Abstract in English:Abstract Aplastic anemia (AA), a rare disorder, is associated with bone marrow microenvironment (BMM). Presently, AA treatment is of great difficulty. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of action of Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharide (RGP) in AA. Busulfan was used to induce AA in BALB/c mice; blood cell count and Ray’s Giemsa staining were used to assess the severity of hematopoietic failure; HE was performed to assess the pathological state of the marrow cavity; ELISA was performed to assess IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β, TNF-α, MCP-1, VEGF, and EPO; and WB was performed to evaluate the effects of RGP on the HIF-1α/NF-κB signaling. Significant downregulation of hemocyte levels in the blood and nucleated cells in the bone marrow was reversed by RGP and Cyclosporine A (CA). Compared with the AA group, dilating blood sinusoids, inflammation, hematopoiesis, decreased bone marrow cells and megakaryocytes were alleviated by RGP and CA, and the HIF-1α/NF-κB signaling was inhibited too. Notably, RGP was more effective when used in combination with CA. In this study, we established a relationship between BMM and the HIF-1α/NF-κB signaling pathway and found that RGP regulates BMM by suppressing the activation of the HIF-1α/NF-κB signaling. Thus, RGP exerts a pharmacological effect on AA.