Abstract in English:Abstract In this paper, we introduce a new family of distributions whose probability density function is defined as a weighted sum of two probability density functions; one is defined as a warped version of the other. We focus our attention on a special case based on the exponential distribution with three parameters, a dilation transformation and a weight with polynomial decay, leading to a new life-time distribution. The explicit expressions of the moments generating function, moments and quantile function of the proposed distribution are provided. For estimating the parameters, the method of maximum likelihood estimation is used. Two applications with practical data sets are given.
Abstract in English:Abstract Natural Sapajus libidinosus populations are in continuous decline due to fragmentation, habitat loss, and the illegal pet trade. They live in Caatinga scrub forests, which already lost over 50% of their original cover. The lack of studies on S. libidinosus population genetics means that we do not know how they are being affected by this striking habitat loss and other anthropogenic disturbances. Polymorphic markers are not available for the study of S. libidinosus diversity and population genetics. Thus, here we aimed to test the transferability of 14 microsatellite markers to S. libidinosus. These microsatellites were previously isolated from Cebus capucinus (white-faced capuchin), species belonging to the same subfamily (Cebinae) as the study species. We found that six of the tested microsatellite markers (tetra-nucleotide) were cross-amplified in our target species. All loci were polymorphic. The number of alleles varied from 4 to 7, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.588 to 0.869. The microsatellite markers transferred to S. libidinosus and characterised in our study will be valuable tools to evaluate the genetic variability of both wild and captive populations. They will considerably reduce the costs of microsatellite isolations, helping to prioritise currently limited research and conservation budgets in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Japanese invasive jumping snail Ovachlamys fulgens is a pest of ornamental plants and an intermediate host of a nematode that causes eosinophilic meningitis. We expand its distribution to eight municipalities from Rio de Janeiro State, and one locality from the Paraná State, and generated for the first time partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for Brazilian populations. External morphology, reproductive system, shell, radula, and jaw were also analyzed and described. Twenty-one lots were collected from Rio de Janeiro, Niterói, Magé, Miguel Pereira, Petrópolis, Teresópolis, Nova Friburgo, Bom Jardim and Paraty, in Rio de Janeiro State, and from Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná State. External morphology, shell and reproductive system were typical of O. fulgens, with some peculiarities found in the shell and radula. A single haplotype was found, which was 100% similar to sequences of COI available in GenBank for specimens from Japan and Argentina. The species seems to be adapted to many habitats and be rapidly expanding its distribution in Southeastern and Southern Brazil, and other South America countries. We highlight the importance of monitoring O. fulgens, considering its potential to compete with native mollusks, attack several plants, and be a transmitter of diseases.
Abstract in English:Abstract The onset of gestation is characterized by growth, morphological and functional changes of the placenta. We aim to evaluate the placental compartments in New Zealand rabbits by means of stereological methods. The fetal and maternal portion of placenta (12, 14, 18 and 20 gestational days) was randomly sampled for the stereological analysis. Histological sections were scanned to estimate fetal (labyrinth and junctional) and maternal (decidua) compartment volumes. The total volume of the placenta for the ages of 12, 14, 18 and 20 days was, respectively, 320 mm3, 340 mm3, 940 mm3 and 1300 mm3. The volume of the labyrinth was 56 mm3, 119 mm3, 231 mm3 and 481 mm3, respectively. The volume of junctional zone was 75 mm3, 76 cm3, 238 mm3 and 314 mm3, respectively. The volume of decidua was 174 mm3, 143 mm3, 469 mm3 and 504 mm3, respectively. We concluded that the rabbit´s placenta compartments varied according to the gestational period, increasing continuously over the 20 gestational days. However, on the onset of the development of the placenta the decidua presented faster growth, whereas after the 20 days of development, the labyrinth developed more quickly. This study represents an aid to the understanding of placentation in humans.
Abstract in English:Abstract Oil Tea (Camellia oleifera) is an important woody edible oil plant in China. Oil Tea suffers from low rate of fruit set during production, which is related to poor pollination and fertilization. Pollen vigor is directly related to pollination and fertilization. Using the interspecific hybrid Y3 (C. grijsii × C. oleifera) as plant material, we studied the effects of sucrose, H3BO3, MgSO4, and IAA on pollen germination using an orthogonal design to determine the best culture medium. Results indicated that pollen germination rates were significantly affected by medium components and ranged from 29.13% to 56.84%. Pollen tube length was the longest in the T5 medium surpassing the control group by 489.36 μm. MgSO4 turned out to be the most important germination medium component having great effect on the pollen germination rate. The optimal culture medium to promote pollen tube growth of Oil Tea Y3 was: 1% agar, 150 g·L-1 sucrose, 0.15 g·L-1 H3BO3, 0.07 g·L-1 MgSO4, and 0.01 g·L-1 IAA. The results of this paper may provide information for foliar application of Mg and IAA, which can improve pollen tube growth of Oil Tea in practice.
Abstract in English:Abstract The functionalization of polysaccharides with synthetic nanopolymers has attracted great attention owing to the applications of this method in many industrial fields. This work aimed to investigate the effect of arsenic trioxide on the functionalization of dextran. Dextran-arsenite nanoparticle formation was induced by microwave with sulfuric acid as a catalyst. Various analytical techniques were used to verify the structure of the nanopolymers. Besides, various reaction conditions, such as dextran concentration, arsenic trioxide concentration and pH, were investigated to determine their impact on particle size. The results indicated that the product was an arsenite-based nanomaterial retaining the basic configuration of dextran and that the product size was positively correlated with pH but negatively correlated with arsenic trioxide concentration. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of the dextran-arsenite nanoparticles on the growth of the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116 and human hepatoma carcinoma cell lines Huh-7 and SMMC-7721 were studied. The results showed that the product could inhibit the proliferation of these three tumor cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the product could be a new type of functional nanomaterial for further study on the synthesis, biological activity and development of polysaccharide drugs.
Abstract in English:Abstract Autism spectrum disorder is associated with alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. Here, we aimed to determine the concentration of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, taurine, and glycine in brain tissue and plasma of rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA), a well-characterized experimental model of autism. Pregnant rats were injected with VPA (600mg/Kg) during the twelfth-embryonic-day. Control rats were injected with saline. On the fourteen-postnatal-day, rats from both groups (males and females) were anesthetized, euthanized by decapitation and their brain dissected out. The frontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, brain stem and cerebellum were dissected and homogenized. Homogenates were centrifuged and supernatants were used to quantify amino acid concentrations by HPLC coupled with fluorometric detection. Blood samples were obtained by a cardiac puncture; plasma was separated and deproteinized to quantify amino acid concentration by HPLC. We found that, in VPA rats, glutamate and glutamine concentrations were increased in hippocampus and glycine concentration was increased in cortex. We did not find changes in other regions or in plasma amino acid concentration in the VPA group with respect to control group. Our results suggest that VPA exposure in utero may impair inhibitory and excitatory amino acid transmission in the infant brain.
Abstract in English:Abstract The chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil extracted from the fresh leaves and stem bark of Grewia lasiocarpa was determined for the first time in this study. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and identified by GC–MS and FTIR. The antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of essential oils were determined. The major compounds identified were phytol (22.6%); α-farnesene (8.62%); n-hexadecanoic acid (7.24%); farnesol (4.61%) in the leaves, and 2-methylheptadecane (7.24%); heptacosane (7.60%); heptadecane, 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl (7.30%). The presence of aromatic, alkanes and phenolic compounds were revealed by FTIR analysis. The in silico oral prediction shows that some of the components are orally safe. The essential oil from the leaves showed cytotoxic activity at 1mg/mL(IC50 =555.70 μg/mL) against HeLa cells. The oils exhibited no significant antioxidant activity (IC50 >1 000 μg/mL) with <100 mg/g GAE of total phenol. The essential oils showed different degrees of activities against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 314588) at 10 μg/mL, 5 μg/mL and 2.5 μg/mL. These results might provide a future reference basis for further exploration of more of its medicinal application.
Abstract in English:Abstract Muscle overuse and its consequent muscle damage has no cure. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the regulatory role of tau-AuNPs on muscle recovery of muscle overuse model. The animals (Male Swiss mice) were randomly divided into four groups: Control (Ctr; n=6); tau-AuNPs (n=6); overuse (n=6); and overuse plus tau-AuNPs (n=6). Exercise sessions were performed for 21 consecutive days, and one exercise model was applied daily in the following sequence: low intensity, moderate intensity, and high intensity. The mice were then sacrificed. The quadriceps muscles were surgically removed for subsequent biochemical analysis (oxidative stress parameters, DNA damage markers and muscle differentiation protein). The overuse group significantly increased the oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage markers, whereas tau-AuNPs significantly decreased the oxidative stress parameters in the overuse animal model. However, there were no significant differences observed between overuse group and overuse plus tau-AuNPs administrated group in relation to DNA damage markers including DNA damage frequency and index levels when compared to control and tau-AuNPs groups. Muscle differentiation protein Myf-5 was increased in the overuse plus tau-AuNPs administration group when compared to control group. In conclusion, tau-AuNPs had significant effect on reducing oxidative stress parameters and increasing myogenic regulatory protein Myf-5 in the overuse group. However, it did not have significant effect on reducing DNA damage.
Abstract in English:Abstract Microsatellite primers pairs were developed for the Neotropical tree Roupala montana var. brasiliensis for use in studies on genetic diversity, mating system, and gene flow. Forty-two primer pairs were developed, resulting in 27 polymorphic loci, with two to 27 alleles per locus. The primer pairs were validated against 34 R. montana var. brasiliensis adult trees from four populations. The observed (H o) and expected (H e)heterozygosities ranged among loci from 0.061 to 0.930 (mean of 0.544) and from 0.116 to 0.950 (mean of 0.700), respectively. Null alleles were observed for ten loci. No genotypic linkage disequilibrium was detected in any pair of loci. This set of loci is suitable for population genetic studies of the species.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Itaqui Port Complex (northeastern Brazil) is one of the largest Brazilian port facilities, whose effluents and waste are dumped directly into the estuarine waters. Although environmental monitoring has been a concern around this site, there has been no toxicogenetics study on organisms living in this environment. Thus, we assessed the toxicogenetics potential of the estuarine waters surrounding Itaqui, using the native catfish Sciades herzbergii as a biomonitor. We found a significantly higher frequency of genetic damage and mutations in the animals collected near to Itaqui in both seasons compared to the reference site (distant from Itaqui with no port activities). We also quantified chemical elements in the surface water and sediments near the port and found that clorine, phosphorus, zinc, and boron were above the limits set by the Brazilian legislation. We suggest that such contaminants are involved in the origin of DNA damage. Moreover, we recommend including toxicogenetics assays in the environmental monitoring of pollutants, as well as in the definition of their allowable limits, as they could be used as law enforcement tools and help to predict large-scale contamination events associated with port activities.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this paper, we analyzed the effects of chronic exposure (5 months) to static magnetic field (110 mT; SMF) and extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF; 10 mT, 50 Hz) on Blaptica dubia nymphs. We have examined acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) level, two sensitive biomarkers of stress in terrestrial insects. Relative growth rate (RGR), as a life history trait, was estimated. AChE activity was determined spectrophotometrically and HSP70 levels were quantified using indirect non-competitive ELISA and Western blotting. Calculated RGR was significantly changed upon exposure to both types of ambiental MFs. The effects of chronic exposure of B. dubia nymphs to SMF and ELF MF (50 Hz) were observed as decreased activity of AChE. The increased level of HSP70 was present only after exposure to SMF. The strength of ELF MF was most likely below the energy level needed to induce the expression of this stress protein. Different patterns of the expression of two HSP70 isoforms, where isoform 2 was sensitive only to SMF, are most likely a possibly switch – off in the expression of constitutive and/or inducible HSP70 isoforms.
Abstract in English:Abstract Determining both the age structure and growth pattern allows to establish the causal factors, environmental and/or genetic, that eventually may be responsible for the observed pattern of divergence. We examined the variation in age structure and growth pattern across populations of two toad species, Pelobates cultripes and Epidalea calamita that exhibit a geographic variation in body size in southern Spain. For both species, populations differed in mean age but age structure did not correlate with body size variation across populations. Although the population with the youngest females found for E. calamita was the smallest in body size, the oldest males for both species were found in a small body size population. The growth pattern fit well to a von Bertalanffy growth model and interdemic divergence were found for both the asymptotic body size (Sm ) and the growth coefficients (k). As expected, Large-Bodied populations of both species attained higher Sm but, Small-Bodied population had higher, although non significantly different, k growth coefficients. Also, the Small-Bodied population attained sexual maturity sooner but had also high longevity. The observed pattern may reflect both environmental variations in resources availability affecting body size observed across populations, but also different growth and maturity pathways that may respond to contrasting selective pressures.
Abstract in English:Abstract The reproduction of monogamous wild birds in captivity it`s difficult and the apparent low fertility in males requires more investigations. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that wild bird species in captivity would present low reproductive potential, through the analysis of the morphological characteristics of Ara ararauna testicles, maintained in captivity, correlating them with the climate variations in the Cerrado Biome. For that, testicles were captured in April (dry) and October (rainy). The right and left testicles showed mean weight, gonadosomatic index, longer axis, and volume similar between the dry and rainy season. Only the shorter axis demonstrated higher values during the rainy season. The morphometric variables of the seminiferous tubules have also higher values during the rainy season. By these histological and morphometric characteristics of the seminiferous epithelium we can conclude that, during the rainy season, the testicles were in gonadal recrudescence, which precedes the reproduction phase. During the dry season, the testicles were in the rest phase of the seminiferous epithelium. Therefore, we concluded that the species in captivity, under Cerrado environmental conditions, have kept their reproductive potential, presenting a complete spermatogenic cycle during the rainy season, which can guarantee the species perpetuation.
Abstract in English:Abstract To characterize the reproductive biology of Scinax acuminatus and contribute to the natural history of this species, the morphology of the reproductive system of males and females was analyzed at anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical levels. The individuals were collected fortnightly between August and December (2016) and January to December (2018). The anatomy of the reproductive system was analyzed in a stereoscopic microscope, and histological preparations staining with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson’s trichromic, PAS and Coomassie Blue was performed as well. To characterize the meiotic-active cells in the testes, immunostaining with the PCNA proliferation protein was performed. There were found females with ovaries with oocytes in different stages of maturity and post-ovulatory females. Males presented continuous spermatogenesis, which could be confirmed by the immunostaining of PCNA in spermatogonia during the cycle. The results of this work serve as a basis for the characterization of the reproductive cycle in S. acuminatus and provide background information on the analysis of spermatogenic activity by IHQ from the study of the immunodetection of the PCNA cell proliferation protein. Future studies will focus on the evaluation of cell death processes during the reproductive cycle in the studied species to compare with those obtained in terms of cell proliferation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Climate change has already altered global biodiversity, causing the migration of species and changes in habitat distribution. To implement a sustainable conservation strategy, it is necessary to understand the impacts of climate change on species. Lessingianthus is a South American genus that includes numerous endangered species, some of which grow in the Brazilian Cerrado, a Neotropical savanna considered a world’s biodiversity hotspot. However, the impact of global climate change on these species has still not been estimated. We evaluate the effect of climate change on the habitat of 10 threatened Lessingianthus species and on their potential distribution, and assess the effectiveness of current protected areas (PAs) using ecological niche models. Based on the maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent), we first modeled the potential distribution of these species under current climatic conditions and then projected the distribution for two future scenarios of climate change (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) and two time periods (2050 and 2070). We predicted current habitat suitability and identified suitable bioclimatic variables for these species. Our findings suggest that the area comprising the south and southeast of Cerrado is irreplaceable and the most biotically stable region for these endangered species; therefore, it should be considered a conservation priority area.
Abstract in English:Abstract Volumetric muscle loss causes functional weakness and is often treated with muscle grafts or implant of biomaterials. Extracellular matrices, obtained through tissue decellularization, have been widely used as biological biomaterials in tissue engineering. Optimal decellularization method varies among tissues and have significant impact on the quality of the matrix. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of four protocols, that varied according to the temperature of tissue storage and the sequence of chemical reagents, to decellularize murine skeletal muscles. Tibialis anterior muscles were harvested from rats and were frozen at -20°C or stored at room temperature, followed by decellularization in solutions containing EDTA + Tris, SDS and Triton X-100, applied in different sequences. Samples were analyzed for macroscopic aspects, cell removal, decrease of DNA content, preservation of proteins and three-dimensional structure of the matrices. Processing protocols that started with incubation in SDS solution optimized removal of cells and DNA content and preserved the matrix ultrastructure and composition, compared to those that were initiated with EDTA + Tris. Freezing the samples before decellularization favored cell removal, regardless of the sequence of chemical reagents. Thus, to freeze skeletal muscles and to start decellularization with 1% SDS solution showed the best results.
Abstract in English:Abstract Syzygium cumini L. Skeels belongs to Myrtaceae family. This species has been recognized by its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Despite ever-increasing scientific interest for this species there is no pharmacopeia method for characterization and standardization of S. cumini yet. So, toward this aim, the objective of this work was to develop an efficient analytical methodology able to determine polyphenols and tannins content from leaves hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini using Folin-Ciocalteu method by ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry (UV-Vis). The analytical methodology was developed for the first time in the literature for leaves of this specie shown to be fast and low-cost with results expressed through tannic acid equivalent (TAE). Moreover, the methodology presented selectivity with maximum absorption at 706 nm wavelength, linearity with R2>0.99; limit of detection 0.275 µg TAE mL-1 and 0.102 µg TAE mL-1; limit of quantification 1.046 µg TAE mL-1 and 0.912 µg TAE mL-1 for total polyphenols and total tannins, respectively. Furthermore, the methodology was accurate with recover value greater than 98%, as well as exact, reproductive, and robust with coefficient of variation values less than 15% for both compounds. All the results are found within the fixed limits according to RDC 166/2017.
Abstract in English:Abstract Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been considered as dysbiosis state whose etiology is not fully understood. This condition affects a large number of women of reproductive age and its study has been highly relevant due to the growing association of BV with and gynecological and obstetric complications and diseases, in addition to a greater susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. The vaginal microbiota composition presents high variability among different ethnic groups of women, although, generally, the prevalence of lactobacilli species has been reported. Several studies suggest they may play a protective role, especially Lactobacillus crispatus whose population is typically present in low proportions in women with BV. This review article describes the contributions and limitations of genomic approaches in elucidating protective characteristics and mechanisms associated with colonization and persistence of lactobacilli strains. Although some genetic features were associated with resilience of L. crispatus during BV, furher studies are required to uncover their functions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Chapala Lake is one of the most polluted lakes in Mexico, due to the in flow of effluents from several industrial plants, the lake accumulates pollutants such as chromium(VI) which is considered important for aquatic ecosystem. This study aimed was to evaluate the ability to decrease the concentration of chromium (VI) by Lysinibacillus macroides 2(1B)104A, isolated from sediments of the Chapala Lake. The strain was identified through 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results showed that this strain grows in concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mgL-1 Cr(VI), in pH ranging 6 to 7, showing 79.508% reduction in concentration 50 mgL-1, determining that the reduction occurs extracellularly. Likewise, it was observed that Lysinibacillus macroides reduced the concentration of Cr(IV) in the broth, it was not observed that the bacteria could sequester Cr(VI) in the membrane or intracellularly. However, it reduced the concentration of Cr(VI) in the broth. Lysinibacillus macroides 2(1B)104A isolate showed having the ability that decrease the concentration of Cr(VI), which makes it a viable options for bioremediation of water polluted with this metal.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) on growth performance, carcass traits, blood biochemical parameters, histological changes in intestinal wall and economic indices in two breeds of weanling rabbits (V-Line and Rex). One-hundred and twenty weaned male rabbits were allotted randomly into four groups in factorial arrangement. The results could be summarized as follows: dietary supplementation of SC significantly accelerated body weight gain (BWG), reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR) and increased profit. The highest BWG and the lowest FCR were noticed in each breed when interacted with SC. There were non-significant differences in carcass traits due to the studied factors, except in loin and dressing percentages. The highest percentages of loin and dressing were obtained from V-line when fed diet supplemented with SC. The treated rabbits with yeast were characterized by an increase in Brunner`s gland and villi. Dietary Supplementation of SC decreased blood total glycerides and cholesterol and increased blood total protein, albumin and A/G ratio. The treated group showed higher profitability than the control. Conclusively, dietary supplementation of SC provided beneficial effects in growth performance and profitability of rabbits. Finally, dietary supplementation of SC is highly recommended in growing rabbits.
Abstract in English:Abstract Candida spp. are naturally opportunistic and can promote infections. These yeasts can form biofilm, after penetration and adhesion to the biotic or abiotic surfaces. Preexisting diseases, treatments with drugs and radiation therapy, medical procedures, and parafunctional habits favor the installation of a fungal infection. Increased resistance to the available antifungals has become a concern. Therefore, alternative methods to control them have been evaluated, including the use of plant substances. In this study, the antibiofilm effect of R. officinalis L. extract was analyzed on C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. A phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed. Biofilms were formed for 48 h and exposed to the different concentrations of the extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/mL) for 5 min or 24 h. The effect of the plant extract was compared to the antifungal nystatin. Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract was constituted of phenols and flavonoids, highlighting the presence of chlorogenic acid derivatives in its composition. Biofilm reductions were observed after exposure to the plant extract for both periods. The plant extract provided a reduction similar to the antifungal. Thus, R. officinalis L. extract showed antibiofilm effect on Candida spp. comparable to the nystatin.
Abstract in English:Abstract Rhinella major is one of the component species of the Rhinella granulosa group and is distributed in the neotropical region of the South American continent, being found in anthropized environments. The occurrence of trypanosomes in anurans involves a yet unknown diversity of species and hosts. In the present study, we aimed to describe the first record of Trypanosoma sp. at R. major as a new host. Of the species captured, four were positive for trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma sp. The morphometry of the trypomastigote forms revealed parasitemia by only one morphotype. There is a need for reports and studies of parasite-host relationships in anurans and a lack of records regarding hemoparasite diversity linked to the Rhinella granulosa group.
Abstract in English:Abstract The presence of ants in school kitchens and canteens may pose a risk of food contamination. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of the ants as carriers of microorganisms indicating hygienic and sanitary conditions in school kitchens and canteens in the western region of Santa Catarina. Ten samples were collected with up to ten ants in the kitchen and canteen environments in nine urban schools. The ants were evaluated using microbiological analyses regarding Staphylococcus aureus, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms/Escherichia coli. Twenty ant species were sampled. Four species presented counts for S. aureus, eight for aerobic mesophilic bacteria and three for total coliforms. The results evidenced the potential of ants as indicators of contamination and the risk of ants to carrier microorganisms in school environments and an important diversity occurring in indoor environments.
Abstract in English:Abstract The enzyme acetylcholinesterase participates in the end of cholinergic transmission and it has been shown that its activity is increased in some diseases that affect the brain, including Alzheimer disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of purple grape juice consumption with or without high-fat diet in the gestational and lactation period on acetylcholinesterase activity and oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus of female descendants. During pregnancy and lactation, 40 female Wistar rats received a control diet or a high-fat diet, with half of them receiving grape juice. After lactation, the female descendants received water and control diet in ad libitum until euthanasia on the 120 postnatal day. Hippocampus from were removed for analysis of AChE activity, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. It was observed that high-fat diet consumption during the pregnancy increased the AChE activity and the grape juice reduced this activity in descendants. The same was observed in protein oxidation, the descendants from high-fat diet had significantly highest values, and grape juice decreased the levels. We conclude that dietary choices during pregnancy can alter the acetylcholinesterase levels and grape juice is an important alternative to improve this function in adulthood.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study consisted in optimizing the extractive method of polyphenols and total tannins of leaves of Syzygium cumini (L) Skeels assisted by microwaves to potentiate the antimicrobial activity of the dried extract of S. cumini against sensitive and resistant strains. A Box-Behnken design that consisted of 27 experimental runs coupled with a desirability function for multiple response optimization was employed to optimize the total polyphenols content and total tannins content. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests were evaluated by obtaining the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration in 96-well petri dishes. The optimal extraction conditions were found to be 8 min of extraction, under 300 w of microwave power, using a 1:34 g/mL solid/solvent ratio and 38% of ethanol concentration as extraction solvent. The parameter with the greatest influence in the extraction was primarily the time, followed by the potency and proportion solid/solvent. This yielded a total polyphenol content of 87.37 ± 1.85 mg TAE g-1ext and a total tannin content of 79.68 ± 1.64 mg TAE g-1 ext. All tested microorganisms were sensitive to the extract, evidencing the effectiveness of the extraction method optimization.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida is responsible for different diseases that generate great economic losses in farm animal. The effectiveness of immunization against those bacteria are variable and the use of antibiotics is questioned; for that reason, we investigated the potential inhibitory effect of different carbohydrates on the adherence in vivo of P. multocida to the rabbit respiratory epithelium as an alternative for the prevention of respiratory infections. Rabbits were intranasally and intratracheally inoculated with a solution containing 200 µl of 1x107 CFU of P. multocida that was previously mixed with 250 µg /200 µl of N-acetylglucosamine, alphamethylglucoside, alphamethylmannoside, N-acetylgalactosamine or sialic acid. The animals that received N-acetylglucosamine, alphamethylglucoside or alphamethylmannoside individually or a mixture of these three carbohydrates plus the bacterium, showed a significant decrease (P <0.05) of the clinical symptoms, microscopic and macroscopic lesions in the nasal septa and in the lungs; also, the number of adhered bacteria to the nasal epithelium were also significantly reduced. This research demonstrates for the first time that such an approach could convert into a method for prevention of P. multocida infection in rabbits that is ecologically and economically safe and effective.
Abstract in English:Abstract Gómez lake (34 ° 39 ‘S 61 ° 01’ W) is a typical shallow lake of Pampas region placed in the upper area of the Salado river. The most abundant fish species in this lake is the pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis) valued due to the quality of its flesh and its attractiveness as a game fish. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in this pejerrey wild population the gonadal stages during three consecutive spawning seasons (August to December) in relation with sexual steroids and temperature in this lake. In general, pejerrey gonadal development, the gonadosomatic index and the plasma levels of estradiol and testosterone varied in relation to air temperature. During the sampling period, pejerrey females started to ovulate in early August (winter), with a peak in October and ending in December with some of them with atretic oocytes. For males, it was possible to find spermiating animals during the whole spawning season and some arrested animals only in December. Our results confirm the relationship with pejerrey maturation and temperature and can be useful for decision making in the management of this natural resource.
Abstract in English:Abstract Research on environmental perception is essential for the understanding of individuals’ relations and expectations towards natural environments. Here, we evaluated the perception of high school students on exotic and native species in Brazil. We interviewed 371 students from two high schools located in the state of Goiás, one with and one without a protected area within its premises. Students needed to identify native and exotic species and to indicate species origin. We used a t-test to evaluate differences between students’ scores regarding the correctness of species origin and also ANOVA to assess whether these scores varied among taxonomic groups. Students identified exotic species better than native ones. Students better identified exotic mammals, fishes, and birds than native ones. We found there were no significant relationships of students’ knowledge of species’ origins with socioecological factors. Students’ perceptions of exotic and native species were low and focused on charismatic large-bodied species. We suggest that students are encouraged to expand their knowledge of local biodiversity. Teachers, local schools, and policymakers are essential to achieve this aim. A more diverse methodology for teaching, including new technologies and citizen-science projects, can help establish a genuine interest of local biodiversity students.
Abstract in English:Abstract The accuracy of traditional methods to sample planktonic microcrustaceans depends on two assumptions: that organisms are alive during sampling and that all carcasses can be identified despite their degradation state, but fresh carcasses are not easy to distinguish by traditional methods. Previous studies about mortality have shown that neglecting dead organisms can provide biased ecological information. Thus, our objective was to determine the mortality rate and the proportion of dead microcrustacean in three tropical reservoirs. Sampling was carried out in 12 stations during two periods. The proportion of dead organisms was verified using aniline blue and it varied between 0.6% and 90.6%. The carcass decomposition period varied between 3 to 16 days and microcrustaceans mortality rate varied between 0.005 and 0.314 d-1. Traditional preservation techniques with formalin do not significantly overestimate species abundance. However, these values should not be disregarded, because corrected (disregarding organisms that were dead) and formalin-preserved abundances were correlated with distinct limnological descriptors. Therefore, the traditional formalin preservation technique could provide misleading ecological interpretations. Other studies over larger temporal scales in addition to experiments to evaluate the effects of viruses, parasitism and the toxic effects of cyanobacteria on zooplankton would enlighten mortality rate patterns in freshwater ecosystems.
Abstract in English:Abstract We investigated the effects of eyestalk ablation and cheliped autotomy in inducing molting in Callinectes ornatus. The specimens in intermolt stage were divided into two size classes: 1 (30-50 mm) and 2 (51-70 mm) and were further divided into four experimental groups. In the CA group (Cheliped Autotomy, n=76), crabs were submitted to cheliped autotomy; in the UA group (Unilateral Ablation, n=66) and BA group (Bilateral Ablation, n=66) to unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation, respectively. The C group (Control, n=70) was used as control. The animals were individually kept in tanks interconnected to a recirculation system for 30 days. The highest frequency of premolt was recorded in the BA group (32%), followed by the CA group (16%). The premolt frequency of class 1 (28%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than of class 2 (8%). The mean time until molt in the BA group was significantly lower (p <0.05) than other groups tested. The highest mortality rates were 55% and 25% in crabs from the BA and CA groups, respectively. The results indicate bilateral eyestalk ablation and cheliped autotomy are potentially capable of inducing molt in C. ornatus, but these techniques have limited efficiency for the commercial application of large-scale soft-shell crab.
Abstract in English:Abstract Potimirim is one of the 40 genera of Atyidae restricted to America, which occurs in coastal freshwater habitats and questions about population status and variability have been emerging. Potimirim brasiliana occurs in Brazil from the northeastern to southeastern region. In order to evaluate the hypothesis of genetic structure among populations, we performed molecular analyses with specimens from all known limit of distribution of the species. The molecular markers used were COI and 28S. Phylogenetic trees were obtained by maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses, and a haplotype network was obtained based only on COI. We found clear separation between P. brasiliana, P. potimirim, P. glabra and Potimirim sp 2. No pattern of structuration was found among P. brasiliana, but the haplotype network showed geographic pattern of structuration for the congener P. potimirim. The lack of genetic structuration among P. brasiliana can be explained by its life cycle that requires brackish water to complete their larval development. The larvae and juvenile in contact with these habitats can spread through oceanic currents, especially in higher rainfall seasons, maintaining the gene flow. The explanation for the geographical pattern found among P. potimirim is still missing and aspects about its lifecycle and larval development should be investigated.
Abstract in English:Abstract The leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) are a group of insects that suck sap from vascular plants. The host plants of most species of Cicadellidae are unknown, but some species are known to have a wide range of food plants, while others are host plant specific. The aim of this study was to record the food and host plants for leafhoppers in a Neotropical rainforest. The study area was located in the lowland forests of Panama Province (Central Panama) in two National Parks. Sampling was done in the undergrowth, canopy and emergent strata to collect the cicadellids feeding on the trees, shrubs, seedlings, and vines there. We collected 118 cicadellid adult representing 24 species, 21 genera, and six subfamilies, which fed on 49 species of plants, belonging to 31 families. The subfamily with the largest number of species was the Cicadellinae with 11, while the plant family with the most species was the Fabaceae with five species, and the favorite plant was Anacardium excelsum, which hosted six cicadellid species and 10 individuals. According to estimates by Shannon Weiner, leafhopper communities are more diverse on trees than on shrubs, vines, or grasses.
Abstract in English:Abstract Morphological abnormalities in crustaceans have been registered and several are attributed to pollution and others anthropogenic activities. This study reports for the first time a temporal record of the amount and variety of morphological abnormalities in Acartia lilljeborgii, in an impacted neotropical estuary. The specimens were obtained from Suape port area, Northeast Brazil, between May 2009 and September 2010 using a 300 µm plankton net. Seven types of abnormalities were observed in one of the terminal spines of the prosome, but no temporal variation of abnormalities was found in our study. The deformities were registered in 85.7% of samples and they were found in up to 10% of the individuals (3.2 ± 2.9%). The proportion of females with abnormalities was greater than for males, in opposite to most previous reports. Due to its high distribution and abundance in part of the neotropical Atlantic coastal area, A. lilljeborgii has the potential to be used as a bioindicator of environmental conditions, although the reasons of the abnormality occurrences should be accurately investigated.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Program for Biodiversity Research (PPBio) is an innovative program designed to integrate all biodiversity research stakeholders. Operating since 2004, it has installed long-term ecological research sites throughout Brazil and its logic has been applied in some other southern-hemisphere countries. The program supports all aspects of research necessary to understand biodiversity and the processes that affect it. There are presently 161 sampling sites (see some of them at Supplementary Appendix), most of which use a standardized methodology that allows comparisons across biomes and through time. To date, there are about 1200 publications associated with PPBio that cover topics ranging from natural history to genetics and species distributions. Most of the field data and metadata are available through PPBio web sites or DataONE. Metadata is available for researchers that intend to explore the different faces of Brazilian biodiversity spatio-temporal variation, as well as for managers intending to improve conservation strategies. The Program also fostered, directly and indirectly, local technical capacity building, and supported the training of hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students. The main challenge is maintaining the long-term funding necessary to understand biodiversity patterns and processes under pressure from global environmental changes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major fruit pest, which is basicaly controlled using insecticides, which represents a risk to beneficial arthropods, human health and food contamination. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a potential alternative tool for the management of this pest, however, only conflicting data is found regarding the optimal dose to achieve sterility. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of gamma radiation doses (0, 40, 50, 60 and 70 Gy) on male and female reproductive sterility, gonads morphometry, emergence, flight ability, and longevity under nutritional stress of A. fraterculus. Full female sterility was achieved at 50 Gy, while full male sterility was achieved at 70 Gy. Both ovarian and testicular sizes were affected by irradiation, while no influence was observed on the quality parameters evaluated. Our results suggest that 70 Gy applied 48 h before adult emergence can be used to sterilize A. fraterculus in a SIT programme.
Abstract in English:Abstract The bee genera Callonychium Brèthes, Psaenythia Gerstaecker and Anthrenoides Ducke are newly recorded in Piauí State, northeastern Brazil. The species reported here are Callonychium brasilience (Ducke, 1907) and Psaenythia variabilis Ducke, 1908, and an as yet unidentified species of Anthrenoides. Images and all known distributional records of these species are also provided. The new occurrences reported herein expand the distribution range of the species to the Caatinga biome.
Abstract in English:Abstract A leaf-disc-test method was used under controlled laboratory conditions to determine the feeding preference of Altica deserticola Latreille (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on leaves of two liquorice species, Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin and G. uralensis Fisch. ex DC. Leaf hardness and thickness, cuticle thickness, and nitrogen and tannin contents were compared between the two liquorices to explore their feeding resistance to A. deserticola. The larvae ate only G. uralensis leaves, while the adults fed on the leaves of both species but preferred those of G. inflata. The leaf hardness and thickness and cuticle thickness, as well as the nitrogen, total tannins, tannin chemicals contents in leaves, were significantly greater in G. inflata than in G. uralensis. The larvae having smaller chewing mouthparts could not feed on hard leaves with thick cuticle on both sides. The thicker cuticle and harder texture of G. inflata blades may be important physical traits for effective defence against larval phytophagy, while the higher tannin content in its leaves may be an important chemical trait determining their feeding preference. The larger adults, having stronger mouthparts, could consume nitrogen-richer G. inflata leaves to obtain the energy needed for flight and reproduction.
Abstract in English:Abstract Ephyrae are the young scyphozoan jellyfishes that usually passes unnoticed, whereas their adult counterparts play major ecological roles and can negatively affect economic activities when they occur in high densities. We describe, for the first time, wild ephyrae of Lychnorhiza lucerna (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae) from the Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil. A total of 10 ephyrae were found in salinities between 12 and 33 and temperatures between 16 and 27°C. The presence of digitata, eight oral arms and serrated tips on marginal lobes allowed species determination. Wild ephyrae were morphologically identical to laboratory-cultivated individuals. The youngest individual was about one to two days old, and the most developed one, between 12 and 14 days old. Recruitment of L. lucerna probably initiated during warmer months (December until February) because nine out of ten individuals were found in high temperature (> 20° C) and salinity (> 30) waters. On the other hand, a mid-winter occurrence of a single ephyra (T=16° C, S= 12) demonstrates that the species may support a considerable range of variation in the physical environment. We reinforce the importance of long-term studies to provide information about the species coupling with seasonal cycles and the dynamics of estuarine and coastal areas.
Abstract in English:Abstract Basking and retreat sites constitute a key resource in the habitat of any ectotherm. Identifying the elements that are used and modelling the microhabitat selection of species is crucial for assessing the impact of anthropogenic disturbances at the population level and, therefore, focusing on conservation efforts. We investigated how structural attributes of the microhabitat and biotic factors influence the probability of basking and retreat sites use by Phymaturus palluma, a rock-dwelling and viviparous lizard endemic to the Central Andes of Argentina. We measured the characteristics of a series of rocks (basking sites) and shelters (retreat sites) in the study area and compared lizard resource use versus availability using resource selection analyses (RSFs). According to our best RSF model, P. palluma select high and large rocks as basking sites and prefer those near their retreat sites and far from the basking sites of their neighbours. In contrast, retreat site selection is related to the length, depth, slope, and width of the shelter. Microhabitat site selection of P. palluma is associated with behavioural improvements such as enhancing basking capacity, reducing both intraspecific competition with neighbours and predation risk.
Abstract in English:Abstract Our main objective was to perform a preliminary survey of the non-marine gastropods at the Estação Biológica Fiocruz Mata Atlântica (EFMA) and its adjacent urban areas, also considering samples from other localities of the Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca received as donation, in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Infection by larval helminths of medical and veterinary importance was also investigated in 348 specimens of five freshwater species and two specimens of the terrestrial species Achatina fulica. In all, 584 samples of molluscs from 34 collection sites were obtained. They represented 31 species classified in 16 families. Fifteen species were exclusive to the EFMA area. In the urban area mainly exotic and/or synanthropic species were found. Some of them were found in the forest border as well. The freshwater Biomphalaria tenagophila, an intermediate host of the trematode that causes schistosomiasis mansoni, was found parasitized by Xiphidiocercarie cercariae and the Afro-asiatic Melanoides tuberculata by Pleurolophocercus cercaria. The finding of endemic and exotic species, including transmitters of parasites, demonstrate the importance of fast surveys such as the present study. However, considering the great diversity of endemic molluscs found in a relatively small part of the EFMA, we highlight the necessity of further additional studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract A literature compilation was done to gather information about Cecidomyiidae galls on Clusiaceae in Brazil. Botanical names were verified in the site “Flora do Brasil” as well as data on plant distribution and origin. Two herbaria were visited in order to examine galled specimens of Clusiaceae and retrieve new locality records. Thirteen gall morphotypes have been recorded on three genera (Clusia, Garcinia, and Tovomita) and eight species. Clusia showed the greatest number of galled species. Tovomita brevistaminea is the super host species. Only three gallers, Parazalepidota clusiae, Clusiamyia granulosa and C. nitida, were identified at species level, which highlights how the taxonomy of the gall midges is still poorly known. The examination of galled exsiccates resulted in the expansion of their distribution area. The low gall richness as well as the low number of galled plants on Clusiaceae can be related to the presence of resinous sticky sap and waxy cuticle. The known occurrence of gallers associated with Clusiaceae is restricted to the Atlantic Forest as their host plants. The gallers distribution is less wide than that of the host plants, indicating that their geographic limits can be further extended.
Abstract in English:Abstract Spiny lobsters (Family Palinuridae) are a popular seafood in Brazil. We characterize the fishing activity and analyze the population of lobster species captured in the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. We monitored the landings of lobster fishermen at the start of the fishing season, from May 24 to November 21, in 2010, at Pirangi beach, the main landing point in the metropolitan area of Natal. The lobster fisherman in the region use small vessels and a compressor to dive in artificial reefs known as marambaias. The artisanal fishermen are engaged in several illegal practices and revealed a greater capture of lobsters categorized as small-sized for the market (11-13.95cm tail length). The capture area led to different fishing pressures for each species. For P. laevicauda, fishing pressure occurred for all size classes, while for P. meripurpuratus, pressure occurred partially, only for a few population cohorts. On regional scale, fishing involved a demand-supply trade balance centered on the size of capture vs. abundance, regardless of the natural interespecific differences on body size and the preferential distribution area. Our results provide key information for future decision making involving the fishing of spiny lobster.
Abstract in English:Abstract As cetaceans are sentinels of the marine environment, studying their life history is of utmost importance in understanding their habits and their interaction with the environment. To achieve this goal, it is important to study their ecological niches through the investigation of their habitat use patterns and trophic relationships. This study aimed to evaluate if there are differences in the habitat use patterns and the trophic ecology of franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) and Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) accidentally caught off the south coast of São Paulo State, and Guiana dolphins biopsied in the Cananeia estuary, southeastern Brazil, based on the carbon and the nitrogen stable isotopes analysis. Isotopic ratios were estimated from skin samples. The isotopic niche size and overlap were calculated using the SIBER package (R software). The gathered results showed evidence of spatial segregation between Guiana dolphins and franciscanas. The Guiana dolphins sampled inside and outside the estuary showed evidence of trophic and spatial segregation. No difference in isotopic values between sexes was found for both species. Such differences between franciscanas and Guiana dolphins were expected as both species have distinct life histories as a result of different evolutionary pathways.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cytogenetic analyses were performed on specimens of Leptodactylus bufonius from different localities in Argentina. Mitotic chromosomes were studied with Giemsa and differential staining techniques (Ag-NOR, C-banding, and CMA3/DAPI) and fluorescence in situ hybridization with the 18S DNAr probe. All specimens showed karyotypes with 2n = 2x = 22 and FN = 44. Secondary constrictions were present in the long arm of chromosome pair 8, coincident with Ag-NOR and hybridization signals of the 18S DNAr probe. The C-banding technique evidenced an important amount of heterochromatin with a sex-linked pericentromeric band in the short arm of chromosome pair 4. This heterochromatic band was heteromorphic in males but present in both homologues of females, and it was CMA3 positive (DAPI negative) at fluorescence staining. The occurrence of heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes in L. bufonius is the second known case in Leptodactylus and the fifth within the speciose family Leptodactylidae.
Abstract in English:Abstract Chrysodeixis includens, is an important Plusiinae pest that feeds on soybean, beans, and cotton. This species has a genetic structure determined by molecular markers in populations collected in soybean crops in Brazil and has developed resistance to insecticides. This had led to an increased interest in the genetic diversity of its populations in Argentina. This study aimed to characterize the fitness parameters and mating compatibility of geographically distant C. includens populations and on different host plants in Argentina. Intra- and inter-population crosses revealed that C. includens populations from Tucumán and Santiago del Estero provinces did not present any evidence of prezygotic and postzygotic incompatibilities, suggesting that both populations collected from soybean plants belonged to a single wide-ranging species. Prezygotic and postzygotic incompatibilities were detected between populations collected from different crops (soybean and bean). These incompatibilities may be caused by the different nutrients that each plant species renders, or the specific pest control strategies which may affect C. includens behavior. Studies of the genetic structure of C. includens populations based on mating isolation on other crops, as well as of the impact of management strategies on the specie, will increase understanding of the reproductive compatibility revealed by the present study.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the four arboviruses in America which have the greatest impact on human health. The introduction of Aedes albopictus in South America and Argentina acquires importance given the possibility that this species may be a new vector of arboviruses in this region. For this reason, the studies of the biology of their parasites, such as Ascogregarina spp., should be important for the knowledge of the invasive behavior of these vectors. We reported the finding of Ascogregarina culicis in Aedes aegypti and Ascogregarina sp. in Ae. albopictus populations in subtropical Argentina. The prevalence of parasitism by A. culicis in Ae. aegypti and Ascogregrarina sp. in Ae. albopictus was 34.81% (n = 464) and 37.23% (n = 70), respectively, differing between the seasons and habitats. The infection intensity caused by A. culicis and Ascogregarina sp. varied between 1 to 250 and 1 to 327 trophozoites respectively. Ascogregarina culicis was found throughout the all sampling period of Ae. aegypti (June 2016-April 2018). However the presence of Ascogregarina sp. in the midgut of Ae. albopictus was not recorded throughout the whole sampling period despite the presence of the host.
Abstract in English:Abstract We study the geographical variation of the skull in the cavies Microcavia australis and M. maenas and its association with environmental variables. We tested four hypotheses previously proposed to explain the geographic patterns of morphological variation i) heat conservation; ii) heat dissipation; iii) primary productivity and iv) seasonality. We used 16 cranial measurements taken from 180 individuals. We analyzed the spatial variation in cranial morphology through Generalized Additive Models. Both species showed a north-south clinal gradient in skull size (increasing towards colder, less seasonal environments, with lower summer rainfalls in M. australis and towards warmer and seasonal environments in M. maenas). Microcavia australis presented greater ecomorphological variability than M. maenas, in agreement with its wider distribution and occurrence in more diverse environments. Also, the length of tympanic bullae in M. australis was larger towards its northern distributional range (associated to smaller skulls), and smaller to the south (associated to larger skulls). Overall, the distributional range of both species coincided with unproductive environments, where temperature represents a limiting factor and, together with rainfall, might determine the observed morphological patterns.
Abstract in English:Abstract The diet of arthropodophagous bats can be influenced by several factors. Furthermore, its study is critical for understanding their role in the ecosystem as regulators of arthropod abundance. The aim of this study was to analyze the diet of 12 species beloging to two families of arthropodophagous bats from the Yungas Forests, Northwestern Argentina. We also evaluated differences in diet between well-preserved and disturbed sites, sexes, and seasons. The specimens were collected with mist nets in eight different localities, four well-preserved and four disturbed sites of the Yungas Forests. Through the analysis of feces, arthropod remains were identified until the lowest possible taxonomic level. Volume and frequency of occurrence percentages for each food item and the niche breadth for the species were estimated. A total of 475 samples from 12 species were analyzed and their diet contained arthropods from eight orders and seven families; the highest number of consumed arthropod orders were registered for Eptesicus diminutus. A low niche breadth was recorded in general for all species. The diet was significantly influenced by season and site characteristics only in E. diminutus and E. furinalis, respectively. This showed that bats could modify its diet according to the different habitats and seasons.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the freshwater ecosystems of Brazil can be found high biodiversity of fish, about 5160 species. However, the Jacaré-Pepira River, located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, presents a diversity of fish still to be explored in ichthyological studies. Metazoan parasites of Pimelodus maculatus and Rhamdia quelen were qualitatively and quantitatively diagnosed. Ten species of parasites (Demidospermus sp., D. majusculus, D. bidiverticulatum, D. paravalenciennesi, Ameloblastella paranaensis, Scleroductus sp., Riggia sp., Austrodiplostomum compactum, Helobdella sp. and Neochinorhynchus pimelodi) were collected in P. maculatus and eight species of parasites (Aphanoblastella robustus, A. mastigatus, Phyllodistomum rhamdiae, Crocodilicola pseudostoma, Henneguya jundiai, Contracaecum sp., Rhabdochona sp. and Capillariidae gen. sp.) were collected in R. quelen. All parasites presented aggregate distribution. A significant correlation was observed in P. maculatus concerning the weight with the prevalence of ectoparasite D. majusculus; however, R. quelen showed a relation to the length and weight with the abundance of ectoparasite A. mastigatus and endoparasites. The parasitic community of P. maculatus and R. quelen was characterized by high diversity, high richness, and low uniformity.
Abstract in English:Abstract The population structure and growth of two populations (Arraial and Capivari rivers) of Aegla schmitti was evaluated. The following parameters were determined: size, age structure, sex ratio, recruitment period, and sampling method selectivity (traps and handnet). There was variation between males and females. The carapace length size class distribution was unimodal in the Arraial River, and polymodal in the Capivari River. The sampling method influenced the proportion of demographic categories. The recruitment occurred mostly between October and December. The growth curves for the Arraial and Capivari rivers, respectively, were Ct= 26,50[1- e -0,004(t+53,36)] and Ct= 34,79[1- e -0,0024(t+122,34)] for males, and Ct= 23,07[1- e -0.0027(t+23,18)] and Ct= 25.52[1- e -0,0033(t+19,51)] for females. The maximum CL estimated for males and females were 26.50 and 23.07mm for the Arraial River, and 34.79 and 25.52mm for the Capivari River. Longevity was estimated in 2 years for females of both populations, and 2.5 and 3 years for males of the Arraial and Capivari rivers, respectively. The results allow for the characterization of the growth patterns of A. schmitti in two hydrographic basins, providing information for the species’ preservation and also demonstrating the selectivity of the different sampling methods used for aeglids.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aiming to enrich the knowledge about the flora of savannas, this paper studied the composition and structure of the bryophyte community of Park Savanna areas in Marajó Island - PA. Biological material was collected within 60 100-m2 plots equally distributed in the dry season of 2016 and the rainy season of 2017 in five Park Savanna areas (SP-I to SP-V). The composition, density, richness and diversity of species and presence of indicator species were compared between the sampled areas and seasons. The species were classified according to the substrates colonized and ecological groups of light tolerance. Significant differences in SP-V indicated that the area was the main factor influencing the composition of bryophytes (p: 0.0001), with five indicator species. There were also significant differences in density (p = 0.0001168) and richness (p = 0.0001317) of bryophytes between seasons (p-value = 0.3393; p-value = 0.04065; p: 0.1081). There was a predominance of generalist (25 spp.) and corticolous (728 individuals) species, which were widely distributed in the sampled areas. Therefore, the structure of the bryophyte communities was not influenced by seasonality, and this indicates that these plants are adapted to the environmental conditions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The native flora of the Brazilian rupestrian grassland (campos rupestres) is threatened by the spread of invasive grasses. In this study, we evaluated the effect of habitat on the functional traits and CSR ecological strategies of three invasive alien grasses occurring both in the ironstone (IRG) and quartzitic (QRG) rupestrian grassland habitats. Although in both habitats the invasive species predominantly showed a stress-tolerant strategy, they exhibited distinct degrees of stress-tolerance and slightly differences in functional traits values in the IRG compared to the QRG. Habitat type distinctly influenced invasive grasses functional traits and ecological strategies, revealing a species-specific pattern.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study examines the distribution of primary and secondary space holders integrated in morphological and feeder functional groups as well as the species richness over the seasons on northern Patagonian rocky shores. We also evaluated whether the temporal changes in species richness, assemblage structure and species turnover were related to seasonal changes. These patterns were studied by non-destructive samplings between December 2013 and March 2015. Thirty taxa were identiﬁed, including six algal morphological functional and three invertebrate feeder groups. The cover of seaweeds and invertebrates was positively correlated with changes in the environmental factors. The marked seasonality in this Patagonian zone changed between two contrasting periods. Species richness and assemblage structure were associated with seasonal changes and were influenced by the more abundant morphological and feeder functional groups. We suggest that habitat-formers, such as articulated calcareous and suspensor feeder groups, can expand and retract over time-scales of months to seasons, generating available space for the colonization and growth of other organisms. We conclude that seasonal changes and the dynamics of articulated calcareous and suspensor feeder groups drive changes in the algal and invertebrate abundances, in turn driving changes in species richness and assemblage structure.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aging process of reservoirs has been extensively investigated; however, little is known about how fish populations are adjusted after many years of impoundment. Thus, this study aimed to compare the diet, length-weight relationship, sizes classes, variation in size, and age of Astyanax lacustris Lütken, 1875 collected from lotic and lentic habitats of an aging reservoir. The study group consisted of 730 captured fishes. We found that specimens collected from lotic habitats had a wider range of size classes (1.0 to 12.0 cm), were linked to a high frequency of juveniles (48.7%), and had greater feeding activity (higher stomach fullness). In contrast, fishes collected from lentic environments exhibited high rates of capture (78.4%), increased frequency of adults (87.3%), and higher values of mean standard length. The length-weight relationship indicated that lentic fishes were heavier than fish collected from lotic areas. Moreover, we observed 37 food items in A. lacustris diet, mainly plant material, algae, Cladocera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Ephemeroptera. Differences among the diet of fishes between sites were evidenced with Permanova (p < 0.05). Astyanax lacustris can be considered a persistent species in Chavantes Reservoir after aging, encountering conditions to complete its life span and adjusting to food resources.
Abstract in English:Abstract Isolated rocky outcrops represent biodiversity centers, refuges for endangered species, and favorable scenarios for endemism. Most studies in these ecosystems have been focused mainly on their flora and secondarily on different groups of animals. To highlight the value of rocky outcrops as ecosystems for biodiversity conservation, in the present study, we describe the diversity of herptiles of three isolated rocky outcrops of northeastern Argentina and compare it with that of other natural areas of the region. We conducted fieldwork from September 2010 to March 2017. We calculated the alpha diversity and the number of rare, threatened and endemic species. For comparative diversity analysis, we calculated the importance of each area for amphibians and reptiles and the beta diversity. Were recorded a total of 56 species (23 amphibians and 33 reptiles), representing 35% of the herptiles recorded for Corrientes province. These species included 19 rare species, seven threatened species, and two endemic species. The overall beta diversity showed considerably differences in species composition between the compared areas. The rocky outcrops showed higher importance for amphibians and reptiles than the other areas studied. Our study contributes to the knowledge of rocky outcrops and highlights their importance in biodiversity conservation.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this study, the Gasteruptiidae (Hymenoptera, Evanioidea) collected in three environments at the Department of Rocha, in Eastern Uruguay, were documented based on a survey carried out with Malaise traps between December 2014 and December 2016. During the samplings, four species of Gasteruption Latreille, 1796 were captured, being 14 females and three males of Gasteruption brachychaetun Schrottky, 1906; eight females and five males of Gasteruption brasiliense (Blanchard, 1840); one female of Gasteruption helenae Macedo, 2011 and one female of Gasteruption brandaoi Macedo, 2011. Gasteruption brachychaetun, G. helenae and G. brandaoi are recorded by the first time from Uruguay.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fish farming in net cages is considered as an alternative to food production in response to elevated population growth, and zooplankton is an important resource to the development of this economic activity. We (i) compared microcrustacean composition in eutrophic and oligotrophic habitats under net tank influence, (ii) investigated changes in species distributions in these habitats, and (iii) indicated which chlorophyll-a concentrations presented thresholds that alter community structure. We expected different responses of species to changes in chlorophyll-a concentration due to net cage management, as chlorophyll-a represents an estimate of food availability. Microcrustacean samplings and chlorophyll-a estimation were made upstream, downstream and close to the net cages, during 120 days, in the Rosana Reservoir (Brazil). Species composition differed significantly (p<0.05) among habitats where in the eutrophic environment was found the largest number of species. However, only in the eutrophic habitats did frequency of occurrence and relative abundance of some species change with chlorophyll-a variation. Thus, net cage management influenced species distribution only in the most productive habitat. These responses can affect ecosystem processes related to trophic dynamics as secondary productivity and nutrient cycling.
Abstract in English:Abstract A total of 40 lambs were divided into four different treatments according to the inclusion level of the macadamia nut cake: C-control (0%), M1 (6.5%), M2 (12%) and M3 (20%). Feed was provided twice a day; animal weighing along with body condition scoring occurred within a 14-day interval. The lambs were slaughtered at the end of the performance test. Analysis of variance was performed through the Mixed procedure of the SAS, as well as linear and quadratic regression analysis. The groups presented differences between the treatments (P <0.05) for dry matter intake (DMI), ethereal extract intake (EEI), consumption in relation to live weight percentage and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The lowest mean DMI was obtained by the animals that received the M2 and differed from the C treatment, whose average was the highest. The EEI was highest for the M3 group and the FCR was also better for this group. There was a linear effect for EEI and FCR, and quadratic for crude protein intake. There was no effect for carcass characteristics, and only initial pH had a decreasing linear effect. The macadamia nut cake was effective in promoting the performance of the animals, since there was an improvement in feed conversion.
Abstract in English:Abstract Rimapenaeus constrictus is a penaeid shrimp widely distributed in the Western Atlantic, frequently captured as bycatch in trawling activities. Here we describe the weight vs. carapace length relationship and the condition factor of the species. Shrimps were sampled in the Ubatuba region, northern littoral of São Paulo State, monthly. We analyzed 4,952 individuals (1,371 males and 3,581 females). We measured the individuals’ weight and carapace length, and the condition factor (CF) was calculated for both sexes. Females had a heavier body when compared to males, probably due to their greater maximum body size achieved. Both sexes presented a negative allometric growth in weight, probably due to their reproductive pattern and activities. We found similar mean CF values for males and females. From temporal analysis, the highest CF values for females were observed during the seasons with lower water temperatures. Such a situation may happen because females’ CF tend to be influenced by a greater food availability in the environment, induced by the intrusion of the South Atlantic Central Water during the spring and early summer in the Ubatuba. The information presented here could be used as subside in protection actions and management of bycatch species.
Abstract in English:Abstract Three caridean shrimps have their distribution range extended on the Brazilian coast. Alpheus carlae Anker, 2012 (Alpheidae), previously reported from Ceará to São Paulo, and Typton fapespae Almeida, Anker & Mantelatto, 2014 (Palaemonidae), previously known only from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, are both now reported from Santa Catarina, the new southernmost record of these species in the Atlantic Ocean. Athanas nitescens (Leach, 1813) (Alpheidae), an invasive species from the eastern Atlantic first reported from São Paulo in 2012 based on a single male, is now confirmed to have established populations in Brazil with the finding of ovigerous females on the coast of Rio de Janeiro. Illustrations for all three species are provided based on the new material.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the use of organic and inorganic minerals in Cobb500 broiler breeder diet and its effects on the performance. The birds were housed in an experimental house at Poultry Laboratory of the Federal University of Santa Maria with 20 floor pens of 4.61m2 each. The experiment was conducted between 51st and 65th weeks of age of birds. The design was completely randomized with four treatments and five pen replicates with 22 hens and 2 roosters each. The treatments evaluated were: PI=100% mineral inorganic premix; PO= 100% mineral organic premix: PI+PO= 70% mineral inorganic premix + 30% mineral organic premix and PI+Zn= 100% mineral inorganic premix, except zinc mineral, that was 70% inorganic form and 30% organic form. The following parameters of performance and egg quality were evaluated: laying rate, body weight, egg, albumen and yolk weight, yolk color and specific gravity of eggs. These parameters were performed one day per week throughout the experimental period to evaluated egg quality. Under the conditions and time that the experiment was conducted, the use of organic minerals had no significant effect on the performance and egg quality parameters evaluated in the broiler breeders.
Abstract in English:Abstract Epoxy systems are widely applied as adhesives in the aerospace industry. They have excellent adhesion properties, however, being thermosetting, epoxy systems show fracture brittleness characteristics. Polysulfide and polymercaptans are good options to increase the flexibility of the epoxy adhesive. Thermal analysis techniques are generally used to evaluate the curing degree of epoxy systems. In most cases, when infrared (IR) analysis is used, it is employed qualitatively. This paper presents the reaction study of a DGEBA epoxy prepolymer with diethylenetriamine (DETA) and linear and branched dodecyl mercaptans as flexibilizers. Conversion data and curing time were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the medium infrared region (MIR) and in the near infrared region, using near infrared reflectance accessory (NIRA). NIRA methodology showed satisfactory results, with errors between 3 and 7%, especially in samples with lower amine contents. Mechanical tests confirmed the flexibilization of the cured epoxy system by the addition of mercaptans, indicating a lower crosslinking degree in the matrix. Young’s modulus (E) significantly decreased from 2017 MPa to 578 MPa with the addition of approximately 20 wt% of normal dodecyl mercaptan to the epoxy system.
Abstract in English:Abstract Diversified crop rotation is an option for expanding producer incomes, and its adoption has presented a series of agronomic advantages compared to less diversified crop rotation systems. In this context, the objective of this study was to verify if higher-diversified crop rotation systems perform economically better than low-diversified ones. To this end, we conducted an experiment in no-tillage crop areas in Londrina, in south of Brazil, for the years 2014/15 to 2016/17. The experiment design was randomized blocks, with six treatments, consisting of crop rotation systems with different levels of diversification, and four replications. We observed that higher-diversified crop rotation systems yield higher revenues and profits. Only these systems, specifically the ones that included canola-corn, crambe-corn, and safflower-soybeans, or wheat-corn+brachiaria, canola-corn, and edible beans-soybeans were economically feasible. Despite higher cost, diversified systems with a greater number of commercial crops in winter presented higher profits. However, diversified systems with a high proportion of cover crops in winter are economically infeasible because their net return is negative.