooked, and braised, an important ally against protein and micronutrient deficiencies. One of the main problems is the presence of antinutritional factors that may interfere in the digestibility and bioavailability of some nutrients. The objective was to evaluate the amino acid profile and the chemical score of the raw leaves and the effects of heating media and time on the total dietary fiber, minerals, trypsin inhibition, oxalic acid and tannins of leaves of PGH and PAM. The samples had similar amino acid profiles and total dietary fiber. With regard to antinutritional compounds, heating the leaves of PGH led to a decrease in trypsin inhibition, primarily after the first minutes of wet cooking. Oxalic acid and tannins predominated in both species. Considering the interaction with time, the variables related to iron and zinc minimized the tannin responses in PGH and PAM, respectively. Heating media and times interfered with the chemical components present in the leaves of Pereskia species and led to high antinutrient retention after heat treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract In plant breeding, the dialelic models univariate have aided the selection of parents for hybridization. Multivariate analyses allow combining and associating the multiple pieces of information of the genetic relationships between traits. Therefore, multivariate analyses might refine the discrimination and selection of the parents with greater potential to meet the goals of a plant breeding program. Here, we propose a method of multivariate analysis used for stablishing mega-traits (MTs) in diallel trials. The proposed model is applied in the evaluation of a multi-environment complete diallel trial with 90 F1’s of simple maize hybrids. From a set of 14 traits, we demonstrated how establishing and interpreting MTs with agronomic implication. The diallel analyzes based on mega-traits present an important evolution in statistical procedures since the selection is based on several traits. We believe that the proposed method fills an important gap of plant breeding. In our example, three MTs were established. The first, formed by plant stature-related traits, the second by tassel size-related traits, and the third by grain yield-related traits. Individual and joint diallel analysis using the established MTs allowed identifying the best hybrid combinations for achieving F1’s with lower plant stature, tassel size, and higher grain yield.
Abstract in English:Abstract To investigate the simultaneous influence of different non-nutritional factors in production and physical-chemical characteristics of chitosan obtained by Syncephalastrum racemosum we used individually agroindustrial wastes as the only nutritional sources for fungus growth. The growth conditions were evaluated according to Factorial Design, 24 with three central points in order to determine the mainly factors for maximum production of microbiological chitosan in submerged culture. Syncephalastrum racemosum grown in corn steep liquor and yield up to 7.8 g chitosan/kg of substrate in the best condition by factorial design. The microbiological chitosan obtained has deacetilation degree 88.14%, crystallinity rate of 55.96%, mass decomposition process at 304.43 ºC, and low molecular weight. To fast production we performed a kinetic study and confirmed that at 36 h the chitosan production is higher and the physical-chemical characteristics were maintained. This research describes, for the first time, the factorial study of chitosan production by Syncephalastrum racemosum in agroindustrial wastes and its economic potential for commercialization.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two sub-periods of the calving season and two cow maturity stages on the efficiency of beef cows and their calves. A total of 159 cow-calf pairs were divided by calving time (early or late) within the calving season and maturity stage (young or adult). Calves were weaned at 42 or 63 days after birth and evaluated until 210 days of age. Cows and calves had their development examined based on their weight and body condition score at calving, at weaning, and at 210 days. Reproductive performance was evaluated on the basis of time to become pregnant again. Milk yield was assessed by the direct method on three occasions spaced 21 days apart. Adult cows were heavier than young cows, at calving (398.5 vs 327.5 kg, respectively), weaning (397.3 vs 324.1 kg, respectively) at the end breeding season (424.1 vs 342.1 kg, respectively). Reproductive performance was influenced by calving time. Adult cows had higher pregnancy rates (83.75 and 69.17%, for early and for late calving, respectively) than young cows (57.03 and 35.01% for early and for late-calving, respectively). Calves from early-calving young cows weighed 158.8 kg at 210 days of age vs. 123.7 kg for those born from late-calving adult cows. However, late-calving cows produced 10.7% more milk than those that calved early in the season (227.0 vs 205.0 liters, respectively). Early calving associated with non-requirement of growth determine higher productivity efficiency in beef cows.
Abstract in English:Abstract Abstract: The formononetin biostimulant may be an option for reducing P fertilization once it stimulates mycelial growth of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and increases plant ability to take up nutrients through the roots, especially phosphorus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of formononetin associated with phosphorus fertilization in maize. Field experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement (0, 50 or 70, and 140 kg ha-1 P2O5; and formononetin application rates: 0, 25, 50, and 100 g ha-1), with four replications. Formononetin (100 g ha-1) increased the mycorrhizal colonization rate up to 30% in maize in the first four weeks after emergence when no P fertilizer was applied, and to 17% when 50 or 70 kg ha-1 of P2O5 were applied. The application of 50 and 100 g ha-1 of formononetin significantly increased plant height, ear height, and grain yield (22% - 76%) when no P fertilizer was applied. The use of formononetin in the field stimulates mycorrhizal colonization, has a positive effect on maize yield, and reduces the need for P fertilizer application in maize. However, this effect was evident only at low P soil contents.
Abstract in English:Abstract Precision agriculture is an alternative for reducing costs. This study evaluated and economically compared three sampling methods used in precision agriculture with respect to the acquisition of inputs and machines and equipment. The sampling methods used were zone management by elevation (ZME), grid sampling (GS) and sampling guided by apparent electrical conductivity of the soil (OS). Soil samples for the ZME were collected after the definition of zones according to the elevations of the plots. The sample mesh was in a georeferenced mesh of 100 x 100 m. The targeted sampling was performed after a ground proximity sensor was used to identify the apparent electrical conductivity of the soil to define the management areas. From the results of the laboratory tests, the application costs were calculated for lime, phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen to allow a comparison between the methods, volumes and costs. This approach considered the costs of depreciation, insurance, interest, operating costs, labor, maintenance and fuel. With this study, it was possible to compare the volumes of the recommended fertilizers and estimate the overall economic cost of using the technology via sensor. Taking the GS as a reference, the ZME presented as the best alternative compared to other methods.
Abstract in English:Abstract The cultivation of aromatic species to obtain essential oils has great economic importance, presenting an increasing demand from different industrial sectors, especially to menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) essential oil, rich in menthol (70-80%). Consortium cultivation has been an important practice in agricultural systems whose land use is necessary, consequently promoting strong competition for light in reduced space. Thus, this study aimed verifying if different light intensities might promote chemical, metabolical and anatomical alterations in menthol mint. Plants were grown in greenhouse at different average of light intensities (137, 254, 406 and 543 µmol photons m2 s1). Samples were collected 43 days after germination and submitted to following analyses: Gravimetric test, photosynthetic pigments, soluble fractions, enzymatic activity, N-total, trichome density and histochemistry and chemometric test based on essential oil chemical profile. Fresh mass gain, trichome density, essential oil content and soluble sugars were positively influenced by light intensity increase. On the other hand, total-N, NO3−-N and pigments content have decreased influenced by light intensity increase. In the secretion from the trichomes, phenolic substances were reported, as well as lipophilic ones in the peltate ones. The increase of oxygenated monoterpenes was favored by light intensity decrease.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this work, we identified the bacterial microbiota associated with farmed oystersin estuarine regions of four states in the north eastern region of Brazil. During the drought and rainy seasons, for eight months, twenty oysters were sampled seasonally from seven different marine farms. In the laboratory, DNA extraction, amplification, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were performed to establish the taxonomic units. We identified 106 genera of bacteria belonging to 103 families, 70 orders, 39 classes, and 21 phyla. Out of the total, 40 of the genera represented bacteria potentially pathogenic to humans; of these, nine are known to cause foodborne diseases and six are potentially pathogenic to oysters. The most prevalent genera were Mycoplasma, Propionigenium, Psychrilyobacter, and Arcobacter. The results indicate the need for more systematic monitoring of bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma in oyster farming operations in the Brazilian north eastern region. Currently, Mycoplasma is not one of the microorganisms analysed and monitored by order of Brazilian legislation during the oyster production and/or commercialization process, even though this genus was the most prevalent at all sampling points and presents pathogenic potential both for oysters and for consumers.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of the present study was to identify Aleurodicus cocois resistant genotypes among five dwarf cashew clones available in the germplasm bank of Embrapa/Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Agroindústria Tropical. Free-choice and no-choice tests were applied in order to evaluate the relative attractiveness of the clones and the oviposition preferences, egg-to-adult development times and adult emergence rates of the pest. In comparison with other clones, PRO143/7 exhibited the lowest attraction to the whitefly and was least preferred for oviposition in the free-choice test. Conversely, CCP76 attracted the highest number of A. cocois and was preferred for oviposition. In the no-choice test, the rates of emergence of adults from clones BRS274, CCP76 and PRO143/7 varied between 53.0 and 56.8%, values that were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of clones BRS226 and EMBRAPA51, which were 72.34 and 75.16%, respectively. Some of the cashew clones tested showed antibiotic (CCP76, PRO143/7 and BRS274) and antixenotic (PRO143/7 and BRS226) resistance to A. cocois. These clones are good candidates for use in breeding programs of cashew.
Abstract in English:Abstract The REML/BLUP procedure has been successfully used for genetic progress through individual selection of high-yielding passion fruit genotypes resistant to the Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus. This study was thus developed to estimate genetic parameters and predict the gain obtained from individual selection of genotypes in a population derived from backcrosses in passion fruit. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design with four replicates, involving five full-sib families (genotypes from the first backcross). Variance components and the genetic values were estimated for eight agronomic traits via the REML/BLUP procedure. For all traits, genotypic variance between the genotypes from the first backcross showed little contribution to the phenotypic variance. The low heritability estimates obtained for the traits are overcome via individual BLUP estimates. Therefore, it was possible to obtain considerable gains with individual selection for the variables fruit length, average fruit weight, and pulp weight (19.50 to 14.04%; 22.93 to 17.97%; and 10.08 to 7.95%, respectively). For the traits showing lower gains, it is possible to obtain gains indirectly by selecting genotypes for correlated traits. Because this population derives from the first backcross generation, agronomic traits still must be recovered.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the laboratory, were evaluated the effects (residual contact and feeding deterrence) of the essential oils from the leaves of Piper aduncum, Lippia sidoides and Schinus terebinthifolius, as well as eleven selected constituents and binary blends of oils in different proportions against 3rd instar larvae of Plutella xylostella (L.). The Piper oil demonstrated the greatest toxicity (LC50 = 0.31 µL/mL) and feeding deterrence (DC50 = 1.08 µL/mL) between oils tested. Dillapiole (LC50 = 1.01 µL/mL; DC50 = 1.10 µL/mL) and carvacrol (LC50 = 6.03 µL/mL; DC50 = 0.075 µL/mL) demonstrated the greatest toxicity and feeding deterrence between constituents tested, respectively. Based on the fractional effects indices for the blends, a synergistic interaction was found for the blend of the Lippia and Schinus oils at a proportion of 75 and 25%, respectively. The present findings indicate that this blend could be used in the control of P. xylostella, as the literature reports populations resistant to the active ingredient in the positive control, Premio®. Further studies are needed for the development of a new botanical insecticide based on the active ingredients in oils from L. sidoides and S. terebinthifolius to improve efficiency, stability and the cost-benefit in the control of P. xylostella.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the weight and body yield of two families of selectively bred tambaqui farmed in different environments. Two families (FA and FB) were reared in the municipalities (environments) of Santo Antônio de Leverger (MT) and Campo Grande (MS) for 431 days. Pre-bleeding weight, body yield, and the interaction effect between families and environments on these traits were investigated. No interaction effect between the evaluated families and environments was detected on the evaluated traits. Pre-bleeding weight did not differ significantly between the families in MT (FA: 2,421.7g; FB: 2,478.0g) or in MS (FA: 1,138.7g; FB: 1,389.8g), but the fish from MT had a higher (P<0.05) pre-bleeding weight than those farmed in MS. The visceral fat yield (considering the two environments) was higher (P<0.05) in FB family (3.8%) than in FA family (3.3%).Fish from MS showed higher (P<0.05) offal yield (10.6%) and visceral fat yield (3.9%) but a lower clean-trunk yield (70.6%) than the tambaqui farmed in MT (offal: 7.7%; visceral fat: 3.1%; and clean trunk: 72.6%). In conclusion, the MT environment provides higher pre-bleeding weight and clean-trunk yield and lower offal and visceral-fat yields than the MS environment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Diet supplementation with essential oil from sweet basil Ocimum basilicum (EOOB) can increase fish growth. So, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of EOOB in the diet on growth performance and plasmatic variables of pirarucu juveniles (Arapaima gigas) submitted to stressful condition (stocking density of 7.56 kg m-3per tank and limited space). Four diets (in triplicates) were evaluated with increasing levels of EOOB (0.0 control; 0.5; 1.0; and 2.0 mL kg diet-1) over 48 days. Linalool was the major constituent of EOOB (54.19%). The addition of 2.0 mL EOOB kg diet-1 improved final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, condition factor and feed conversion ratio; it also decreased plasma urea levels and increased plasma albumin and total proteins levels. Plasma glucose, cortisol, and acid uric levels were not influenced by the addition of EOOB to the fish diet. In conclusion, the addition of 2.0 mL EOOBkg diet-1 is recommended for pirarucu juveniles, due to improved growth performance, and this supplementation did not compromise the homeostasis of fish rearing in a high stocking density.
Abstract in English:Abstract Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) is a species native to the subtropical regions of South America. Despite being an important crop for the region, there are few studies on the use of microorganisms to improve the growth of seedlings in the nursery stage. The objective of this study was to isolate spore-forming endophytic bacteria with plant growth promoting properties associated with yerba mate seedlings and determine their phytobeneficial effect under controlled laboratory conditions. Isolates were selected based on their sporulation capacity and evaluated for in vitro plant growth promoting properties (nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of siderophores and synthesis of indolic compounds). Yerba mate seedlings were inoculated with the most promising isolates, which were identified via analyses of the sequence of their 16S rDNA gene as Bacillus circulans (12RS3) and Bacillus altitudinis (19RS3, T5S-T4). After 120 days plants showed higher root dry weight when inoculated with isolate 19RS3 and higher shoot dry weight with 19RS3 and T5S-T4. In conclusion, further studies to determine the ability of these isolates to adapt to the climatic conditions and to survive amidst the native soil microflora in yerba mate cultivated native soils, will be crucial for developing such strains as biofertilizer.
Abstract in English:Abstract Epigeic coleopteran species are linked by complex trophic webs and implicated in several ecosystem services for agriculture. Although there are reports of ground-dwelling Coleopterans inhabiting main extensive agroecosystems, their assemblages in horticultural crops in Argentina have been little explored. We examined the community structure of epigeal Coleoptera assemblages of Curculionidae, Carabidae, Staphylinidae and Coccinellidae species, in lettuce and tomato crops located in Northern Buenos Aires province, over a 3-year sampling period (2010 to 2013) by using pit-fall traps. Crop species and cycles, and phytosanitary measures (conventional and organic farming), were main factors considered as influencing the insect species composition, abundance and seasonal occurrence in the assemblages. Seventy coleopteran species were identified. The curculionids Ceutorhynchini sp. and Phyrdenus muriceus (Germar), the carabid Scarithes anthracinus Dejean, the coccinelid Eriopis connexa (Germar) and the staphylinids Aleochara sp. and Aleochara obscurus Bernhauer are the most common species in lettuce and tomato crops in the region studied. Especially the carabids, staphylinids and E. connexa are known act as natural enemies of several pests in the agroecosystems studied. Coleopteran assemblages found in lettuce differed from those associated to tomato crops, being the cropping season the main factor that influenced the community structure.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate growth, biochemical, hematological and intestinal enzymes responses and survival of Nile tilapia juveniles fed a diet containing the essential oil of lemongrass Cymbopogum flexuosus (EOCF) and infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. Five diets were evaluated (in quadruplicate) with increasing levels of EOCF (0.0 - control; 0.25; 0.50; 1.0 and 2.0 mL kg diet-1). On day 45, eight fish per treatment were sampled and blood, liver and intestine samples were taken. Others eight fish per treatment were infected with A. hydrophila followed by a 15-day period of observation. Citral is the main constituent of EOCF. The inclusion of 2.0 mL EOCF kg diet-1 increased specific growth rate and survival after A. hydrophila infection and decreased feed conversion ratio of Nile tilapia. In general, higher concentrations of EOCF in the diet reduced plasma glucose and triglycerides levels, and increased plasma amino acids, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatic ALT levels, hematological parameters, and the activity of intestinal enzymes. It was concluded that the inclusion of 2.0 mL EOCF kg diet-1 improved growth performance, biochemical and physiological responses and decreased mortality of Nile tilapia after A. hydrophila infection.
Abstract in English:Abstract Abstract: This study assessed the effect of salinity on embryonic development, larval growth and survival of the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides in laboratory. Embryos and larvae of M. mactroides were submitted and maintained at four different salinities: 20, 25, 30 and 35 ppt, to determine optimal conditions for the species. Through descriptive analysis, the results showed that the embryos tolerate salinities between 25 - 35 ppt, presenting fast metamorphoses at salinities 30 and 35 ppt, during experimental period of 27 hours. The same tolerance pattern was observed in larval stage (25 - 35 ppt), showing a better development in salinity of 35 ppt. This result is verified in biometric analyzes of height and length of the shells and survival rate, with higher averages in treatments with salinity 35 ppt. The experimental period of this stage lasted 27 days, when the larvae were able to settle. These results indicate that embryos and larvae of M. mactroides tolerate salinities between (25-35 ppt), with the best growth and survival on high salinities being recommended to better yields in laboratory.
Abstract in English:Abstract New approaches based on image analysis can assist in phenotyping of biological characteristics, serving as support for decision-making in modern agribusiness. The aim of this study was to propose a method of high-throughput phenotyping of free access for processing of 2D X-ray images of brachiaria grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis cv. Ruziziensis) seeds, as well as correlate the parameters linked to the physiological potential of the seeds. The study was carried out by means of automated analysis of X-ray images of seeds in which a macro, called PhenoXray, was developed, responsible for digital image processing, for which a series of descriptors were obtained. After the X-ray analysis, a germination test was performed on the seeds and, from this, variables related to the physiological quality of the seeds were obtained. The use of the macro PhenoXray allowed large-scale phenotyping of seed X-rays in a simple, rapid, robust, and totally free manner. This study confirmed that the methodology is efficient for obtaining morphometric data and tissue integrity data in Brachiaria ruziziensis seeds and that parameters such as relative density, integrated density, and seed filling are closely related to the physiological attributes of seed quality.
Abstract in English:Abstract To examine the association between phytase and xylanase in diets with nutritional adjustments on intestinal morphometry, serum biochemistry and microbiology of broilers, 250 broilers were evaluated in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates. The following treatments were tested: positive control diet - without phytase or xylanase; negative control diet - with an energy reduction of 100 kcal/kg, without phytase or xylanase; and three diets containing xylanase and phytase and energy reductions of 50, 100 and 150 Kcal/kg. For all energy-reduced diets, the nutritional matrix of phytase with phosphorus (0.15%), calcium (0.165%) and sodium (0.035%) was considered. An effect of the association between enzyme inclusion and metabolizable energy reduction in the diets was observed only by contrast analysis, for villus height. Intestinal health was not changed. Only the serum phosphorus concentration was altered by the treatments at the different evaluated ages. The association of phytase (500 FTU/kg) with xylanase (16000 BXU/kg) in diets with reductions of up to 150 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy, 0.15% digestible P, 0.165% Ca and 0.035% Na does not alter the intestinal morphometry, serum biochemistry or microbiology of broilers.
Abstract in English:Abstract Abstract: The dispersion capacity is fundamental to establish a biological control program with parasitoids. This information is used to determine the efficiency and the number of release points. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the dispersion and to estimate the number of release points of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), in sweet corn, cucumber and cabbage in the Ceará State. The experiments were carried out in areas of maize with four leaf pairs (V4) and eight leaves pair (V8), stacked and cabbage. Unviable eggs of an alternative host were distributed in concentric circles of radius 2.5; 5.0; 9.0 and 12.0 m. Mean dispersal distance in the V4 stage maize was 4.7 m with a dispersion area of 48.6 m2, parasitism index of 18.4%, requiring 206 points/ha. In the V8 stage maize, the mean distance was 5.9 m, dispersion area of 60.3 m², mean parasitism index of 22.7% and 166 release points/ha. For the cucumber culture the mean distance was 6.0 m, dispersion area 62.2 m², mean parasitism index of 21.1% and 161 release points/ha. For cabbage the mean distance was 5.6 m, dispersion area of 56.8 m², mean parasitism index of 22.1% and 176 release points/ha.
Abstract in English:Abstract Intraspecies or interspecies crossings transfer relevant alleles between plants. However, some interspecies crossings involving Passiflora species impede ovule fertilization and the viable development of seeds. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the viability of interspecific crossings and monitor pollen tube development. The experiment had six species of Passiflora in the reciprocal crossings. Histochemical tests aimed to evaluate the percentage of intraspecies or interspecies crossings that resulted in fruit development and pollen tube development. Ovule fertilization and fruit development occurred in determined directions of crossings when controlling the female or male genitor, but only one case of reciprocal crossing had success. In crossings with no fruit development, histological analysis showed that some callus developed in the stigma and style, confirming unilateral and interspecies incompatibility in the genus Passiflora to some species and some directions of crossings.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study was planned to test the hypothesis that feeding lactating dairy cattle with varying levels of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) can enhance protein utilization, milk production, milk protein, and nitrogen (N) excretion. Forty mid-lactating crossbred (Jersey × Friesian) cattle were randomly divided into four groups. Four treatment diets were formulated to contain 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% RUP of crude protein. Dry matter (DM) and crude protein intakes were significantly reduced with increasing dietary RUP levels. Crude protein digestibility increased linearly with incremental increases in dietary RUP levels. Cattle fed 60% RUP showed a linear decrease in N intake compared to that in the other groups. A linear decrease in urinary N and linear increases in net N, milk N, and N-use efficiency were observed with increasing dietary RUP levels. Actual milk, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk yields (kg/day) increased linearly with an increasing degradability of protein. However, milk protein, solids not fat and total solids, as well as the yields of protein, fat, and lactose, showed significant increases with increased RUP supplementation. Collectively, the results indicate that formulating dairy cow diets to contain 60% RUP results in better lactating performance and N-use efficiency and lower N excretion.
Abstract in English:Abstract Target spot is a disease that has caused serious damage to cotton crops. This study was carried out to examine if different cotton genotypes, plant heights and fungicide treatments can be used as tools of an integrated control methods of target spot. The experiment was carried out in the 2014/15 crop season, in cerrado biome of Chapadão do Sul - MS, Brazil. It was used a randomized block design in a 2 × 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with four replicates. The factors were two plant heights (1 and 1.5 m), three cultivars (FMT 701, FM 975, and FM 944), and three fungicide treatments (control, FT1, and FT2). Fungicide treatments consisted of sequential applications of different fungicides of the triazole, strobilurin, and carboxamide groups. Cultivar FM 944 showed lower susceptibility to target spot. The shorter plants exhibited lower disease severity. The fungicides pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad and trifloxystrobin + prothioconazole reduced the severity of target spot. Cultivar FM 975 had the highest yield. A higher yield was obtained in the upper stratum than in the lower stratum of the plant.
Abstract in English:Abstract Butia odorata is a palm native to southern Brazil and Uruguay, not domesticated, much appreciated for its fruits and economic potential. However, the extractivism and the difficulty of propagation have led to the decline of natural populations. The objective of this work was to prove the possibility of induction of somatic embryogenesis in B. odorata. Mature zygotic embryos were induced in two media, MS and Y3, combined with auxin 2,4-D and picloram in five concentrations (2,4-D: 0, 361.99, 452.49, 542.99 and 633.48 μM/L, picloram: 0, 50, 150, 300 and 450 μM/L). The results promising during induction with the formation of embryogenic calli and somatic embryos, however the regeneration of them was not efficient, this may be due to the occurrence of somatic embryos fused during its development. The roots were formed, but the aerial part remained molten, not completing its development. Auxin picloram and Y3 medium provided the most adequate conditions for calogenesis, formation of embryogenic callus and somatic embryos, with concentrations of 150, 300 and 450 μM/L. This is the first description of somatic embryogenesis in B. odorata that will serve as the basis for future research and adjustments of the methodology proposed here.
Abstract in English:Abstract Sugarcane crop conventional tillage has been replaced by deep soil preparation with few studies about its effect on soil quality and sustainability. The aim of this study was to assess structural volumes ina dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol subjected to conventional tillage (CT) and deep localized soil tillage (DLST) to verify how the microbiological parameters were affected. The study was conducted in a soil derived from the Caiuá Sandstone formation in Brazil. Four trenches were dug for each soil tillage system to describe the cultural profile and evaluate carbon microbial biomass (CMB) and nitrogen (NMB), basal respiration (BR), and metabolic quotient (qCO2). CT profiles exhibited a predominance of cracked soil volumes, medium-sized and large compact clods with some porosity, and continuous volumes with no cracks and of intermediate porosity. DLST profiles were predominantly free-soil volume with no cohesion and porous in appearance, and compact, cohesive volumes with no porosity visible. The highest levels of CMB and NMB were in the cracked soil under CT. Higher microbial activity indicated by BR and qCO2 were in the free powdery soil under DLST. Soil pulverization caused by DLST could cause serious consequences on soil functionality, boosting erosion, and metabolic stress in the microbiota.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate and characterize cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes for total grain protein content, storage protein fractions (globulin, albumin, prolamin, basic and acid glutelins), and phytate and minerals contents. Eighteen cowpea genotypes were selected. Total grain protein content varied from 21.4% to 29.2%, for BRS Marataoã and Paulistinha genotypes, respectively. The variation in the concentration of each protein fraction was significant (P<0.05) only for glutelins (basic and acid). The genotypes studied exhibited great similarity in the PAGE electrophoretic profile of the grain protein fractions and also in the mineral content. BRS Paraguaçu genotype exhibited higher Zn content than thegenotypes that have been previously recommended for this characteristic. The lowest phytate grain content was observed in four of the 18 genotypes studied, which also exhibited high protein contents. Although the results did not converge to the selection of a few genotypes, some specific differences were detected that which may be further explored. Considering total grain protein, mineral and phytate contents, the genotype Paulistinha revealed a better balance unveiling high grain total protein content, low grain phytate content and more homogeneous mineral composition.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the production costs of processing logs from Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden and Eucalyptus saligna Sm, using two sawing pattern in a medium-sized sawmill. Alternating tangential sawing pattern was used for logs with a mean diameter of 33.0 cm and the radial sawing pattern for logs with a mean diameter of 47.0 cm. Based on the data obtained in the different sawing pattern, the fixed, variable and total costs were calculated and, subsequently, the average value for each of these costs. For the alternating tangential sawing pattern, the fixed cost represented 19.32% and the variable cost 80.68%. For the radial sawing pattern, the fixed cost represented 18.92% and the variable cost 81.08%. The radial sawing pattern presented lower average production costs, with a difference of 22.89 R$/m³, however there is no significant difference between the sawing pattern.
Abstract in English:Abstract Brown leaf spot disease, caused by the fungus Ragnhildiana diffusa, is responsible for losses in pecan orchards and quantification is essential in order to conduct epidemiological studies to establish levels of productivity losses, and assess control strategies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a diagrammatic scale for assessing the severity of brown leaf spot in pecan. 240 symptomatic leaflets were collected from adult trees in Anta Gorda, in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, and used to assess the current percentage severity of the disease. The scale was based on the minimum and maximum observed severity of the disease, with six graduations defined according to the Weber-Fechner Visual Stimulus Law. The scale therefore consisted of eight levels (1.5, 4.6, 10.6, 17.3, 39.5, 65.1, 77.5, and 98%). The estimates of eight evaluators provided a basis for validating the scale. They made estimates of disease severity on 40 symptomatic digitalized pecan leaflets first, without using the scale and then referring to it. The scale provided greater precision, accuracy, and reproducibility of estimates and should result in more reliable epidemiological studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of autolyzed yeast on performance, cecal microbiota, and leukogram of weaned piglets. A total of 96 piglets of commercial line weaned at 21-day-old were used. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four treatments (diets containing 0.0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, and 0.9% autolyzed yeast), eight replicates, and three animals per pen in order to evaluate daily weight gain, daily feed intake, and feed conversion in periods of 0 to 15, 0 to 26, and 0 to 36 days. Quadratic effects of autolyzed yeast inclusion were observed on the feed conversion from 0 to 15 days, on daily weight gain from 0 to 15 days, 0 to 26 days and, 0 to 36 days, indicating an autolyzed yeast optimal inclusion level between 0.4% and 0.5%. No effect from autolyzed yeast addition was observed on piglet daily feed intake, cecal microbiota, and leukogram; however, i.m. application of E. coli lipopolysaccharide reduced the values of total leukocytes and their fractions (neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and rods). Therefore, autolyzed yeast when provided at levels between 0.4% and 0.5% improved weaned piglets’ performance.
Abstract in English:Abstract This work aimed to study different seeding rates in soybean, at management zones determined by the mapping of the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and its relationships with plant phenology and grain yield (GY). The experiment consisted of a completely randomized design, with six replications. The plant population ranged between 311,000, 360,000, and 422,000 plants ha-1, and the fixed population (360,000 plants ha-1). The management zone with the least yield potential, received the highest seed population. The management zone with the highest plant vigor potential, received the lowest seed population. The variables plant height, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at 50, 66, and 92 days after emergence (DAE), one hundred-grain weight, and GY were analyzed. ECa maps can be used to decide the seed population of the soybean. The decision strategy of increasing 20% of the seed soybean population on the smaller ECa map zones, and decreasing 20% seed population on higher ECa zones was effective and resulted in similar GY, even with the negative pressure of the high resistance of penetration (RP) values in some zones. GY map variability was influenced by ECa 0-0.2 m, by NDVI at 92 DAE and by RP 0.4-0.6 m soil layer.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of genetic group and sex on residual feed intake, performance, testicular size, carcass and morphometric traits in Santa Ines purebred and Dorper ´ Santa Ines crossbred lambs. A total of 32 lambs, with initial body weight of 18±3.7 kg were used. Analysis of variance, considering the interaction between sex and genetic group of all the traits were performed. Crossbred females (-0.018±0.06) and purebred males (-0.018±0.05) were more efficient (p<0.001) in residual feed intake than crossbred males (0.018±0.04) or purebred females (0.018±0.04). The most efficient animal in residual feed intake consumed 37.9% less feed (1.179 kg/day) than the least efficient animal (1.899 kg/day). Crossbred, when compared to purebred, showed higher values for body weight, average daily gain, testicle size, carcass traits; had greater muscle accumulation, were more compact and with more aptitude to beef. Purebred were taller, but with lower body length and thoracic perimeter than crossbred. Males had greater muscle accumulation, were more compact and with more aptitude to meat. Crossing of native (Santa Ines) with exotic breed (Dorper) is an alternative to align efficiency in feed use, testicular size, compactness, aptitude for meat and ability for muscle accumulation.
Abstract in English:Abstract The in vitro rescue of immature embryos can be employed both for preservation of mango germplasm and rescue of hybrids produced from crosses to obtain traits of interest. The objective of this work was to establish a protocol for in vitro rescue of immature embryos aiming to preserve mango germplasm. Immature embryos of two mango varieties, ‘Carlota’ and ‘Ubá’, were inoculated in MS/2 medium supplemented with 100 mg L-1 of cysteine, 0.5 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid (AG3) and 30 g L-1 of sucrose. The experimental design was completely randomized with 30 repetitions, each composed of two embryos/flask. After in vitro growth for 84 days, some of the plantlets were transferred for acclimatization. The parameters evaluated were plant height, number of leaves and leaf, stem and root dry weight. The germination began on the sixth day after seeding, and the immature embryos presented a high oxidation rate, with 60% oxidized after 72 hours. The plantlets from immature embryos showed better development than those from aborted embryos. The results showed the viability of rescuing mango embryos in the immature phase and of their in vitro conservation for a period of 12 months.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the use of acidulated soybean soapstock in association with lecithin on productive performance, metabolic efficiency in the utilization of nutrientes, and the egg quality of Japanese quails. A total of 192 quails were used, distributed randomly in a 2×2×2 factorial scheme that included two types of oils, two levels of supplementation (4% and 8%) and two levels of lecithin (1% or 0%). At the end of the six-month experimental period, some double significant interactions were shown between the level of oil and lecithin for the performance variables (egg weight p=0.04, feed intake p<0.01 and feed conversion rate p=0.04). The feed conversion rate also was influenced by a double significant interaction between the type of oil and the level of oil (p<0.01). The nutrient digestibility showed that different interactions affected the results. The evaluation of egg quality, was verified that the use of acidulated soybean soapstock did not affect most variables of internal quality. The results showed that it is possible to use 8% acidulated soybean soapstock in combination with 1% lecithin in the diets of Japanese quails for a period of up to six months without a reduction in performance.
Abstract in English:Abstract Evaluated lipid and cholesterol concentration and fatty acid profile of raw breast, thigh and drumstick meat from broilers raised in different rearing systems. Were used 200 male broiler carcasses from four different rearing systems (n=50 from conventional intensive; n=50 from organic; n=50 from free-range; and n=50 from antibiotic-free) distributed in a completely randomized design with four rearing systems and 50 replications (carcasses). Breast meat from conventional broilers showed higher lipid (1.47) and cholesterol (34.13) concentration. Thigh and drumstick meat from free-range broilers had higher lipid (7.53/4.73) and cholesterol (45.55/53.65) concentration. Fat contained in breast, thigh and drumstick meat from free-range broilers showed higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fat from breast and thigh meat from free-range broilers showed higher total concentration of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids. Fat from thigh meat from organic broilers showed higher levels of EPA (C20:5n3) and DHA (C22:6n3). Fat from drumstick meat from free-range broilers showed higher total concentration of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids. Meat from chickens raised in alternative rearing systems offers less risk to cardiovascular health because it presents lower concentrations of lipids and cholesterol, greater amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are beneficial for human health.
Abstract in English:Abstract Antagonistic interactions among predators have the potential to dampen top-down impacts on a shared pest. Strong cannibalism by adults and larvae on eggs along with a stronger intraguild predation by Eriopis connexa on Cycloneda sanguinea (Coccinellidae) than vice versa had been documented. The intensity and direction of these interactions could vary with the larval instar. We calculated aggressiveness, attack, and predation rates between larvae in the laboratory and studied both larval mortality and within-plant distribution in plants. Despite high attack rates, larvae of both species usually escaped from predation, except for the fourth vs. second–instar combinations, where the smaller larvae were more vulnerable to predation than the larger. Successful predation by E. connexa fourth-instars on C. sanguinea second-instars frequently occurred. All interactions between larvae became relaxed when extraguild prey were present. The larval mortality within the plants was influenced by the availability of extraguild prey only. Larvae of both species promptly dispersed outside the plant when prey became unavailable. With the extraguild prey present, the larvae of both species initially preferred the plant upper stratum in both combinations, but then dispersed. This study suggests that the defensive capability and larval dispersal could prevent cannibalism and intraguild-predation interactions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Quinoa, classified as a pseudocereal, presents greater nutritional value compared to traditional cereals. Considering the potential for cultivation presented by the species and the benefits of studying plant morphology and morphobiometry, this paper describes seed and seedling morphobiometric characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivar BRS Piabiru during germination and emergence. To evaluate seed morphobiometry the 1000-seeds weight, moisture content, seed morphological characterization and the tetrazolium test were performed. The morphological characterization of germination and seedling emergence were performed by periodic observations during the development, allowing the description using pictures and drawings. Quinoa seeds cv. BRS Piabiru present an average diameter of 2.05 mm and 1.07 width. 1000-seeds weight of 2.68 g and moisture content of 11%. Externally, quinoa seeds present the pericarp as testa, the hilum and the raphe and, internally, the embryonic axis (cotyledons, radicle and hypocotyl-radicle), perisperm and endosperm. The germination is characterized as epigeal, phanerocotylar type, with radicle protrusion at 3 hours after sowing and complete formed seedlings at 24 hours after sowing. Emergence occurs at 9 days after sowing and plants are completely formed at 12 days after sowing.
Abstract in English:Abstract The formation of microbial biofilms in materials used in the industrial production of dairy may lead to deterioration of these foods. Yarrowia lipolytica biofilms are widely found in dairy products and can modify the final characteristics of these products. Thus, this study investigated the effectiveness of hygienization by detergents and sodium hypochlorite on the formation of Y. lipolytica biofilms in different utensils usually employed during industrial cheese production, like polypropylene, hoses, and nylon/polyethylene. The utensils were sanitized using solutions of mild and alkaline detergents, and sodium hypochlorite, according to the cheese industry Standard Operation Procedure. Results showed that in all coupons there was biofilm formation with Y. lipolytica isolates. The contact angle measurements were favored to promote the adhesion of the biofilm in the evaluated surfaces. Even after treatment with sanitizers, a significant survival rate of planktonic cells was observed in all coupons tested. These results indicate that Y. lipolytica biofilms show a significant ability to adhere to polypropylene, presenting an important impact on the quality of colonial cheese.
Abstract in English:Abstract Effects of different nitrogen doses and sources applied as top-dressing on dry matter yield and quality of maize silage were investigated in this study. Along with 7.5 kg N da-1 application as starter at sowing in the form of 15-15-0+Zn, nitrogen doses of 0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 kg da-1 were applied as top-dressing at 6-leaf stage of plants in the forms of ammonium nitrate, urea, DMPP blended ammonium sulphate nitrate and urea with NBPT urease inhibitor. Experiments were conducted in randomized blocks-factorial experimental design with 3 replicates in 2013 and 2014. The greatest dry matter yield were obtained from 15 and 22.5 kg N da-1 in 2013 and from 22.5 kg N da-1 in 2014. Nitrogen sources had also significant effects on dry matter yield. According to the average of two years, both DMPP blended ammonium sulphate nitrate and urea with NBPT urease inhibitor increased yield respectively by 7 and 3% as compared to ammonium nitrate and urea fertilizers. Nitrogen doses significantly improved the silage quality attributes. Nitrogen treatments increased silage protein ratio and decreased ADF and NDF ratios of silage samples. The greatest relative feed value was obtained from 15 kg N da-1 treatment. It was concluded based on present findings that besides the nitrogen doses, nitrogen sources also significantly improved yield.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated the eradication of eucalyptus sprouts after chemical weeding using a diagrammatic scale over time. The research was conducted in fields planted with eucalyptus in forest reform areas, in Itabela, Bahia, Brazil, during the pre-planting herbicide application. The application was carried out in five fields, which were considered as sample units of the different treatments. The effectiveness of chemical weeding for controlling sprout growth was evaluated in fifty plants per treatment, randomly selected in three periods after application. The plants were evaluated visually using a diagrammatic scale to assign scores between 1 and 5 to the sprout control percentage. After the visual evaluations, the frequency distribution of the sprouting percentage for each score was calculated. Subsequently, the scores were submitted to a clustering analysis by the Ward method, to evaluate the relationship between different fields and periods for each treatment in homogeneous clusters. The results showed that treatments only controlled the sprouts in the short term, without providing effective eradication. The diagrammatic scoring scale allowed evaluating the vegetative vigor of the eucalyptus sprouts, generating interpretable information on the different evaluated treatments, making it a useful tool for managing silvicultural treatments and evaluating the application efficacy of phytosanitary products.