Abstract in English:Abstract This paper introduce two new families of distributions that allow fitting unimodal, bimodal or trimodal data sets. Statistical properties such as distribution function, moments, moment generating function and stochastic representation of these new families are studied in details. The problem of estimating parameters is addressed by considering the maximum likelihood method and Fisher information matrices are derived. A small Monte Carlo simulation study is conducted to examine the performance of the obtained estimators. The methodology developed is illustrated with three real data applications.
Abstract in English:Abstract Bromelia serra leaves collected from Corrientes, Argentina, were assessed to analyze and characterize the proteolytic system and to evaluate its potential use as an industrial catalyst. The specific activity of the enzymatic extract (EE), which was prepared using acetone as a precipitating agent of the crude extract (CE), increased 2-3 folds with different substrates (hemoglobin, azocasein and casein). The proteins present in the EE have isoelectric points between 4.55-8.15 and they were significant inhibited by pepstatin A (50%) and E-64 (15%). Proteolytic activity in EE presented high activity in acidic pH (2.7-4), and low activity in neutral alkaline pH (6-11.75). The EE optimum activity was reached at 60ºC, and referring to the thermal stability, it retained over 97% of the proteolytic activity after incubation at a temperature range of 37‒60 ºC for 60 min. The effect of reducing agents and ionic strength were also measured, and it showed that the EE had its maximum activity with 5mM of cysteine, and it was inactivated with 2.5 M of NaCl. The chromatography procedures presented two purified enzymes of 21 and 54 KDa with proteolytic activity. The characteristics of the EE suggest that it is a potential candidate as an industrial catalyst.
Abstract in English:Abstract The extreme demand on health systems due to the COVID-19 pandemic has led to reconsider hypofractionation. Although the best clinical efficacy of these schemes is being demonstrated, the biological bases have not been established. Thus, after validating basic clinical parameters, through complementary in vitro models, we characterized the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hypofractionation protocols. Cell cultures of human lung cancer cell line A549 were irradiated with 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 Gy. The clastogenic, cytotoxic, proliferative and clonogenic capacities and bystander effect were evaluated. In addition, we assessed survival and toxicity in a retrospective study of 49 patients with lung cancer. Our findings showed that the greater efficacy of ablative regimens should not only be attributed to events of direct cell death induced by genotoxic damage, but also to a lower cell repopulation and the indirect action of clastogenic factors secreted. These treatments were optimal in terms of 1- and 2-year overall survival (74 and 65%, respectively), and progression-free survival at 1 and 2 years (71 and 61%, respectively). The greater efficacy of high doses per fraction could be attributed to a multifactorial mechanism that goes beyond the 4Rs of conventional radiotherapy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hederagenin, a natural compound distributed in many medicinal plants, has a variety of pharmacological properties including anti-bacteria, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti- apoptosis.. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hederagenin on decreasing blood lipid and anti-oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced HepG2 cells and hyperlipidemic rats, and explore underlying mechanisms. In vitro, TG was used as the index to verify the lipid-lowering effect of hederagenin in oleic acid-induced HepG2 cells. In vivo, TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C were used as direct indicators to study the antilipemic effect of hederagenin in hyperlipidemic rats. MDA, SOD, and GSH-PX were measured to analyze the anti-oxidative effect of hederagenin. The signaling pathways of anti-oxidation were evaluated using Western blot. Our results showed that hederagenin (250μmol/L) increased significantly TG clearance rate. In addition, treatment with hederagenin, XZK and simvastatin reduced effectively TC, TG, LDL-C and MDA content, and increased HDL-C, SOD and GSH-PX in HFD rats. Moreover, the phosphorylation level of p38 MAPK was inhibited after administration of hederagenin, XZK and simvastatin. Our results revealed that hederagenin possessed beneficial potentials for hypolipidemic effects, especially in TG clearance. The mechanism might be associated with inhibition of lipid absorption, reduction of lipid oxidation, and down-regulation of p38MAPK phosphorylation.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated some biological activities of extracts from Abuta selloana. The gastroprotective potential was determined against ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers, whereas the antinociceptive effect was evaluated by acetic acid-induced abdominal contortions in mice. The cytotoxicity activity was measured against human cancer cell lines: U251 (glioma), MCF-7 (breast cancer) and NCI-H460 (lung cancer). The radical scavenger potential was verified; and preliminary phytochemical analyses were performed. The phytochemical screening revealed higher levels of phenolic compounds in all extracts. Moreover, the methanolic extract from pulp fruit (MEPu), peel fruit (MEPe), branches (MEB) and leaves (MEL) scavenged the DPPH radical at 100 µg/mL. Besides, only MEL presented GI50 < 30 µg/mL in all tested cells. Besides, MEPu, MEPe, MEB or MEL at 10 mg/kg (i.p) reduced the abdominal contortions at 47.22%, 63.31%, 84.59% and 37.76%, respectively. The MEPu, MEPe, MEB and MEL reduced the ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin- induced ulcer at 250 mg/kg (p.o). In conclusion, A. selloana had interesting biological activities; presenting the leaves as a promising source for compounds with cytotoxic potential, however, further studies should be performed to confirm its antitumoral activity. Besides, the whole plant can be an important source of bioactive compounds associated with gastroprotective and antinociceptive properties.
Abstract in English:Abstract background: Role of Convalescent plasma (COPLA) to treat severe COVID-19 is under investigation. We compared efficacy and safety of COPLA with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in severe COVID-19 patients. Methods: One group received COPLA with standard medical care (n = 14), and another group received random donor FFP, as control with standard medical care (n = 15) in severe COVID-19 disease. Results: The proportion of patients free of ventilation at day seven were 78.5% in COPLA group, and 93.3 % in control group were not significant (p= 0.258). However, improved respiratory rate, O2 saturation, SOFA score, and Ct value were observed in the COPLA group. No serious adverse events were noticed by plasma transfusion in both groups.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fibrinolytic enzymes are considered promising alternative in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases by preventing fibrin clots. A protease from Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262 was obtained by solid state fermentation and purified by ion exchange chromatography. The purified extract was administered at an acute dose of 2000 mg/mL to evaluate its toxic effects to the lungs of mice. After 14 days of treatment, a histomorphometric study was performed by the type 1 and 2 pneumocyte count and the evaluation of the lung area. As result, the experimental group showed a significant decrease of type 2 pneumocyte and although a decrease in the alveolar area was observed in relation to the control group, no significant pulmonary toxicity, emphysema, and fibrosis characteristics were detected. The in vitro tests suggest possible clinical applications for the enzyme.
Abstract in English:Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe disease with no cure caused by a genetic abnormality, promoting progressive muscle degeneration. Corticosteroids are used drugs in treatment associated with adverse effects. The extract of Miconia ferruginata (Melastomataceae) (MF) has demonstrated potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in vitro. This study used a DMD model (mdx) to determine the toxic dose of this plant and found a possible non-toxic dose with therapeutic effects. The mdx groups received an intraperitoneal injection of 0 (control group), 50, 100, 200, 300, and 2000 mg kg-1 of the aqueous leaf extract following a single-dose acute toxicity protocol and were observed for 14 days. The range of toxicity of the extract and LD50 were determined. Histopathological analysis, the quantification of fibrosis, and immunohistochemical analysis of the tissues were performed. The results demonstrated that 2000 mg kg-1 was highly toxic, inducing histopathological changes in the tissues evaluated, with 100% mortality in 48 hours. The other doses caused no behavioral changes or signs of toxicity. The MF extract led reduction in histopathological changes, fibrosis, and inflammation, a reduction in HSP70 and an increase in MCL-1 proteins. Doses of 50-200 mg kg-1 demonstrated regenerative tissue and anti-inflammatory potential.
Abstract in English:Abstract Inflammatory bowel diseases are a group of inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Their prevalence is still low in Brazil, but the incidence is increasing annually. A variety of compounds present in Curcuma longa L., particularly curcumin, have been shown to reduce oxidative stress and aid in the prevention of associated diseases. This study aimed to assess the effect of curcumin transdermal gel on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in IL-10 knockout mice. Female mice were divided into four groups: a control group (C0) treated with vehicle and three experimental groups treated with transdermal gel containing 50 (C50), 75 (C75), and 100 (C100) mg curcumin kg−1 body weight. Colon malondialdehyde concentrations were lower in C50 and C75 groups. C100 treatment led to reduced catalase activity in the small intestine, whereas C50, C75, and C100 treatments resulted in decreased catalase activity in the colon. In contrast, superoxide dismutase activity increased in the small intestine of C50 and C75 mice and decreased in the colon of C50, C75, and C100 mice. Glutathione S-transferase activity increased in the small intestine and decreased in the colon of C75 animals. These findings suggest that curcumin transdermal gel exerts a protective effect against oxidative stress.
Abstract in English:Abstract The main factors governing Hevea brasiliensis germination and seedling establishment remains unclear. We examined the effect of growth regulators Indole 3-Acetic Acid (IAA) and 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), and their interactions on germination and the development of mature zygotic embryos (MZE) and protein profile of Hevea brasiliensis seedlings from wild and cultivated (clone PB 250) genotypes. Embryonic axes excised from seeds (wild and clone PB 250) were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog medium (control) and supplemented with IAA (3 µM) and BAP (6 µM) individually and their combination (3 µM IAA + 6 µM BAP). For both genotypes, the mature embryos displayed a high percentage of germination and establishment, and the seedlings were characterized by protein bands ranging from 7 to 30 kDa. Notably, the wild genotype showed proteins in the 14 kDa range, which may be associated with one of the major rubber elongation factors (REF). The wild and clone genotypes presented different behavior and strategies in relation to the protein profile in the presence of different growth regulators. Although the latex biosynthetic pathway and its mechanisms of regulation still remain largely unknown, our results aid in our understanding of the dynamics of proteins in different rubber tree clones in vitro.
Abstract in English:Abstract Exercise and addiction influence brain functions. The preventive effects of fixed and progressive forced exercises on both brain functions and body weight were investigated in morphine-addicted rats. Thirty-five rats were allocated to control, morphine, fixed exercise-morphine, and progressive exercise-morphine groups. Forced exercise was applied 1h/day for 21 days with morphine sulfate administered at doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days. The 50 mg/kg dose was repeated over the five subsequent days. Brain performance was evaluated using the passive avoidance test and EEG recordings. The passive avoidance test revealed no significant changes in brain functions (namely, latency, total dark stay time, and number of times entering the dark compartment). Compared to the control, the morphine group exhibited significantly lower alpha and beta waves but significantly higher delta and theta ones. Compared to the morphine group, the progressive and fixed exercise-morphine groups exhibited significant changes in their passive avoidance performance and only in the alpha wave of their EEG recordings. Progressive exercise improved learning, memory, and memory consolidation but reduced locomotor activity whereas fixed exercise affected EEG recordings in the addicted subjects. Clearly, different (fixed or progressive) exercise models produced different changes in brain functions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri is one of the most venomous fish species in the Brazilian coast. Amongst many biological activities, the S. plumieri fish venom (SpV) promotes hemagglutination. Although this activity appears to be associated to the presence of C-type lectins in the venom, it has not yet been chemically or functionally characterized. In the present work we sought to advance the characterization of the hemagglutinating activity associated to this venom. By fractionating SpV through saline precipitation followed by size exclusion chromatography we obtained two purified fractions - HF1 and HF3 - with Ca2+-dependent agglutinating activity against rabbit erythrocytes, which remained stable upon storage at 4 and -80oC. HF1 and HF3 were bacteriostatic against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50 and 200 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, a resazurin-based viability assay revealed that both fractions, at doses up to 370 μg/mL, were cytotoxic against tumor and non-tumor cell lines. Finally, a tendency towards edema formation could be detected when the fractions - particularly HF1 - were injected into mice footpads. We believe our data contribute to a better understanding of the biological properties of the so often neglected fish venoms.
Abstract in English:Abstract β-Glucan is an essential component of the cell walls of grains such as oats and barley. 1,3-1,4-β-D-glucan 4-glucanhydrolase (β-glucanase or lichenase) (EC 188.8.131.52) is an enzyme with the ability to hydrolyze β-glucans. In this research, β-Glucan which is a good source of feed additive fish probiotics, was used in order to benefit from feed quality in fishery products, to increase live weight gain and to strengthen the immune system. In this study, recombinant vector pNW33N carrying the β-(1,3-1,4) glucanase (lichenase) gene of Streptococcus bovis genome was transferred to Bacillus subtilis RSKK246 (CMCase+) strain by electroporation. Subsequently, electrotransformation was performed on LB-agar plates containing lichenan and enzymatic activity regions of recombinant B. subtilis RSKK246 colonies were observed by staining with Congo red. In addition, the DNA from the recombinant plasmid pNW33N+Lichenase (pNW33NLic) was cut on both the BamHI and HindIII endonucleases and observed on the lichenase gene (1800 bp) agarose gel. On the other hand, the protein band corresponding to 26 kDa of the recombinant enzyme was observed by zymogram analysis. These results indicate that the β-(1,3-1,4) glucanase gene has been successfully expressed to the B. subtilis strain RSKK246.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective was evaluated the therapeutic effect of Juglans regia (J) and Zingiber officinale (Z) extracts, alone or associated (Z75% + J25%, Z50% + J50% and Z25% + J75%) applied on planktonic cultures and biofilms of Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as analyzing the cytotoxic effects of plant extracts on mouse macrophages (Raw 264-7). Broth microdilution assay was performed (M7-A6 - CLSI). Anti-biofilm activities and cytotoxicity on Raw 264-7 were studied using MTT assay and scanning electron microscopy. ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey HSD applied for parametric data and Kruskal-Wallis with Conover-Iman test, for non-parametric (p<0.05). On P. acnes biofilm, Z50% + J50% reduced 46.9% in 5 min and Z25% + J75% reduced 74.1% in 24hs. On S. aureus, Z75% + J25% reduced 23.1% in 5 min Z25% +J75% reduced 79.4% in 24hs. On S. epidermidis, Z75% + J25% reduced 74.6% in 5 min and 82.05% in 24 h. The treatments on macrophages for 24 h promoted a maximum reduction by 14,5% for groups of extracts associations. On multispecies biofilm, Z75%+J25% reduced 84.3% in 24 h. In conclusion association of glycolic extracts provided therapeutic effect, demonstrated antimicrobial activity and low cytotoxicity.
Abstract in English:Abstract we conducted anatomical analysis of anthers with the aim to establish the differences in the development pattern of microsporophytes and microgametophytes between perfect and imperfect flowers in the tribe Gardenieae (Rubiaceae). The species studied were: Tocoyena formosa (monoecious with perfect flowers), Cordiera concolor, Genipa americana, Randia calycina, and Randia heteromera (dioecious with imperfect flowers). Flowers in successive stages of development were collected and fixed. The material was processed and examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The present study revealed the stage when pollen is arrested in the functionally pistillate flowers of the dioecious taxa. Based on these observations an evolutionary sequence of changes towards the reduction of non-functional anthers in Rubiaceae is proposed. In addition, we describe and discuss characters that might be of importance in future phylogenetic studies in Rubiaceae (e.g., pollen morphology and its dispersal unit, the presence of orbicules, and a new type of placentoid).
Abstract in English:Abstract Pseudognaphalium Kirp. (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) consist of about 60 species mainly distributed in South, Central, and North America. As a first contribution toward a comprehensive taxonomic review of Pseudognaphalium, we perform here the first morphometric analysis of North American species, using UPGMA method for the construction of the dendrogram. Based upon these results we present a synopsis including a key to identify species and their associated synonymy. Thirty-seven species are recognized, two taxa are newly synonymized, Pseudognaphalium microcephalum under the name P. canescens and Pseudognaphalium semilanatum under the name P. semiamplexicaule, and two other names are confirmed as synonyms as previously proposed, Pseudognaphalium micradenium as a synonym of P. helleri and Pseudognaphalium crenatum as a synonym of P. viscosum. Lectotypes are newly designated for Gnaphalium beneolens, G. berlandieri (= Pseudognaphalium stramineum), Gnaphalium decurrens (= Pseudognaphalium macounii), G. leucocephalum, G. oxyphyllum, G. oxyphyllum var. semilanatum (= P. semiamplexicaule), G. semiamplexicaule, G. sulphurescens (= P. stramineum), G. thermale, and second-step lectotypifications are proposed for G. helleri and G. wrightii (= P. canescens). In addition, the first illustrations of Pseudognaphalium helleri and P. semiamplexicaule, and a colour figure of P. canescens and P. beneolens emphasizing the results of the morphometric analysis are provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract Plinia cauliflora is an important Brazilian species that produces highly appreciated fruits, with a great potential of commercialization. However, the high cost of seedlings is a bottleneck for the expansion of commercial orchards. The present study aimed to investigate somatic embryogenesis as a propagation method for P. cauliflora using seeds as explants. To induce embryogenic mass (EM) and somatic embryo (SE) development we evaluated the supplementation of culture medium with different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), combined or not with activated charcoal (AC). For the embryo maturation, we investigated the effects of AC, polyethylene glycol (PEG), Gelzan®, 6-benzylaminopurine and gibberellin supplementation. For the EM induction, the best results were obtained in MS culture medium supplemented with 300 μM 2,4-D and 1 g L-1 AC. During the first maturation phase, the supplementation of 30 g L-1 PEG improved the somatic embryo formation at the torpedo and cotyledonary stages, whereas the maturation treatments did not result in the conversion of the embryos into plantlets. The anatomical analysis showed that the 2,4-D presence for 60 days may have been deleterious for embryonic development. These results represent the first report of P. cauliflora somatic embryogenesis and its feasibility for mass propagation.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this study, the effect of microbial inoculants and fertilizer application on cowpea (BRS Pujante) growth and on the structure and composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) assemblages were evaluated. A completely randomized experiment was set up involving 17 treatments: four with AMF, three with nodulating bacteria, six with AMF + nodulating bacteria, two with phosphorus, one with nitrogen and one control (reference) in five replicates. Plant growth and nutritional content, mycorrhizal colonization, glomerospores number, spore-based AMF assemblages and ecological indices were evaluated. Mycorrhizal inoculants associated with Bradyrhizobium BR3267 strain were more effective than the Microvirga BR3296 strain. Multidimensional scaling analysis showed that Acaulospora longula treatments were more similar among themselves, and distinct from the other treatments. A difference was observed in the structure of AMF community assemblage between treatments with G. albida + Bradyrhizobium BR 3267 and A. longula, with greater Shannon diversity and Pielou equitability indices in the first treatment and greater dominance in the treatment with A. longula only. Long-term studies are required to determine if the successful establishment of A. longula among indigenous species persists over time and if its dominant behavior is not deleterious to the AMF native community.
Abstract in English:Abstract This work aimed to compare the production of collagenolytic proteases produced by M. subtilissimus UCP1262 in submerged fermentation (SF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) as well as extracting in aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). Collagenolytic protease production was performed in using MS-2 culture medium (SF) and soybean bran as substrate (SSF). Subsequently, the fermented liquid from both fermentations were used for the extraction of enzyme by ATPS, it was verified the influence of different variables from a factorial design 23. In SSF the highest protease and collagenolytic activities were achieved with 362.66 U/mL and 179.81 U/mL, respectively. When compared with SF (26.33 and 18.70 U/mL) higher values were obtained in the activities. The protease partitioning from SF and SSF in ATPS showed a similar profile showing higher affinity for the polymer rich phase. The highest value for the response variable purification factor (3.49) was obtained in the system using SSF. Thus, SSF shows promise as a bioprocess for extracellular production of collagenolytic proteases, using of soybean bran as substrate had used sustainable raw material, aiming application this possible enzyme in the treatment of burns and postoperative scarring.
Abstract in English:Abstract Lactic acid bacteria are distributed in nature, isolating themselves from diverse ecosystems and presenting a wide metabolic biodiversity. In Corrientes (Argentina), artisanal cheeses and their specific environment are an important source of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria. The objective of this work was to establish associations between the phenotypic characteristics of strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis native from Corrientes with climatological data of the Province and the characteristics of the soil and the landscapes. Physiological and biochemical characterization data of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolated from the dairy environment and from different localities of Corrientes will be used. The strains were space-located through Google Earth, flood and drought events were evaluated using Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, and soil composition data (A and Bt horizons) in the study areas were obtained from the experimental station National Institute of Agricultural Technology - Corrientes. A statistical analysis was applied to these results (Infostat Software, Di Rienzo et al. 2008). The resulting consists in three conglomerates, differentiating strains from soils coming from “flooded landscapes” and those from “sandy hills landscape”. The analysis by main components highlighted the preference of strains from flooded landscapes by a saline-alkaline environment, affecting during periods of drought, and strains from sandy hills landscape by a low medium in salts and acid soil, directly during period of high humidity resulting from previous floods.
Abstract in English:Abstract The tarantula genus Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892 includes 20 valid species distributed in Argentina and Brazil. These spiders are distinguished from other Theraphosinae genera by the presence of an incrassate femur III, more evident in males, urticating hair types III and IV on the abdominal dorsum, few cuspules on the labium (0 to 30), maxillae with a maximum of 200 cuspules and sternum rounded. From recent examination of material from Peru, we discovered specimens that share all the morphological characters of Tmesiphantes, but did not fit with any known species. In the present study T. intiyaykuy sp. nov. is diagnosed, described, and illustrated. This new species resembles T. caymmii in the circular patch with stiff setae on midventral abdomen but can be distinguished by the shape of the palpal bulb and spermathecae. Also, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using morphological characters to infer the taxonomic placement of the new species. The analysis included 26 terminal species and 36 characters. Representatives of Tmesiphantes formed a monophyletic group and T. intiyaykuy sp. nov. is close related with T. caymmii. A dichotomous identification key and a geographic distribution map were constructed for recognized species of Tmesiphantes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Terminalia L. has a pantropical distribution, almost exclusively constituting tropical Combretaceae. In this work, a comprehensive synopsis of all the native species of Terminalia s.s. in the Brazilian Amazon is presented, including diagnostic characters, identification key, illustrations, geographic distribution maps, diversity and richness patterns with a new occurrence in Brazil, and a table with conservation status and number of records/ protected areas and their protected areas for all species. This information seeks to support the identification of these tree species, in addition to actions to conserve trees in the Brazilian Amazon.
Abstract in English:Abstract We evaluated the worldwide trends in studies of the active and dormant forms of microcrustaceans in rice fields, and the potential of this environment as a stock of diversity through a scientometric analysis. Web of Science and Scopus databases were used to compile the 77 studies published before 2019. Publications were distributed over 35 years, with a positive correlation between the number of studies and the year of publication (rho = 0.34). The identified studies were from 18 countries, and 58.4% were conducted in Japan, Italy, the United States, and Spain. Most studies addressed more than two groups of microcrustaceans (37.6%), followed by those focused on Cladocera (27.2%) and Ostracoda (18.1%). We quantified 301 species from six groups of microcrustaceans, the majority of which were Cladocera (41.5%) and Ostracoda (39.8%). The greatest richness of microcrustaceans identified in studies were found in Italy, Thailand, Malaysia, Spain, France, Japan, and Brazil. Of the studies, 87% were centered on the active forms of microcrustaceans rather than dormant forms. We found that 15.5% of the countries that grow rice have identified the richness of microcrustaceans, and even though they are artificial environments, rice fields have high potential to store a high diversity of microcrustaceans.
Abstract in English:Abstract Brazil is considered a megadiverse country, but the soil fauna is still very poorly known. The aim of this study was to report, for the first time, the abundance and genus composition of terrestrial enchytraeids (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) in Savanna Tall Woodland (Cerradão) and a pasture in Cerrado Biome and in Upper Montane Atlantic Forest and a grassland in Atlantic Forest Biome. The enchytraeid density in Pasture and Cerradao was 2,036 and 18,844 (204 and 2,094, on average) individuals per square meter, respectively. At the Atlantic forest and Grassland, density was 9,666 and 12,242 individuals per square meter (1,075 and 1,471 on average). About genus composition for the studied areas, Enchytraeus and Hemienchytraeus were found in the four ecosystems evaluated, while Tupidrilus and Fridericia were found only in Cerradão and Atlantic Forest, respectively. Achaeta was absent in Upper Montane Atlantic Forest, but dominant in pasture, while Guaranidrilus was absent in Pasture, but predominant in the other ecosystems.
Abstract in English:Abstract Studies of the relationships between the temporal variation of biological phenomena and environmental factors are essential to understanding the dynamics of communities. Phenology is a structuring element and, together with voltinism, is related to timing of reproductive activities. The aim of this study is to ascertain the structure and composition of the Chironomid assemblage and its emergence patterns in relation to the environmental variables through the use of the Chironomid pupal exuviae technique using the Neotropical streams as a model. The streams presented similar species compositions. The highest density of pupal exuviae was recorded during spring and the greatest richness in late summer and early autumn. Chironominae presented greater prevalence throughout the year with oscillations for Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae. Chironominae and Tanypodinae presented emergence peaks in spring-summer and Orthocladiinae in autumn-winter. Rainfall, photoperiod and water and air temperatures structured the Chironomid assemblage, influencing emergence. Univoltine, bivoltine and multivoltine species were recorded. The species presented interspecific synchronization in emergence peaks at different times of the year.
Abstract in English:Abstract Serra Negra do Funil Natural Heritage Private Reserve (NHPR), located in MG, was surveyed for insect galls monthly from October, 2015 to May, 2020. The local vegetation was examined. Dried branches of the host plants were prepared and identified by a botanical taxonomist. Galls were photographed, removed from the plants and taken to the laboratory. By rearing and gall dissection, inducing-insects and other dwellers were obtained. A total of 63 gall morphotypes were found on 48 plant species of 22 families. Fabaceae and Asteraceae harbored the greatest gall richness. Twelve host plants are endemic to Brazil, one in vulnerable and one near threatened. Most galls were induced on leaves, brown and green were the most frequent gall colors, and globoid was the most common gall shape. The majority were glabrous, one-chambered and induced by Cecidomyiidae. These results reinforce Brazilian patterns of gall morphology. The highest richness of galls on Fabaceae and Asteraceae, and on trees and shrubs adds evidence in favor of the plant richness and architectural complexity hypotheses. New plant-gall inducer associations were provided. The role of gall-inducers as ecosystem engineer was reinforced. The high number of endemism shows the importance of this NHPR for the biodiversity conservation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pesticides have reached aquatic ecosystems and have caused numerous impacts on organisms. The present study aimed to assess the sensitivity of Daphnia similis Straus 1820 and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korshikov) F.Hindák to three commercial pesticides with different active ingredients: Siptran 500SC® (atrazine), Dimilin® (diflubenzuron), and Aproach Prima® (picoxystrobin + cyproconazole). For this purpose, we performed acute toxicity tests on these organisms. The compound most toxic to D. similis was the insecticide Dimilin® (toxic up to 5 μg/L of the active ingredient), followed by the fungicide Aproach Prima® (48h-EC50: 47.33 μg of the active ingredients/L) and the herbicide Siptran 500SC® (48h-EC50: 534.69 mg of the active ingredient/L). In contrast, Siptran 500SC® was the most toxic compound (96h-IC50: 52.61 μg/L) to P. subcapitata, followed by Aproach Prima® (96h-IC50: 164.73 μg/L) and Dimilin® (non-toxic up to 1 g/L). The toxicity of the fungicide to algae and microcrustaceans demonstrates that compounds developed for certain organisms are able to affect others, indicating the relevance of conducting ecotoxicological tests on different organisms.
Abstract in English:Abstract The influence of food types, reproductive behaviour, and the existence of a possible stratification to the attractiveness of Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae flies may contribute to the definition of collection methodologies. Thus, we assessed the effectiveness of traps with two bait types exposed at two different heights in the forests for collecting the aforementioned families. Traps were exposed in the Amazon rainforest floodplain area, where 40 traps were installed in 20 trees, in three periods of the year. On each tree, one trap was installed at 0.6 m and the other at 10 m above the ground, with either bovine lung or fermented banana. A total of 1,173 individuals were collected, including 10 species of Calliphoridae (962 individuals) and four species of Mesembrinellidae (211 individuals). Of the total in each family, Calliphoridae was most abundant in 0.6m lung bait traps (41%) and Mesembrinellidae in the 0.6 m banana bait traps (29%). Calliphoridae showed greater species richness, abundance, and differentiation in composition in low traps with lung as bait. In conclusion, only dipteran species from Calliphoridae have been affected and responded the collection methodologies employed of we, which may highlight remarkable differences in collection and subsequent data interpretation of inventories and monitoring using these insects.
Abstract in English:Abstract Acoustic communication plays a key role in the life of birds and it is useful in phylogenetic and evolutionary investigations. This study described the structure and function of Polioptila dumicola´s call repertoire in riparian environments from the Mid-eastern of Argentina. Male calls (N=644) were recorded in the field during the pairs nuptial interactions; nests exploration and previously capture of male. Then, specific function was assigned to different calls using standardized methods of acoustic classification and behavioral observations. Twelve different types of calls were classified. Alert and call to female were the most frequent calls and they represented 12.04% and 10.24% of recordings. Anguish call was also recorded in this species. These are the first results regarding to the calls and repertoire of P. dumicola. These data could be used for new studies on environmental selection pressures and for conservation of this species and its habitats.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study presents the initial stages of the macrofouling community on artificial substrate exposed to the offshore subtropical marine environment, and the contribution of depth (3 and 22m), exposure time (1-2-4-7-10-13-weeks), UV-radiation, rainfall, temperature, pH, salinity, water chlorophyll-a, and zooplankton supply to organism establishment. Steel substrates were placed horizontally on the structure of a pipeline monobuoy off the southern shore of Brazil (Tramandaí beach), and the ecological succession was monitored by six random removals per depth during the summer-autumn of 2011. Approximately 88.5% of the quantified settled individuals comprised fouling fauna and 11.5% vagile and sedentary fauna, although the taxa richness was higher for non-sessile invertebrates. Species richness and organism density up to four weeks were significantly higher at 3m-depth. After this period, a higher density of organisms was found at 22m, while during the whole study the species richness and diversity remained higher at 3m-depth. Zooplankton composition did not show a simultaneous temporal relationship with invertebrate recruitment at any depth; however, increasing the exposure time, the similarity between the planktonic and benthic communities also increased. Meroplankton, tychoplankton, and holoplankton were recorded on the substrates. This study showed that the depth of available substrates affects the macrofouling establishment, which is mainly associated with UV-radiation, exposure time, and ecological interspecific interactions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The knowledge of rainfall regimes is a relevant requirement for many activities such as water resources planning, risk management, agriculture activities management, and other hydrologic applications. The present study has consisted of validating four techniques (one linear, one non-linear, and two hybrids) that allow identifying homogenous regions. We take the monthly rainfall in the Southwestern Colombia (Nariño), an area of 33,268 km2 characterized by complex topography and local factors that can influence the rainfall behavior, to test all techniques. The results showed overall the best performance for the approach related to non-linear principal component analysis and self-organizing map. However, in all mainly prevail two regions: the Andean Region and Pacific Region with a bimodal and unimodal regime, respectively. The bimodal one dominates over the Andes mountains range and the unimodal one the coastal zone. The application of non-linear approaches provided a better understanding of the seasonality of rainfall, and the results may be useful for water resource management.
Abstract in English:Abstract UVB-irradiation increases the risk of various skin disorders, therefore leading to inflammation and oxidative stress. In this sense, antioxidant-rich herbs such as Rosmarinus officinalis may be useful in minimizing the damage promoted by reactive oxygen species. In this work, we report the efficacy of a R. officinalis hydroethanolic extract (ROe)-loaded emulgel in preventing UVB-related skin damage. Total phenols were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and the main phytocomponents in the extract were identified by UHPLC-HRMS. Moreover, in vitro sun protection factor (SPF) value of ROe was also assessed, and we investigated the in vivo protective effect of an emulgel containing ROe against UVB-induced damage in an animal model. The ROe exhibited commercially viable SPF activity (7.56 ± 0.16) and remarkable polyphenolic content (24.15 ± 0.11 mg (Eq.GA)/g). HPLC-MS and UHPLC-HRMS results showcased that the main compounds in ROe were: rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol. The evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity demonstrated a dose-dependent effect of ROe against several radicals and the capacity to reduce iron. Therefore, we demonstrated that topical application of the formulation containing ROe inhibited edema formation, myeloperoxidase activity, GSH depletion and maintained ferric reducing (FRAP) and ABTS scavenging abilities of the skin after UVB exposure.
Abstract in English:Abstract Diatom assemblages and coastal sedimentary facies succession in the deltaic plain of the Colorado River (Argentina) were studied in order to reconstruct the environment conditions in response to Holocene eustatic sea-level changes and delta progradation. Samples were selected from a 200˗cm core (39°35’52” S, 62°6’43” W). Chronology was based on radiocarbon datings in bulk samples and mollusk shells. Nine lithological units were recognized where fine and very fine sand predominate. The core sediments were dominated by tychoplanktonic coastal-marine diatoms. The accompanying flora included stable marine-coastal taxa and allochthonous fluvial fresh-brackish species. Three diatom zones (DZ) were established based on cluster analyses. The LCH site was significantly affected by Late Pleistocene and Holocene sea˗level fluctuations, and the progradation of the deltaic lobe during the last ca. 7,000 14C yr. BP. Ancient tidal channels were flooded in the early Holocene postglacial transgression. Erosive and re˗working processes associated with the formation of estuarine channels, affected valves preservation, yielding with barren sections. Tidal flats and marshes have developed in the area during the late Holocene regression phase. The comparison of the sedimentary sequence with deltaic facies evolution models, confirm the presence of a hiatus, which masks the Holocene Maximum and highstand.
Abstract in English:Abstract A foraminiferal faunal study was carried out in a Holocene marine section from Arroyo Baliza, located on the northwest coast of the Beagle Channel, to contribute to the knowledge of the palaeoenvironmental conditions during the marine Holocene event. Foraminiferal assemblage was represented by 32 species distributed among 21 genera. The assemblage was dominated by Elphidium macellum (Fichtel & Moll) Elphidium alvarezianum (d’Orbigny), Cribroelphidium excavatum (Terquem) and Buccella peruviana (d’Orbigny), accompanied by Cibicides fletcheri Galloway & Wissler and Cibicidoides dispars (d’Orbigny) in low proportion. The predominance of Peridiniales dinocysts in the marine palynomorphs assemblage, suggested inner neritic conditions with cooler and more nutrient-rich waters. The distribution of the foraminiferal species was variable throughout the section indicating palaeoenvironmental changes in Arroyo Baliza between 3499–2595 cal yr BP. A gradual passage from high energy, cold and well-oxygenated marine waters towards a shallower environment with low energy and low to moderate salinity of the waters were linked to the regressive phase. This study complements and supports the previous palynological data from this section, which reflects an increase in number and diversity of dinocyst species indicating marine environmental conditions during the late Holocene as it exists today in the Beagle Channel.
Abstract in English:Abstract Ten endoparasite species found in Pygocentrus piraya, which is a piranha species native to São Francisco river, were collected from 108 fish caught in Três Marias reservoir in 2004 and 2005, namely: Digenea - Austrodiplostomum sp. (metacercariae); Eucestoda – Proteocephalidae gen. sp. (plerocercoids); and Nematoda - Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Cystidicoloides fischeri and Capillostrongyloides sentinosa (adults); Spinitectus rodolphiheringi (juvenile); Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Spiroxys sp. and Goezia sp. (larvae). In helminth fauna, P. (S.) inopinatus has shown higher prevalence and dominance. Fish sex has influenced the prevalence of Hysterothylacium sp., which was higher in female specimens. Longer total length of fish has positively influenced the abundance of C. sentinosa and Hysterothylacium sp.. The rainy season has favored parasitic indices, mainly P. (S.) inopinatus abundance, as well C. sentinosa and Hysterothylacium sp. prevalence and abundance. There were co-occurrences between adult and some larval nematodes. Endemic piranhas, as well as final hosts, are important intermediate and/or paratenic hosts, given the relevant number of larvae (proteocephalideans and nematodes) of heteroxene cycle found in them. Proteocephalidae gen. sp., C. sentinosa, Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Goezia sp. and S. rodolphiheringi are new records parasitizing P. piraya in São Francisco basin.
Abstract in English:Abstract Eretmochelys imbricata (hawksbill turtle) is classified as a critically endangered species at world level; in Brazil, it is listed among the threatened species. Spirorchiids are parasites of the circulatory system of chelonians which may cause serious lesions in the various tissues of the host due to deposition of eggs in the bloodstream. In this context, the aim of the present study was to describe the pathology caused by spirorchiid eggs in E. imbricata from the Brazilian over a five year period. A total of 29 animals were analyzed, of which nine (31%) presented lesions associated to spirorchiids eggs. The lesions were: granulomatous enteritis in six (66.66%), granulomatous splenitis in five (55.55%), granulomatous hepatitis in three (33.33%), granulomatous pneumonia in three (33.33%), granulomatous pancreatitis in two (22.22%), and granulomatous adrenalitis in one specimen (11.11%). Concluded the main lesion in Eretmochelys imbricata was giant-cell granulomatous inflammatory reaction to the parasite’s eggs. Animals exhibiting poor physical health were more susceptible to presenting such lesions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Tambaqui is the second native fish most produced species in Brazil. Currently, tambaqui fish farms deals with serious sanitary problems due to the prevalence of the parasite Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae. However, the prevalence of the acanthocephalan parasite infections depends on the resistance and tolerance interactions between the host organisms and parasites. The immune response against parasites is divided between innate and acquired immunity. The innate defense is a result of physical barriers, cellular and humoral compounds. Acquired defense occurs through the production of antibodies (humoral) and is mediated by cells, mainly by type 2 T helper lymphocytes. Most parasites secrete a variety of immunomodulatory compounds that allow coexistence with the host and chronicity of the parasite. The host-parasite relationship is complex and makes prevention and treatment difficult. However, some studies show that the use of immunostimulants may have “systemic” effects. These include improvement of the intestinal mucosa health and also in the production of cellular and humoral compounds in the whole body, thus assisting treatment and control. As such, it is important to understand the mechanisms of resistance and tolerance in the host organisms so that prevention and treatment measures can be effective.
Abstract in English:Abstract Globally, bats are of interest in many studies, beyond their ecological or epidemiological relevance or even the ecomorphological diversity of species. In Brazil, most of the indexed studies on chiropterans date from 1954, with a slow and heterogeneous progress in the publication increasing. The aim of this study was to analyze the literature on bats in Brazil, identifying patterns, tendencies and knowledge gaps in the Brazilian federal states. We carried out a sistematyzed search on the online databases Clarivate Analytics Web of Science (WoS), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), PubMed and Scopus. We used the descriptive terms “Chiroptera” and “Brazil”. Besides these bases, we included data from the manuscripts published in Chiroptera Neotropical. We obtained a total of 1,115 articles, which were analyzed and classified in 22 thematic categories based on the articles’ approach. We observed that each Brazilian region and state had particularities in their knowledge panoramas of bats, not being possible to generalize conditions for each federal region. Even though the increasing in the number of articles by categories, we encourage that every approach keep being developded, once no thematic could had been considered enough explored till the moment.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated of the effects of açai oil during the close-up dry period of Holstein cows on colostrum quality, as well as on the immune and antioxidant responses of their calves. Sixteen multiparous cows were assigned randomly to two treatments: 1) CONTROL (n = 8) - 4.48% of soybean oil/concentrate; 2) AÇAI (n =8) - 4.48% of açai oil/concentrate. Cows fed with açai oil had greater (P≤0.04) colostrum concentrations of immunoglobulins (Ig) G (1st and 2nd milking), IgG heavy chains, IgA (only at 1st milking), alpha-lactalbumin (1st milking), total protein, and antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (only at 1st milking). Cows fed with açai oil had greater serum concentrations of globulin (only on the day of calving) and total protein (only on the day of calving) (P = 0.03). Calves born of cows fed with açai oil had greater serum concentrations of total protein (only 24 and 48 h after calving) and serum concentration of IgG heavy chain (only 24 h after calving) and globulin (only 24 and 48 h after calving) (P = 0.01). These data suggest that the addition of açai oil in the cow feed during the close-up dry period boosted immunity in their calves by altering the composition of colostrum.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing forage sorghum for dehydrated cashew bagasse (DCB) in the proportions of 0; 8; 16 and 24%, based on the natural matter at the time of ensiling on the physicochemical parameters of meat from feedlot lambs. None of the physical parameters evaluated showed a significant difference between the substitution levels of sorghum forage for DCB. The final pH obtained in this study showed a value above the recommended for freshly slaughtered meat from animals 24 hours in refrigeration, being considered DFD meat (dark, firm and dry). Regarding the chemical parameters, it was observed that there were no significant differences between the levels of substitution of sorghum forage for DCB to variable moisture and ash was perceived negative linear effect for protein and quadratic effect on lipid levels meat. The replacement of forage sorghum up to 24% of dehydrated bagasse cashew the ensilage does not compromise the quality of the meat, however, the substitution of 8% is to be preferred because it provides meats with lower lipid content.
Abstract in English:Abstract Global biodiversity loss by anthropogenic impacts is an under-recognized form of global environmental change. Global defaunation is still poorly documented in the case of insects, showing a significant decrease in populations and diversity. The blowfly Neta chilensis (Walker 1837) is poorly known and presumed to be confined to southern-South America, with an unclear distributional pattern. It was last collected in 1984. We aimed, through Ecological Niche Models, to identify regions highly suitable for N. chilensis; to test the suitability of regions with doubtful records; to understand the impact that climatic change and human activities have had; and to identify regions with high chances to find it. We compiled 130 presence records from Argentina and Chile and 117 localities where it was sought but not found between 1987 and 2018. Results indicate that suitable conditions are restricted to southern and central Chile and to southwestern Argentina, that doubtful records are predicted in unsuitable areas, that N. chilensis occupies a narrow niche and that its decline is not mainly caused by climate changes but more probably to habitat loss and to the biological invasion. We identified two regions where the chances of finding the species are higher in the case that it is not extinct already.
Abstract in English:Abstract We examined the effects of including sunflower cake (SC) associated with an enzyme complex (EC) in the diet of meat quails on nutrient metabolism, performance, carcass characteristics, bone parameters and economic viability. In total, 432 meat quails (7 to 42 days old) were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomised design with 6 replicates with 12 birds each. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement was adopted (two levels of SC: 10 and 20%; three diet formulation strategies: normal, reduction in the nutrient and energy matrix considering the enzymatic contribution and reduced diet with EC). No interaction effect was observed. The increased levels of SC from 10% to 20% promoted in decrease in the metabolisability coefficients of dry matter and gross energy and in the value of AMEn and increased relative weight of gizzard. The addition of EC in diets containing SC allows a better metabolization of nitrogen and energy, equalize to the normal diet. The best breast yield was obtained in the birds fed the reduced diet with EC, in relation to normal diet. The reduced diet and the reduced diet with EC provided the lowest cost of food and the best economic efficiency index. Up to 20% of the sunflower cake can be included in the diet of cut quail, with or without enzyme supplementation. However, the use of the enzyme complex composed of carbohydrases, proteases and phytase can favor the metabolization of nitrogen and energy from the diet containing sunflower cake.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated the replacement of starch (ST; cracked corn) by neutral detergent-soluble fiber (NDSF; citrus pulp) and its effects on feed intake, performance, digestibility, carcass traits, and nitrogen balance of lambs. In Experiment 1, male lambs (n = 24, 19.1 ± 1.9 kg body weight [BW]) received: Starch (ST) = 250 g starch/kg dry matter (DM); ST/NDSF = 180 g starch/kg DM + 180 g NDSF/kg DM; or NDSF = 250 g NDSF/kg DM. After 84 d, animals were slaughtered and carcasses were evaluated. In Experiment 2, male lambs (n = 15, 23.2 ± 2.3 kg BW) were used to assess digestibility and nitrogen balance. Final BW, average daily gain, gain to feed and feed intake decreased when animals were fed NDSF (P≤0.002), reflecting in lighter carcasses (P<0.0001). The NDSF decreased edible non-carcass components (P=0.0006), total usable products (P<0.0001), commercial cuts and intramuscular fat (P≤0.02). Except for NDSF and ST, the digestibility of nutrients was improved for NDSF diet (P≤0.04). The use of 250 g NDSF/kg DM as citrus pulp in finishing diets for lambs impairs performance, carcass, meat traits and nitrogen balance. However, the moderate replacement of corn by citrus pulp does not change productive variables.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study assessed the association between encapsulated nitrate product (ENP) and monensin (MON) to mitigate enteric methane (CH4) in vitro and possible effects on ruminal degradability, enteric fermentation characteristics, and microbial populations. Six treatments were used in randomized complete design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement with two levels of MON (0 and 2.08 mg/mL of buffered rumen fluid) and three levels of ENP (0, 1.5 and 3.0%). The substrate consisted of 50% Tifton-85 hay and 50% concentrate mixture (ground corn and soybean meal). ENP replaced soybean meal to achieve isonitrogenous diets (15% CP). No ENP×MON interaction was observed for any measured variable (P > 0.05) except for the relative abundance of F. succinogenes (P = 0.02) that linearly increased in diets with MON when ENP was added. The ENP addition decreased CH4 production (P < 0.01) without affecting (P > 0.05) truly degraded organic matter nor the relative abundance of methanogens. Hydrogen production was reduced with MON (P = 0.04) and linearly decreased with ENP inclusion (P = 0.02). We concluded that use of nitrate is a viable strategy for CH4 reduction, however, no additive effect of ENP and MON was observed for mitigating CH4 production.
Abstract in English:Abstract The new genus Maxiclavella is proposed to accommodate Clavella simplex Castro Romero and Baeza Kuroki, 1985, which differs from Clavella species, including long and narrow cephalothorax, small bulla, and simple armature of the antenna and antennule. Praeclavella nasalis, new genus and species, was found parasitizing the olfactory sacs of Isacia conceptionis. Praeclavella nasalis could be differentiated from other Clavella species by a biramous antenna with an exopod shorter than the endopod, the base of the cephalothorax with a large lobular and suborbicular projection on each side, a suborbicular bulla, mandibles without secondary teeth, and a suboval male body type. Males of both genera fit well in the Clavella-clade male type, although they differ from each other in many aspects, mainly in the position of the buccal area, which is oriented ventrally in Maxiclavella and distally in Praeclavella nasalis, and in a genital process, which is present in the latter and absent in the former. Genetic distances of mtDNA COI and 28S rDNA supported the validity of the two new genera parasitizing the same host, I. conceptionis. Also Clavella-branch (Clavellinae Wilson), a key based genera on female specimens is presented.
Abstract in English:Abstract We evaluated the influence of the substitution of soybean meal by detoxified castor cake on performance, digestibility of nutrients, nitrogen balance, hepatic and renal functions of pregnant goats fed with diets containing detoxified castor cake by alkaline solutions during the stages (first two-thirds and final third) of pregnancy. Three diets were provided: one based on soybean meal and the other two based on castor cake detoxified with whit calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide. Goats fed detoxified castor cake sodium hydroxide had lower consumption. Was no effect (P>0.05) of diets or stages on the digestibility of dry matter and nutrients. The goats that received the diets based on soybean meal and detoxified castor cake calcium hydroxide consumed larger amounts of nitrogen. The goats fed with diet the basis of SM had greater weight in the parturition day. The average levels of enzymes for hepatic and renal functions were within normal patterns. Of enzymes related to liver metabolism, only the gamma-glutamyl transferase increased in the final third of pregnancy. The present study demonstrated that detoxified castor by sodium hydroxide reduces the consumption of goats during gestation, but did not affect negatively the renal and hepatic parameters.
Abstract in English:Abstract Due to the competition for food, space, oxygen and due to their role as diseases vector, epibionts can negatively affect oyster farming. We assessed the efficacy of six methods commonly used for the removal of epibionts from oyster shells during farming. The experiment was conducted at an oyster farm on the Paraná coast – South Brazil. Oysters (Crassostrea gasar) were acclimated for 90 d in the cultivation system and later exposed to cleaning treatments: i) freshwater; ii) hypersaline water; iii) sodium hypochlorite solution; iv) quaternary ammonia solution; v) exposure to air; vi) hydroblasting; and vii) no cleaning procedure (control). After treatment, oysters were kept in the cultivation system for 15 and 30 d – when the total incrustation and mortality were measured. Epibionts from nine phyla were identified. The most abundant were Arthropoda (Crustacea) (62.5%), Mollusca (33.8%) and Annelida (3.1%). Freshwater [15 (n = 2263 epibionts) and 30 days (n = 2822 epibionts)] and hydroblasting [15 (n = 1850 epibionts) and 30 days (n = 2389 epibionts)] treatments were the most efficient to reduce epibionts and caused lower rates of oyster mortality [15 (5.0 and 3.33%, respectively) and 30 days (1.67 and 6.67%, respectively)].
Abstract in English:Abstract A trial was conducted to evaluate phosphorus release capacity in different commercial phytases throught performance and bone characteristics of broilers. A total of 2,400-day-old male Cobb 500® chicks were assigned in a completely randomized design with 12 dietary treatments ((1 to 5: with increasing levels of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) (0.20; 0.25; 0.30; 0.35 and 0.40%) without phytase); and 6 to 12: with 0.20% supplemented with different commercial phytases), 8 replicates and 25 birds per pen. There was a linear increase (P<0.05) in the feed intake and body weight gain and a linear improvement (P<0.05) in the feed conversion ratio of broilers fed increasing NPP. The tested phytases did not release similar amounts of phytic phosphorus. Based on body weight gain response, 500 FTU/kg of diet releases a minimum and maximum of 0.074 to 0.152%, 0.062 to 0.157 and 0.059 to 0.169% of PP among the studied phytases in the periods from 1 to 21, 1 to 35 and 1 to 42 days, respectively. In conclusion, the commercial phytases released different concentrations of phytate phosphorus from the diets. Thus, is necessary to have a better method to evaluate phytase activity in order to avoid subnormal levels of available P in diets.
Abstract in English:Abstract Ichthyocladius is a genus of chironomid (Diptera, Insecta) whose immature forms live attached to the bodies of some species of freshwater fishes. Here we investigate the association between Ichthyocladius spp. and armored catfish in streams of the Guareí River basin, Paraná River system, Brazil. We provide the first record of I. lilianae associated with fish in the São Paulo State and the Paraná River basin. In addition, this is the first report of Ichthyocladius associated with the armored catfishes Hypostomus iheringii and H. tietensis. Lastly, we record two undescribed species of Chironomidae (i.e., Ichthyocladius sp. 1 and Ichthyocladius sp. 2) associated with fishes.
Abstract in English:Abstract The animal feed science is in constant search for new products that bring economic return, without harming the quality of the final product. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of substitution of corn by biscuit bran in lamb diet upon the fatty acid profile of its meat and its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Twenty-four male lambs divided in four treatments were used. The treatments consisted in increasing levels (0, 15, 30, and 45%) of substitution of corn by biscuit bran in lamb diet. The significance of the treatments was determined by ANOVA and the adjusted means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. The effects were determined by linear and quadratic responses. The use of up to 45% biscuit bran sweet type did not modify the physical and sensory characteristics of meat, just as it did not affect nutrient and dry matter intakes and animal performance. A replacement of 45%, reduces the cholesterol (P = 0.03) and the total content of saturated fatty acid (P = 0.002), not modifying other physicochemical characteristics. The replacement of corn by biscuit bran sweet type in the feeding represents an alternative nutritional strategy for sheep meat production with desirable organoleptic and quality characteristics.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study was aimed at the effects of different Creep-feeding protocols on piglet performance and its residual effects during the nursery phase. Experimental design used was five groups: WC (without creep); DCF (dry creep feeding); WCF (wet creep feeding); LD (additional liquid creep with automatic feed dispenser plus DCF); and LLF (additional liquid creep with linear feeder plus DCF). Ten litters per treatment were selected a total 50 sows and 645 piglets. During the first two weeks of lactation, the LD treatment (2.61 and 4.20 kg) promoted greater body weight (P <0.001) than the DCF (2.55 and 3.93 kg), (WFS) (2.43 and 3.69 kg) and LLF (2.50 and 4.00 kg) treatments, but did not differ from the WC treatment (2.68 and 4.09 kg). At weaning, the WC (5.22 kg), LD (5.32 kg) and LLF (5.27 kg) treatments gave higher body weights (P <0.001) when compared to the DCF (4.97 kg) and WCF (4.69 kg) treatments. We concluded that there was no change in the behavior of the piglets, and the use of dry feed with liquid supplements did not improve weight gain. The different creep feeding systems did not influence the weight and performance of the piglets in the nursery phase.
Abstract in English:Abstract We evaluated the extent of intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances and the effectiveness of predefined threshold values using the main genes for estimates of biodiversity and specimens’ identification in anurans. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial genes for small (12S) and large (16S) ribosomal subunits, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and Cytochrome b (Cytb) of the family Hylidae were downloaded from GenBank and curated for length, coverage, and potential contaminations. We performed analyses for all sequences of each gene and the same species present in these datasets by distance and tree (monophyly)-based evaluations. We also evaluated the ability to identify specimens using these datasets applying “nearest neighbor” (NN), “best close match” (BCM) and “BOLD ID” tests. Genetic distance thresholds were generated by the function ‘threshVal’ and “localMinima” from SPIDER package and traditional threshold values (1%, 3%, 6% and 10%) were also evaluated. Coding genes, especially COI, had a better identification capacity than non-coding genes on barcoding gap and monophyly analysis and NN, BCM, BOLD ID tests. Considering the multiple factors involved in global DNA barcoding evaluations, we present a critical assessment of the use of these genes for biodiversity estimation and specimens’ identification in anurans (e.g. hylids).
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective was to develop and characterize biodegradable films with antimicrobial and antioxidant action, using poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) incorporated with OEO - essential oil (Origanum vulgare). The degradation temperature of the OEO increased after incorporation into the PBAT matrix, however, the degradation of the matrix did not undergo considerable changes. The films showed increase in elongation and modulus of elasticity with presence of OEO, however, it reduced the maximum tension. The permeability of the films was reduced with OEO presence. The spectra (FTIR) showed the presence of the functional groups attributed to the bioactive compounds (Carvacrol) of OEO. The films presented high antioxidant activity and effective antimicrobial action, reducing Staphylococcus aureus in 53 days and psychrotrophic microorganisms in up to 28 days of storage. The films showed to be efficient with antioxidant activity and antimicrobial action with indication to be used as packaging of sliced mozzarella cheese.
Abstract in English:Abstract The environmental and health risks associated with the application of synthetic chemical inputs in agriculture increased the demand for technologies that allow higher performance and quality of vegetable crops by implementing synergistic materials with the principles of sustainability. In this work, the seed coating with the biomass of Dunaliella salina incorporated in a bioplastic film of Manihot esculenta (cassava) was evaluated as an initial growth and secondary compounds stimulator of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) plants. The obtained results demonstrated that the coating stimulated an increase in the germination percentage (28.75%) and also in concentration of bioactive compounds, such as the six-fold increment of caffeic acid (13.33 mg 100 g-1). The carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins present in the microalgae biomass seem to be responsible for these increments once they are known for providing energy to the seedling development and coordinating the secondary metabolites synthesis. As conclusion, we consider the coating with biomass of D. salina an alternative for crop improvement that contributes to the development of sustainable agricultural practices.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cattle ranching is the primary land-use of deforested areas in the Brazilian Amazon. Deforestation precedes pasture establishment, implying tremendous amounts of greenhouse gas emissions caused by carbon stock losses. Despite several studies addressing carbon storage in forests, there is a lack of data regarding cultivated pastures. Hence, the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions associated with land-use change becomes uncertain. In this study, we assessed the carbon stock of cultivated pastures located in Rondônia, southwestern Brazilian Amazon. A total of 50 squared plots of 1 m² were randomly allocated in cattle ranching farms covered by Oxisols (Dystrophic Yellow and Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosols). Carbon fraction ranged from 0.36 for belowground biomass to 0.45 gC.g-1 d.m. for aboveground biomass. The average total carbon stock was 5.17 MgC.ha-1, with non-significant differences when stratifying data by soil types. Considering data from the III Brazilian Inventory of Anthropogenic Emissions and Removals of Greenhouse Gases, our results suggested that land-use change from primary forests to cultivated pastures resulted in a loss of 192.54 MgC.ha-1, which corresponds to a net emission of 705.98 MgCO2eq.ha-1 to the atmosphere. This study provides valuable information to improve the Brazilian Inventory of Anthropogenic Emissions and Removals of Greenhouse Gases.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to elaborate a sequential sampling plan for C. capitata in commercial orchards of guava. 90 McPhail traps were randomly installed in three guava orchards in a transverse direction for 23 weeks. The data were submitted to sequential probability ratio test. Adopted the average of 0.3 C. capitata for the level of security and 0.7 for the control action. In this sequential sampling plan was defined the average number of 0.40 adults of C. capitata for each trap McPhail (sample). The sequential plan generated is unprecedented and will contribute to the rapid and safe decision making in the control of C. capitata population in guava farming.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the extraction of bioactive compounds from jaboticaba pomace, produce microcapsules by spray dryer technique, and characterize antioxidant compounds. A factorial experimental design was used in the extraction step. Maltodextrin (DE 10) was used as an encapsulating agent, in a ratio of 1: 1 (w/w), in the microencapsulation process. It was observed the increase of all bioactive compounds analyses comparing jaboticaba pomace with the extract. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy showed a vibrational stretching aromatic ring (1718 – 1731 cm-1) typical for anthocyanins. The Gaussian deconvolution presented extract peak area 7.56% higher than pomace. The encapsulating agent protected anthocyanins during the drying process. Microencapsulation of bioactive compounds from jaboticaba pomace can be useful for food applications whereas they are a rich source of antioxidant compounds. Moreover, the use of agro-industrial waste is promising linked to the use of clean technology as water as an antioxidant extractor.
Abstract in English:Abstract The water retention curve is widely used in studies involving soil. The management systems directly influence soil structure by altering water retention dynamics. Several equations are used to adjust the retention of water in the soil, but most of the time, the choice of these models occurs in an arbitrary way. From this problem, it was proposed with the present study to relate the best mathematical model to water retention, taking into account the different management systems adopted, based on previously established adjustment criteria. For the accomplishment the study, a soil of caulinitic mineralogy and average texture was utilized. The treatments were area under native Cerrado (Savanna), eucalyptus plantation with six and twelve years of cultivation, pasture with two and six years of cultivation, conventional plantation with two and eight years of cultivation, no-till with three and six years of cultivation. From the adjustment criteria for non-linear models, it was found that the management influences the choice of the water retention model. It is possible to observe that the greatest divergences between the models occurred close to the soil saturation zone, and that the Fredlung-Xing model is more efficient in adjusting the water retention curve under conservationist management systems.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study assesses the risk of eutrophication of a large semiarid reservoir under SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios for three future periods and different conditions of influent total phosphorus (TP) concentration and reservoir withdrawal. An integrated approach coupling climate, hydrological and water quality models was proposed for forecasting the climate change impacts on the trophic condition of the reservoir. The projected TP concentrations were organized as probability-based cumulative distribution functions to quantify the risk of eutrophication. The results indicated changes of eutrophication status in the three future periods, with the end of the 21st century experiencing the highest impacts on water quality. On the other hand, major reductions both in the inlet TP concentration and the reservoir withdrawal are necessary to significantly improve the trophic status and minimize the risk of eutrophication. The results also showed that the dry period is more susceptible to eutrophication than the rainy period, suggesting that tropical semiarid reservoirs are more vulnerable to eutrophication under climate change than reservoirs in other regions of the world. The proposed approach and model results are important to better understand the impact of climate change on reservoir water quality and improve water resources management in tropical semiarid regions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study analyzes the time-dependent thermal behavior of a retrofitted wine refrigerator cabinet operated by a caloric system emulator. The presence of a full load of wine bottles enabled the assessment of the thermal stratification inside the cabinet. Further experimental tests have been performed to quantify the overall thermal conductance of the cabinet walls and the thermal conductance of the glass door. A detailed mathematical model was developed to predict the temperature pull down in the refrigerated compartment, considering the interaction between the cabinet air and the wine bottles. In addition to the air and bottle temperatures, a good agreement (lower than 15% relative error) was observed for the cooling capacity. The numerical simulations revealed that the cabinet door was responsible for approximately 60% of the thermal load (even though it corresponded to approximately 20% of the cabinet external area).
Abstract in English:Abstract Mirim lagoon is the second largest lacustrine water body in Southern Brazil, providing water for local communities. However, algae growth and water quality in the lagoon and in tributaries rivers is influenced by nutrient’s increase. In this context, this study performs the empirical and semi-empirical chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) modeling using remote sensing and in situ data for water quality assessment. Water quality data were collected at 15 sample locations in the lagoon on the date of Sentinel-2 satellite overpass. Surface reflectance data were derived from the Sen2Cor atmospheric correction method and correlated with Chl-a concentration. The best model presented a Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.81 and Mean Absolute Error = 0.13µg.L-1. Low Chl-a concentration is observed at the Northern lagoon, possibly due to suspended solids presence. The same occurs in the left margin, being associated with the influence of land use for agriculture. High Chl-a concentrations are associated with shallower and lentic areas. The mean Chl-a concentration predicted by the model was 17.34μg.L-1, similar to the observed value in situ (16.32μg.L-1). Overall, the empirical model developed can be applied as a tool to reduce costs and efforts in fieldwork measures and to understand eutrophication in this river-lake transition ecosystem.
Abstract in English:Abstract Slope stability is one of the biggest concerns for mining practices and to consider the rock mass response over blasting is fundamental to achieve pit geometry. This study consists in developing a methodology which connects the dynamic behavior of one lithological domain to blast designs applied at a copper mine. The central element of this study was the construction of vibration attenuation and seed wave model which, in conjunction with geomechanical properties, has allowed the characterization of this particular rock mass and the vibration attenuation phenomena. The new blast design was developed from the model simulations, once it was possible to recognize which parameters of the blast design affect most of the damage induced by blasting. To guarantee model representativeness, two blast tests were conducted: one with the usual blast design and another using the new one. Furthermore, holes were drilled behind the blasts, which were inspected before and after each blast to compare the produced fracturing with the fracturing expected by the model. The results obtained in these blast tests show a strong correlation between the modeled and the real. The modeling proved to be a useful tool providing manners to stablish a blast design, which generates stable walls.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this research, the microbiological, physicochemical, rheological, textural, sensory properties and antioxidant activity of blueberry pulp added (0, 4%, 8% and 12%) strained yoghurt samples were investigated during a 28 day storage period. The Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus counts in the samples were found to have decreased at the end of the storage period. The lightness, yellowness/blueness and whiteness index values showed a decrease depending on the addition of blueberry, while the redness/greenness values increased. The addition of blueberry had a negative the effects on the fat and protein values, while it had a positive effect on the total solids values. The storage period did not significantly change any of the physicochemical, colorimetric or rheological properties of the strained yoghurt samples. The general acceptability scores of the sample containing 12% blueberry were higher than the other samples. The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of the strained yoghurt samples increased in accordance with blueberry concentration, while the firmness and work of the shear values decreased. In conclusion, it was determined that the addition of blueberry pulp at a 12% ratio could be used to enhance the nutritional and functional properties of strained yoghurts.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this research paper is a complex assessment of the efficiency of power plants in Russia, the basis of their techno-economic processes and indicators and the development of recommendations for their practical use and improvement. Capital expenses for SWH plants with a drain-down system are 1,4-1,6 times lower than traditional SWHs with circulation systems, and their payback period does not exceed 5-5,7 years. Biogas that is obtained from specialized plants of medium and high-power costs $15,000-60,000 per cubic meter. But the price of biogas produced in low energy power plants is about $80,000-270,000, which is cheaper than natural gas. So, the use of biogas is economically justified at the moment.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this paper, a robust approach to improve the performance of a condition monitoring process in industrial plants by using Pythagorean membership grades is presented. The FCM algorithm is modified by using Pythagorean fuzzy sets, to obtain a new variant of it called Pythagorean Fuzzy C-Means (PyFCM). In addition, a kernel version of PyFCM (KPyFCM) is obtained in order to achieve greater separability among classes, and reduce classification errors. The approach proposed is validated using experimental datasets and the Tennessee Eastman (TE) process benchmark. The results are compared with the results obtained with other algorithms that use standard and non-standard membership grades. The highest performance obtained by the approach proposed indicate its feasibility.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study was designed to analyze the science communication activities geared towards the general public undertaken at Brazilian research institutes. We identified how often such activities are carried out and what human and financial resources are available for them. The results suggest that between the years 2013 and 2017 there was an increase in science communication by research institutes responsible for a wide range of activities. To communicate with the public, the 169 institutes studied tend to use traditional communication channels more than social media. However, most of them did not have designated communication teams, drawing on specialized personnel from their host institution. Although they do engage in intensive communication activities, Brazilian research institutes still lack more a structured approach to science communication.