Abstract in English:Abstract The interpretation of odds ratios (OR) as prevalence ratios (PR) in cross-sectional studies have been criticized since this equivalence is not true unless under specific circumstances. The logistic regression model is a very well known statistical tool for analysis of binary outcomes and frequently used to obtain adjusted OR. Here, we introduce the prLogistic for the R statistical computing environment which can be obtained from The Comprehensive R Archive Network, https://cran.r-project.org/package=prLogistic. The package prLogistic was built to assist the estimation of PR via logistic regression models adjusted by delta method and bootstrap for analysis of independent and correlated binary data. Two applications are presented to illustrate its use for analysis of independent observations and data from clustered studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this paper, a new three-parameter lifetime model called the Topp–Leone odd log-logistic exponential distribution is proposed. Its density function can be expressed as a linear mixture of exponentiated exponential densities and can be reversed-J shaped, skewed to the left and to the right. Further, the hazard rate function of the new model can be monotone, unimodal, constant, J-shaped, constant-increasing-decreasing and decreasing-increasing-decreasing and bathtub-shaped. Our main focus is on estimation from a frequentist point of view, yet, some statistical and reliability characteristics for the proposed model are derived. We briefly describe different estimators namely, the maximum likelihood estimators, ordinary least-squares estimators, weighted least-squares estimators, percentile estimators, maximum product of spacings estimators, Cramér-von-Mises minimum distance estimators, Anderson-Darling estimators and right-tail Anderson-Darling estimators. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to compare the performance of the proposed methods of estimation for both small and large samples. We illustrate the performance of the proposed distribution by means of two real data sets and both the data sets show the new distribution is more appropriate as compared to some other well-known distributions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Poincaré in 1891 asked about the necessary and sufficient conditions in order to characterize when a polynomial differential system in the plane has a rational first integral. Here we solve this question for the class of Liénard differential equations x¨+f(x)x˙+x=0, being f(x) a polynomial of arbitrary degree. As far as we know it is the first time that all rational first integrals of a relevant class of polynomial differential equations of arbitrary degree has been classified.
Abstract in English:Abstract Phytochemical studies of Cespedesia spathulata (Ochnaceae) leaves using 1H, 13C NMR, and GC-MS have led to the isolation of some metabolites identified for the first time in these species such as cathechin, epicatechin, vitexin, orientin, 6’’-O-acetyl-vitexin, sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, 4,5-dihydrovomifoliol and a mixture of aliphatic methyl esters, together with ochnaflavone, which was previously isolated from this plant. The modulating activity of some fractions and compounds from Cespedesia spathulata towards tyrosinase enzyme was assayed by spectroscopic and theoretical means/experiments. The dichloromethane fraction (133 μg mL-1) and ochnaflavone (333 μM) inhibited tyrosinase activity by 20 % and 2.0 %, respectively, whereas the ethyl acetate fraction (666 μg mL-1) and ±catechins (catechin and epicatechin - 800 μM) activated it by 104 % and 384 %, respectively. Quantum chemical calculations suggested that catechin and epicatechin are better activators than L-DOPA by interacting with Cu (II) ions. Molecular docking results suggested that hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are the main binding forces between each tyrosinase activator and the amino acid residues inside the active protein binding pocket.
Abstract in English:Abstract Direct-acting antivirals have revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Sofosbuvir and simeprevir are prescribed worldwide. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding their genotoxicity. Therefore, the present study assessed the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of sofosbuvir and simeprevir, alone and combined with ribavirin. HepG2 cells were analyzed using the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Cells were treated for 24 h with sofosbuvir (0.011−1.511 mM), simeprevir (0.156−5.0 µM), and their combinations with ribavirin (0.250−4.0 mM). No significant differences were observed in the nuclear division cytotoxicity index, reflecting the absence of cytotoxic effects associated to sofosbuvir. However, the highest concentration of simeprevir showed a significant difference for the nuclear division cytotoxicity index. Moreover, significant results were observed for nuclear division cytotoxicity index in two combinations of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin and only in the highest combination of simeprevir plus ribavirin. Additionally, our results showed that sofosbuvir did not increase the frequency of chromosomal damage, but simeprevir significantly increased the frequency of micronuclei at the highest concentrations. The combination index demonstrated that both sofosbuvir and simeprevir produced antagonism to the genotoxic effects of ribavirin. In conclusion, our results showed that simeprevir, but not sofosbuvir, has genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells.
Abstract in English:Abstract To assess the effect of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on the esophageal and intestinal morphology of western diet (WD)-obese rats and to characterize the stomach histopathology of WD rats submitted to VSG. Male Wistar rats received WD from 2-4 months of age, to induce obesity, before randomly submitting them to pseudo (WD-SHAM), VSG (WD-VSG) or RYGB (WD-RYGB) surgeries. Gastrointestinal histomorphometry was performed at 3-months post-surgery. The upper esophagus of VSG and RYGB rats increased luminal area, while reductions in the keratin layer of the mucosa and the tunica muscularis were observed only in the RYGB animals. In the lower esophagus, both surgeries increased keratin layer thickness, but reduced the mucosal mucus content, while RYGB increased the thickness of the tunica mucosa and muscularis. The glandular region of the stomach of WD-VSG rats exhibited hypotrophy, epithelial erosion, fibrosis and moderate inflammatory infiltration. VSG and RYGB increased the villi height in the ileum, and the thickness of the tunica muscularis in the jejunum and ileum of WD rats; furthermore, RYGB augmented the ileal villi height. Thus both approaches induced histomorphological alterations in the esophagus and intestine and VSG damaged the gastric mucosa, even over the long-term.
Abstract in English:Abstract The world is looking forward to a prompt response by the scientific community in order to overcome the first pandemic of the 21st century. This study aimed to provide an overview of scientific output on COVID-19 during its first year. We assembled information regarding 60,830 articles related to COVID-19 indexed in the WoS database from January 24 to December 13, 2020. Only 4 countries accounted for about 60% of the articles (USA, China, Italy, and England) and 12 countries accounted for about 95% of the world scientific output on COVID-19 (USA, China, Italy, England, India, Canada, Germany, Spain, Australia, Brazil, Iran, and Turkey). 25 research centers around the world contributed with more than 500 papers on COVID-19. Papers were scattered throughout 6,133 journals, with 12 journals with > 250 articles. 20 articles (0.03%) have already received more than the 1,000 citations. The response of the scientific endeavor to this acute global public health emergency has been fast and robust. The overview provided by the analysis of the scientific response to the pandemic may contribute to further studies aiming to evaluate the impact and changes in the scientific endeavor for the next years in light of the forthcoming new world framework.
Abstract in English:Abstract Although a protocol for immediate postoperative thirst management has been applied clinically in a discrete way, most surgical and nursing teams remain neglected, unlike other complications in the postoperative period. This pilot study aimed to demonstrate if the ice popsicles promote thirst satiety and subsequently investigate the mechanism involved in this process. Twenty-five volunteers in the immediate postoperative period were recruited to participate in this study conducted in a tertiary medical center in southern Brazil. In this protocol, ice popsicles decreased the intensity and discomfort of thirst. Relevantly, all patients (100%) demonstrated satiety after ice popsicles administrated in the immediate postoperative period. Altogether, ice popsicles constitute a promising, innovative, and simple strategy for the management of thirst, mainly after surgery, adding to patient comfort and the security of the health team that manages it.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the current study, twenty-eight bacterial strains were isolated from home-made yogurt samples from Ağrı Province, Turkey. The bacterial strains were identified by conventional and molecular techniques. Among the twenty- eight isolates, seventeen isolates were identified according to the 16 S rDNA region and determined to belong to five different genus including Sphingomonas (8 isolates), Burkholderia (5 isolates), Lactobacillus (2 isolates), Lactococcus (1 isolate), Staphylococcus (1 isolate). In this study, the presence of Burkholderia in home-made yogurt samples were reported for the first time, whereas Sphingomonas was detected for the second time. We also investigated the carbonate (CaCO3 and MgCO3) and silicate (CaSiO3 and MgSiO3) dissolving potential of seventeen bacterial isolates. Among these seventeen bacterial isolates, fifteen bacterial isolates have CaCO3-dissolving and 10 bacterial isolates have MgCO3-dissolving potential. The silicates dissolution ability was relatively less than that of carbonates dissolving. We observed that six bacterial isolates have CaSiO3 and only two bacterial isolates have MgSiO3 dissolution abilities. In conclusion, this work clearly shows the diversity of bacteria existing in fermented cow milk samples in Ağrı Province, Turkey, which could be considered as valuable sources for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolation and further probiotic potential.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pneumonia in cattle is one of the causes of morbidity rates and economic loss. The host response to lung infections caused by Ureaplasma diversum in bovines is virtually unknown. Here in the immune response was evaluated in a murine model for an experimental pulmonary infection by U. diversum. Therefore, AJ, BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice received intratracheal inoculation of U. diversum and were evaluated after 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days and the clinical specimens were collected. In bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) an increase of inflammatory cells was observed. Neutrophils were the main cells recruited to the site of infection and the infiltration was coincided with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We found a large amount of neutrophil in this initial period, followed by a decrease 7 and 14 days post infection, accompanied by bacterial clearance. Our results evidenced the presence of U. diversum within the neutrophil that suggests a phagocytic role of this cell in the elimination of the infection. The immune response features reported here are the initial evidence that healthy immune systems may control these microorganisms. This may be the first step to design new strategies immune based to control the infections in naturally infected hosts.
Abstract in English:Abstract Environmental pollution may be considered one of the main problems affecting the world population. As the effluents from textile industries are the largest representatives of sources of pollution of water bodies due to the disposal of colored compounds in the environment. Microorganisms capable of thriving in textile wastewater may exhibit metabolic machinery to synthesize a wide variety of enzymes and/or secondary metabolites of industrial interest. The present work investigated the biotechnological potential of filamentous fungi from wastewater of a textile industry for the production of laccase, cellulase, amylase and lipase enzymes and their potential for discoloration capacity of Remazol Brilliant Blue R synthetic dye. The isolate Aspergillus sydowii (ITF 30) presented the best cellulase (46.74 U mL-1), amylase, lipase and laccase (0.0273 U L-1) production, as well as RBBR dye discoloration ability in solid medium, followed by isolate Aspergillus sydowii (ITF 27) able to synthesize cellulase, amylase and laccase and had the capacity to discolor 74.7% of RBBR in liquid medium. The results of the present work encourage future studies of characterization, optimization and purification of the enzymes encountered, aiming to be used in bioremediation processes of textile industrial effluents.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aquatic humic substances (HS) represent about 60-95% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present in coastal environments of northern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Although they are important regulators of processes involving aquatic communities, the response of the zooplankton community to their presence remains poorly understood, especially in natural tropical environments. Therefore, our objective was to elucidate zooplankton community responses along a natural gradient of HS. Such natural humic gradient was obtained in coastal freshwater environments with distinct DOC concentrations (20-200 mg L-1). Results show a decrease in zooplankton density and biomass along the HS gradient. However, microphages organisms (e.g. non-predatory rotifers and smaller testate amoeba, such as Difflugia) were most present in environments with higher concentration of HS, probably due to a stronger importance of the microbial-loop in these environments. Some species – such as Scapholeberis armata (Cladocera) and Lecane boettgeri (Rotifera) were only accounted for environments with high HS concentration, illustrating their potential as bioindicators for HS presence. Nevertheless, we were able to observe the effects of HS on the structure and composition of primary consumers and how these substances might indirectly affect species dynamics. We point out to new findings in highly humic tropical environments, which are still poorly studied and understood.
Abstract in English:Abstract The toxic effects of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, and the herbicide glyphosate on the growth, biovolume and ultrastructure of the green microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum were evaluated. Concentrations between 9.37-150 mg L-1 of chlorpyrifos, 3.12-100 mg L-1 of cypermethrin and 4.7-60 mg L-1 of glyphosate were assayed along with a control culture. The assayed concentrations were prepared using commercial formulations. After 48 h all tested concentrations of the three pesticides reduced significantly the population growth. The 96 h effective concentration 50 (EC50) was 14.45 mg L-1 for chlorpyrifos, 12.37 mg L-1 for cypermethrin and 15.60 mg L-1 for glyphosate. Cells exposed to the three pesticides showed an increase in the cellular size related to the increase in pesticide concentration and exposure time. The most signiﬁcant damages observed on the ultrastructure of cells exposed to the three pesticides included thylakoids and mitochondria disruption, formation of electrodense bodies, accumulation of lipids and increase in the size and number of starch granules. The present study demonstrates that the effects of pesticides also extend to non-target organisms having significant ecological implications.
Abstract in English:Abstract To better understand the dispersion strategies of Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae), we evaluated the spatial effect of infested peridomicile and density vegetation cover in a historically endemic area for Chagas disease. The study was conducted in rural houses of the northwest of Córdoba province, Argentine, during 2012-2013. Active search of triatomines were made in domicile and peridomicile habitats. To characterize vegetation coverage, a thematic map was obtained considering five types of vegetation cover (closed/open forest, closed/open shrubland and cultural land). From each house we extracted the area of vegetation coverage, housing density and infested peridomiciles density. We used generalized linear models to evaluate the effect of these variables on the occurrence of infested peridomicile. According to our results, the probability of a peridomicile to be infested increases by 1.34 (95%CI [0.98; 1.90]) times more when peridomicile structures are in environments with higher housing density and by 1.25 (95%CI [0.84; 1.88]) more times when houses are surrounded by open shrublands. Among the multiple ecological determinants of peridomestic infestation, the influence of vegetation cover has been poorly studied. In this study we discussed the effect of the vegetation as a potential modulator of the dispersion strategies of T. infestans.
Abstract in English:Abstract The invasion record for the estuarine bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeata in Brazil is in Rio de Janeiro city, including the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, where high densities of this invader were registered. This work aimed to (1) assess the composition and structure of the benthic macrofauna associated with this invader in Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, (2) analyze the spatiotemporal variation of richness, density and diversity of the associated benthic community, and (3) correlate changes on the density of the associated benthic species with some water quality variables and the density of M. leucophaeata. Clusters of M. leucophaeata were collected monthly (two years) in four sites. Nine taxa associated with M. leucophaeata were found; Heleobia sp. (Gastropoda) and Melita mangrovi (Amphipoda) showed the highest densities. The structure of the benthic macrofauna slightly differed among sampling sites, but not between dry and wet seasons. The water quality parameters, specific patterns of each taxon and high densities of M. leucophaeata contribute to variations in density of the associated species. Oscillations in the densities of M. leucophaeata and the native bivalve Brachidontes darwinianus suggest some agonistic relationship between them, such as a competition for space.
Abstract in English:Abstract Studies on the exploitation of trophic resources allow to establish interactions between predators and predator-prey, and this dynamic can present fluctuations over time and space. We analysed stomach contents of 19 anuran species from tropical dry forests of Colombia, quantified the overlap between species and identified anuran trophic guilds. Most of the species were generalists in diet (89.5%), some with strong prey dominance and only two species were classified as specialists. Two anurans guilds were identified according to diet structure and habitat use: “ground foraging anurans, consuming Formicidae and Isoptera” and “arboreal ‘sit-and-wait’ predators, primarily consuming arachnids”. A considerable number of species did not clearly group in community trophic structure analysis. The level of taxonomic resolution with that preys are worked affects analysis of trophic niches segregation when analyzing regional and local patterns. Anuran species of tropical dry forest in the Colombian Caribbean display trophic resources partitioning at the level of species and/or morphospecies, as a mechanism of coexistence.
Abstract in English:Abstract The colorful genus Erotylina Curran was proposed to include a group of species originally described in Erotylus Fabricius but differing by the lack of three longitudinal carinae on the tibiae. The taxonomy of Erotylina is mostly based on coloration while information on mouthparts, thorax, male and female abdominal terminalia remain unknown. In addition, little is known about the factors underlying coloration in Erotylina and Erotylidae in general. Here we redescribe the type species of Erotylina, Erotylus leopardus Lacordaire providing the first descriptions of several morphological structures, and new data on its geographical distribution. Erotylus nicaraguae Crotch is proposed as new junior synonymy of E. leoparda. Lectotypes are designated for the following species: Erotylus leopardus Lacordaire, Erotylus nicaraguae Crotch and Erotylus confluens Crotch. Based on the geographical records, specimen labels, literature and online environmental databases, we show that E. leoparda includes two discrete morphs distributed across a latitudinal gradient, with intermediate and continuous variations distributed across altitudinal and temperature gradients. The present study sheds light on the taxonomy of Erotylina and provides the first clearest evidence of a relation between coloration, latitude, altitude, temperature variations and the distributional patterns of a taxon in Erotylidae.
Abstract in English:Abstract Our objective was to determine whether inclusion of industrial egg residue (IER) in the diets of laying hens would replace calcitic limestone without interfering with productive efficiency, egg quality or digestibility. In a first study (Experiment I), we used 30% IER in the diets of laying hens and found that the apparent digestibility coefficients were 51.6%, 42.8%, 51.6% and 17.8% for dry matter, crude protein, calcium and phosphorus, respectively. In the second study (Experiment II), we compared a control diet containing calcitic limestone with four diets containing increasing levels of IER, in proportions of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. During the first cycle (day 1–28), there was no difference between treatments in terms of productive performance or egg quality. During the second production cycle (day 29–56), we observed less food consumption by birds that ingested the highest levels of IER (100% substitution) than in controls. During the third cycle (day 57–84), we found that the inclusion of IER negatively affected performance, particularly lower production numbers, lower egg mass and higher feed conversion. Finally, during the third cycle, chickens broke and ingested their eggs shortly after laying. We conclude that the use of industrial egg residue cannot replace limestone in the feed of commercial laying hens, because it reduces performance and affects egg quality.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study was carried out to determine the toxicity and biochemical and morphophysiological changes caused by Serjania erecta leaf aqueous extract in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). For acute toxicity testing (CL50-4h), pacu juveniles were exposed during 4 h to Serjania erecta aqueous extract concentrations of 2.5, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 150 µg mL-1, which were added directly to the water in the tanks. In the control group, the animals were kept in water free from aqueous extract. CL50-4 h was estimated at 57.43 µg mL-1. After exposure to the aqueous extract, the highest (P<0.05) glucose concentration and the lowest (P<0.05) plasma sodium level were when the fish were exposed to the S. erecta concentration of 50 µg mL-1. Mortality occurred at S. erecta extract levels higher than 50 μg mL-1, and all fish died at concentrations greater than 100 μg mL-1. In addition, exposure to this extract caused severe histological changes in the gills and liver with higher prevalence of necrosis (30.2%), and fatty degeneration (77.4%) respectively. At the concentrations tested here, S. erecta aqueous extract causes morphofunctional alterations in this fish species.
Abstract in English:Abstract Two experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of guava extract on laying performance and lipid stability of egg of Japanese quails. For the first experiment, 384 Japanese quails with 42 days old were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0.0; 3.0; 6.0; 9.0 g.kg-1 guava extract), 6 replicates, and 16 birds/replicate. The experimental period lasted 84 days, divided into 4 cycles of 21 days. The parameters evaluated were: feed consumption, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, and egg internal and external qualities. On the second experiment, 400 eggs from Japanese quails fed with diets containing four levels of guava extract were distributed in a completely randomized design with a 4x4 factorial arrangement (guava extract levels and storage time: 0, 9, 18, 27 days) with 5 replicates. Analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was performed on egg yolks. Data were submitted to regression analysis, using α=0.05. On the first experiment, the laying performance parameters were not influenced by the inclusion of guava extract in the feed, and eggshell thickness decreased linearly. On the second experiment an interaction was observed between the studied factors, affecting lipid oxidation in egg yolks. At nine days of storage, there was a quadratic effect of levels of dietary guava extract on lipid oxidation of yolk, being observed that using 4.8 g.kg-1 of guava extract on feed results in less lipid oxidation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Taxonomic and cytogenetic aspects of Proceratophrys have not been thoroughly clarified in the literature; thus, the objective of the present study was to provide unprecedent karyotype data regarding P. schirchi, P. laticeps and P. melanopogon. Additionally, the karyotype of P. boiei (2n = 22) and its ZZ / ZW sex chromosome system was analyzed for different populations of southeastern and southern Brazil. All Proceratophrys species have a diploid number of 2n = 22 chromosomes. In P. schirchi, a strong C-band was found in the long arm in one of the homologues of the pair 8 in female metaphasic cells, denoting that this chromosome pair could represent the heteromorphic sex chromosome in a ZZ / ZW sex system. Despite the conserved number of chromosomes, there are considerable chromosomal differences in P. melanopogon and P. boiei (southern Brazil), strongly differentiating them cytogenetically from other species of the genus. Moreover, with the confirmation of chromosomal heteromorphism related to sexual differentiation in P. boiei and the possible description of this system in P. schirchi, the Proceratophrys genus can be regarded as an interesting group for evolutionary studies and sex chromosome differentiation in anurans.
Abstract in English:Abstract Studies focusing on terminal drought combined with heat impacts on plants of agronomic value remain scarce, and even less under field conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate leaf structural and ultrastructural changes induced by heat stress (HS) and drought stress (DS) during seed filling and their relationship with physiological variables and yield determination. Two soybean cultivars were grown in field conditions. During seed filling four treatments were applied, including a control (without manipulation, at ambient temperature and field capacity), HS (episodes exceeding 32°C for 6 h d-1) during 21-d, DS (20% of field capacity soil water content) during 35-d, and HS×DS. Drought principally reduced leaf area, whereas heat decreased leaf thickness, possible as acclimation strategies, but also irreversible reducing CO2 assimilation sites. Both stresses damaged the outer and inner membranes of chloroplasts, causing swollen chloroplasts and accumulation of plastoglobules, loss of chlorophyll content, and negatively affecting chlorophyll fluorescence. Thus, the performance and integrity of the photosynthetic machinery were reduced. Through a morpho-functional perspective and a holistic multiscale approach, our results provide evidence of photosynthesis impairment and yield drops under stressful conditions which were associated with structural and ultrastructural (particularly at the level of chloroplasts) modifications of leaves.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the jambolan (Syzigium cumini L.) peel and leaves extract added in pectin based edible coating onto color changes, mass loss and β-carotene retention of minimally processed papaya during storage at 5 ±2 °C for 9 days. Leaves and peels were crushed in water in solid:liquid ratio, 1:1.5 and 1:2.0 and filtrered to obtain vegetable extracts. After, aqueous solutions were prepared adding 2% of pectin and 5% of extract. The mass loss increasing in all treatments evaluated in this work, being that in the final of 9 days of storage, control and P2 (peel 2%) treatment presented the highest loss, 6.23 and 10.12% respectively. The L1.5 (leaf 1.5%) treatment was the one presented the lowest percentage of mass loss (3.8%). The values of () of the control samples reduced significantly during the storage period, reaching 21% of reduction after 9 days. Coating with vegetable extract from jambolan peel and leaf reduced the loss of β-carotene in minimally processed papaya during the storage, being that the treatment P1.5 provided the highest retention value of the compound. The results demonstrated that the studied coating set with extracts (peel and leaves) of jambolan, was efficient to preserve the color, the mass loss and the β-carotene content of the minimally processed papaya.
Abstract in English:Abstract Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) have received great interest in recent decades. However, PGPB mechanisms remain poorly understood in forage species. We aimed to evaluate roots endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria strains from Brachiaria humidicola and Brachiaria decumbens. The strains were evaluated for biological nitrogen-fixing in saline stress (0 to 10.0 g L-1 of NaCl), N-acyl homoserine lactones and indole-like compounds (ILC) production, the activity of hydrolytic enzymes, and inorganic phosphate solubilization (IPS) under different C sources. The diversity of strains was assessed by BOX-PCR. About 58% of strains were positive for BNF. High salinity levels reduced the growth and BNF. About 58% produced N-acyl homoserine lactones. The ILC was present in 39% of strains. Cellulase, polygalacturonase, pectate lyase, and amylase production were observed in 77, 14, 22, and 25% of strains, respectively. The IPS was observed in 44, 81, and 87% of isolates when glucose, mannitol and sucrose were used, respectively. Comparing two plant species and niches, the strains associated with B. humidicola and root endophytic presented more PGPB mechanisms than others. We found high strain diversity, of which 64% showed similarity lower than 70%. These results can be supporting the bioproducts development to increase forage grasses production in tropical soils.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Cerrado/Caatinga transition region in Piauí State has a high potential for production of food, fiber and energy, representing about 19% of the total area of the State. This work aimed to evaluate physical and hydraulic attributes under different crops in Latossolo Amarelo Distrófico (Oxisol) in cerrado/caatinga transition areas, in the Southwest of Piauí. In this study five areas with different crops were evaluated as follows: areas under pasture crop with Andropogon gayanus grass with three and six years of crop, area under intensive crop of Pennisetum purpureum grass, area under orchard of Annona squamosa L., area under intensive crop irrigated with central pivot and area under native vegetation of cerrado/caatinga ecotone representing a condition of equilibrium. Soil attributes evaluated were: soil density, total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, unsaturated pores, blocked pores, saturation humidity, effective saturation, water readily available, void index, mechanical resistance of soil and saturated field hydraulic conductivity. The intensive crop of napier grass for five consecutive years and the pivot irrigated area under intensive crop for four years presented the greatest negative impacts on soil density, total porosity, macroporosity, saturation humidity, effective saturation, water readily available and index of voids.
Abstract in English:Abstract Biochar has been used to reuse the agro-industrial wastes and improve soil quality. Several studies have been carried out to show the impact of biochar on physical and chemical soil attributes. However, there are still gaps regarding the effects on as microbial biomass and enzymatic activities that are important to determine sensitive indicators to evaluate changes in management practices. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of two biochars on the chemical, microbial biomass carbon, and the enzymatic activities in an Entisol cultivated with bean. We evaluate two types of coffee biochar: ground and husks, four doses (4, 8, 12, and 16 Mg ha-1) and control. All treatments received organic fertilization with cow manure. Husks biochar increase the soil pH, Ca, and K, also contributing to the reduction of toxic aluminum contents and raising the concentrations of P labile. The treatments that received ground biochar showed higher soil organic carbon, microbial biomass, β-glucosidase, and fluorescein diacetate. Biochar produced from coffee residues increased sandy soil quality. We showed the first report on the beneficial impact of coffee biochar on enzymatic and microbiological quality of sandy soil cultivated with the bean.
Abstract in English:Abstract Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry offers valuable information for prediction models of soil fertility attributes spatial variation, although this approach is yet scarce in tropical regions. This study aims to predict and build spatial variability maps of soil pH, remaining phosphorus (P-Rem), soil organic matter (SOM) and sum of bases (SB) using pXRF results through stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and Random Forest (RF) in a highly variable tropical area. Composite samples from soil A horizon were collected at 90 points throughout the campus of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, for pH, P-Rem, SOM, SB and pXRF analyses. RF predictions showed the highest accuracies, especially for P-Rem and SB (R² values of 0.66 and 0.55, respectively). Attributes that showed higher R² in punctual predictions also exhibited higher R² in spatial predictions. Data obtained from pXRF in tandem with RF can be used to assist prediction models for soil fertility attributes, consequently enabling the digital mapping of such attributes and helping to improve the knowledge about the spatial variability of such attributes in soils of tropical climate. This technique can therefore assist in the identification and orientation of adequate management practices in tropical agricultural practices.
Abstract in English:Abstract Color change associated with significative positive improve in physical properties is a challenge in wood research. This study investigated the changes in the color of the Gmelina arborea wood which underwent a thermomechanical densification process. The process was performed by applying three different temperatures (140 °C, 160 °C and 180 °C) with thickness reduction of 20% and 40% using 2.5 MPa equivalent pressure. The color change of the pieces was analyzed through the CIEL * a * b * system. The relationship between the color and the equilibrium moisture content of the densified material was also analyzed. The process reduced the lightness and yellow hue of the wood, with increased red pigment resulting in darker coloration of the treated pieces. The higher temperature used resulted in more significant changes in wood tone and lower equilibrium moisture. The process proved to be effective to change the color and significantly reduce the equilibrium moisture content in wood samples where the density was increase by 20% and 50% compared to natural wood.
Abstract in English:Abstract Most of the municipal solid waste collected is disposed of in landfills and controlled landfills. However, efficient ways of recovering these wastes have emerged, such as bio-drying. This technique uses the exothermic degradation reaction of organic matter carried out by microorganisms along with aeration to reduce the moisture of the waste. The objective of the research was to test the bio-drying technique in a rotary drum. For this purpose, three rotary drums were built, and the tested residue was synthetically produced. The aeration rate tested was 1 liter per kilogram per minute, and rotation was performed for one minute every three hours. The analyses performed on the residues were moisture content, volatile solids, calorific value, particle size, and temperature profile. The residues entered the bio-drying process with a moisture content of 52%, 49%, and 54% and went out with 15%, 13%, and 10% for drum 1, 2, and 3, respectively, a reduction of more than 70%. The calorific value increased by 95%, 88%, and 122% for drum 1, 2, and 3, respectively. During the process, no leachate generation was observed.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper proposes the use of a hybrid method that combines Biased Random Key Genetic Algorithm (BRKGA) with a local search heuristic to separate Brazilian tailing dam data into groups. The goal was identifying dams similar to Fundão and B1 failed dams. The groups were created by solving the clustering problem by BRKGA. The clustering problem consists in separating a set of objects into groups such that members of each group are similar to each other. The data was composed by 427 dams, with the actual 425 dams of Brazilian Register of Tailing Dams and the two Brazilian failed dams from the last years. Computational experiments considering real data available are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method producing feasible solutions. Thus, it is expected that the good results can be applied in the identification of tailings dams with risk potentials, assisting in the identification of these dams.
Abstract in English:Abstract The beginning of the concept of architectural monument in Colombia is in the laws from the late XIX century and early XX century. We recompose the international context through the technic of aero photography, used by the Military Geographical Institute during the Second World War and the consequent tensions between U.S. and the powerful nations of the axis in relation to Colombia and Brazil in Latin America. The Liberal Party emerges like an ideology that tried to reorganise the country through the establishment of education and control the soil. This party negotiated a pact to stop the Colombian-Peruvian war 1932-1933, and signed the Roerich Pact in 1935 to protect the monuments. Therefore, the 1942 plan is the end of a process of mapping the national territory and the generation of criteria about cultural heritage in the first half of XX century, and the base to study how it affected the protection of architectural monuments up to date.
Abstract in English:Abstract The entrepreneurial university is a growing trend in higher education. Almost three decades of research with studies centred on successful cases from Anglo-Saxon countries serve as a reference for high-income countries. However, these cases cannot be applied to the Latin American reality, as it has distinct circumstances: high rates of informality, of business mortality, low education and scant research. This study analyses, via the technique of structural equation models, the relations between the cultural aspects of the entrepreneurial university, the carrying out of applied research and the creation of firms by university centres. With a sample of students of the University of San Martín de Porres (Peru), the existence of positive relations between the distinct variables which make up the idea of the entrepreneurial university is noted (entrepreneurial leadership, entrepreneurial curriculum, entrepreneurial culture, applied research, and firm creation and technology transfer). Also, in the area of non-Anglo-Saxon universities a positive effect of the impulse of entrepreneurial behaviours and activities on the starting up of new business initiatives by university graduates is observed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Anthracology is the identification of charcoal remains through wood anatomy. Paleoecological and paleoethnobotanical evidence from anthracological studies provides information on past environments as well as the fuel economy and use of plants by those living in ancient societies. Historical ecology and forest conservation can also accrue from findings in anthracological studies. Charcoal identification must rely on adequate reference material, in particular reference collections and descriptions of charcoal anatomy. This paper presents charcoal anatomy descriptions of fifteen Brazilian native species that occur in the Atlantic Forest and the Amazon Rainforest. The charcoal anatomy of six of these species is here described for the first time. Samples were analyzed under a reflected light microscope; the descriptions followed the procedures and terminology recommended by the International Association of Wood Anatomists. Increased knowledge of the charcoal and wood anatomy of native tropical species may improve taxonomic identification, thereby increasing accordingly the amount and quality of data for sociocultural inferences about past societies. In addition, it contributes to a better knowledge of the native flora, which helps to prevent deforestation and to drive more sustainable charcoal production chains.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this article, we present the main findings of the first survey conducted in Brazil on the public perception of science and technology (S&T) among youth ages 15 to 24 years old. The study was designed around a survey of 2,206 young people residing in urban areas. Results suggest that young people have a great interest in S&T (67%) and related topics, such as medicine and health (74%), and the environment (80%). They have a positive view of science and scientists and are in favor of investments in scientific research despite the country’s current economic crisis (94% said Brazil should not cut its investments in S&T). Most of them believe science affords humanity many (69%) or some (27%) benefits, while it also presents some (53%) or few (30%) risks. The study identified shortcomings in these young people’s knowledge: few were able to name a Brazilian scientist (5%) or scientific institution (12%). These young people are not frequent visitors to science museums (6%) or other spaces for communicating science, such as parks or botanical gardens (25%). The respondents voiced their opinions about social and political controversies in the realm of scientific research, such as vaccination, climate change, and the theory of evolution.
Abstract in English:Abstract Issue under consideration: existing legal resources to support gender equality in the workplace. We systematised the provisions of Kazakhstan labour law, which should guarantee the prohibition of discrimination based on sex. The analysis resulted in five themes: “Characteristics of women’s labour”, “Analysis of labour laws differentiation”, “Evaluation of labour rights discrimination” and “Characteristics of the new labour legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan”, “Characteristics of workers with a special social status”. We analysed the essence of the method of differentiation of labour legislation, which affects the establishment of special working conditions for women and workers with family responsibilities. We suggested a correlation between the content of legal norms and the level of guarantees of gender equality in the labour market. The results show that family circumstances, gender equality are factors influencing the formation of labour legislation, state policy in the field of wage labour. The creation of a favourable environment for labour relations of the considered categories of workers should be carried out through labour contracts, acts of the employer, social partnership agreements, collective agreements. However, priority should be given to normative acts of national action. Ensuring gender equality in fact always requires the implementation of special measures by the employer, which must be guaranteed by a coercive state mechanism. At least this thesis is true for the conditions of Kazakhstan, a country with a transition economy, when business does not have high social activity, and state power is in a period of transformation. Importance should be given to the monitoring and implementation of international obligations in the field of ensuring the prohibition of discrimination, the implementation of best practices and standards. The post-Soviet law of Kazakhstan recognises the priority of international law over national law, and this channel should be maximally used to promote the value of gender equality.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to identify the defensive contents and teaching approaches preferred by handball coaches of school teams. Eleven coaches from a city in the State of São Paulo were interviewed. The discourses from the semi-structured interviews were analyzed based on the Collective Subject Discourse method. Coaches revealed that match-up, base position, coverage, and spatial occupation are the main individual defensive contents and use the teaching through games situations, technique approach, and teaching through games. The main group defensive content mentioned by the coaches is the match-up changes, mutual cover, and defensive systems, for which they preferred the teaching through games situations, teaching through games and technique approach. The findings show that although they are content of the same phase of the game, there is a preference for different teaching approaches. On the other hand, there seems to be inconsistency with the choice of the technique approach when it comes to the teaching of individual defensive contents, mainly because they are related to the players’ decision-making. Such findings will contribute to the teaching of handball in school teams and with reflections for the teaching of the different specific contents, raising new discussions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Public universities, and science in general, in Brazil, are under attack from key persons of the government in interviews and articles published in non-scientific journals. Here we look at bibliography data from international science metric platforms (Scival® and Incites®) and official Brazilian agencies such as CAPES and CNPq to reach some conclusions based on scientific analysis. Brazilian Science has shown a steady improvement in quantity and quality over the last 20 years but has recently suffered (since 2015) under severe financial restrictions. An increase in international collaboration also increased citation impact, reaching almost five times the world average. While the medical and natural sciences show the highest impact and prominence, social sciences and the humanities also have spotlight areas with international excellence. Different research institutions and universities offer a variety of production profiles and impacts. This diagnosis shows the need for universities and research institutes in Brazil and funding agencies to undergo strategic planning for definition of mission/vision, goals to be reached, and areas for priority development. Continued support of public universities by the government is necessary for Brazilian autonomy in science and technology and its full integration in the world scientific community.