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Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Volume: 96, Issue: 1, Published: 2024
  • Fostering Global Collaboration of Young Scientists Letter To The Editor

    DIELE-VIEGAS, LUISA MARIA; CASTRO, DANIEL L. DE; GRAHL, MATHEUS; ROZA, THIAGO HENRIQUE; GAMEIRO, GUSTAVO R.; GONZÁLEZ, PEDRO HENRIQUE
  • Clustering honey samples with unsupervised machine learning methods using FTIR data Chemical Sciences

    AVCU, FATIH MEHMET

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study utilizes Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data from honey samples to cluster and categorize them based on their spectral characteristics. The aim is to group similar samples together, revealing patterns and aiding in classification. The process begins by determining the number of clusters using the elbow method, resulting in five distinct clusters. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is then applied to reduce the dataset’s dimensionality by capturing its significant variances. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) further refines the sample clusters. 20% of the data, representing identified clusters, is randomly selected for testing, while the remainder serves as training data for a deep learning algorithm employing a multilayer perceptron (MLP). Following training, the test data are evaluated, revealing an impressive 96.15% accuracy. Accuracy measures the machine learning model’s ability to predict class labels for new data accurately. This approach offers reliable honey sample clustering without necessitating extensive preprocessing. Moreover, its swiftness and cost-effectiveness enhance its practicality. Ultimately, by leveraging FTIR spectral data, this method successfully identifies similarities among honey samples, enabling efficient categorization and demonstrating promise in the field of spectral analysis in food science.
  • A Bibliometric Analysis of Geosmin Removal and Treatment Technologies using Web of Science Database and VOSviewer Chemical Sciences

    NOVO, BRUNA DE LEMOS; SILVA, FERNANDA A.N.G. DA; BERTOLINO, LUIZ CARLOS; YOKOYAMA, LIDIA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In the last few years, the presence of geosmin (GEO) in water bodies has caused serious problems related to water consumption by the population. Many studies focus on its occurrence and detection, but little is discussed about the technologies for treatment and removal of this contaminant. In this way, the present work aims to present a bibliographic search and a bibliometric analysis carried out in the Web of Science database and in VOSviewer software about geosmin remediation, in the last 10 years. 100 articles were found, of which only one, from 2021, was a review. It was possible to assess that the subject has gained greater notoriety in the last 7 years, since the year 2016 marked the increase of publications on the subject, as well as an increasing number of citations. Among the most published countries is the People’s Republic of China, with 53% of publications. Bibliometric analysis showed that GEO is directly related to 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), since both occur simultaneously in water bodies. In addition, it was possible to identify that adsorptive processes are the most used in the removal of these contaminants, followed by advanced oxidative processes and biological processes, in that order.
  • Sequential extraction of anthocyanins and pectin from jabuticaba (Plinia cauliflora) peel: Peel pretreatment effect and ultrasound-assisted extraction Chemical Sciences

    BUENO, TAINAH M.; QUEIROZ, FABIANA; SANTOS, JHENIFER CRISTINA C. DOS; FURTADO, MARIA LUIZA B.; SCHIASSI, MARIA CECÍLIA E.V.; BORGES, SORAIA V.; FIGUEIREDO, JAYNE A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The jabuticaba bark is rich in anthocyanins and fibers, and its use may be of industrial interest. In the food sector, its used as an ingredient in the production of fermented products, liqueurs or enriched flours. It also has pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. The objective was to evaluate the effect of pretreatment and fresh use of jabuticaba peels in the extraction of total phenolic compound (TPC) and total anthocyanin (TA) contents with and without ultrasound assistance and in the sequential extraction of pectin from the residue. In the TPC and TA extraction, a 3x2 factorial design was used. For conventional anthocyanin extraction (CAE), occurred in an incubator under agitation. For ultrasound-assisted anthocyanin extraction (UAE) was utilized an ultrasonic homogenizer with probe (20 kHz, 160 W). The extracts were quantified (TPC, TA, antioxidant activity and color). The residues were characterized and used for sequential pectin extraction, which was quantified and characterized. The results were subjected to analysis of variance. Fresh jabuticaba peel is a residue that can be used to sequentially extract phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins and pectin. The use of ultrasound (UAE) was less efficient than CAE for extracting TPC and TA or performing sequential extraction on all pretreatment peels.
  • Development of benzaldehyde-pyrazoline hybrids for functionalization of polymers with fluorescent pendant moieties Chemical Sciences

    ROMAN, GHEORGHE; BALAN-PORCĂRAŞU, MIHAELA; SĂCĂRESCU, LIVIU

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Compounds with a pyrazoline scaffold are useful as sensors for fluorescence detection of different types of analytes. Recovery of a pyrazoline-based sensor with a view to use it recurrently would be more facile when the sensing molecule is attached to a solid support. A reaction sequence has been designed to synthesize two benzaldehyde–pyrazoline hybrids as examples of a hitherto unknown type of compounds to be employed for the potential derivatization of polymers containing primary amino groups through azomethine formation. All intermediates, including the fairly unstable N1 -unsubstituted pyrazolines, along with the target compounds have been structurally characterized, with an emphasis on their particular NMR features. Examination of the photophysical properties of these benzaldehyde–pyrazoline hybrids showed that, despite the shortening of the extended N1-N2-C3 conjugated system common to 1,3,5-triarylpyrazolines through the replacement of the aryl at N1 by an aryloxyacetyl moiety, the novel compounds exhibit emission maxima at approximately 350 nm. Moreover, the introduction of a moderately electron-withdrawing substituent such as chlorine in the phenyl at C3 of pyrazoline leads to an amplification of fluorescence intensity.
  • In vitro cultivation of Vismia japurensis: Isolation of the new anthrone 1,8,10-trihydroxy-3,10-dimethyl-9(10H)-anthracenone Chemical Sciences

    LIMA, LAÍSLEY M.; SILVA, WEISON L.; SOUZA, JULIO CEZAR DE; NUNEZ, CECILIA V.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Vismia japurensis Reichardt is a plant of ecological and chemical importance from which a variety of bioactive substances have been isolated. The current study aimed to establish in vitro cultures of this species as a source of secondary metabolites. Appropriate decontamination treatments and germination tests were performed and, after in vitro culture establishment, the propagated plants were multiplied in a sterile environment to increase the biomass of available experimental material. Seeds showed low contamination and a high germination percentage on Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with gibberellic acid (both at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/L). V. japurensis nodal segments rapidly regenerated when first grown in WPM and then transplanted to Murashige and Skoog medium (MS). After 60 days in MS medium, the propagated plants were removed, lyophilized, and extracted with hexane and methanol. The hexane extract was fractionated via open column chromatography, and the substance isolated was purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Structural determination of the isolated substance was carried out using one and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The isolated substance was identified as 1,8,10-trihydroxy-3,10-dimethyl-9(10H)-anthracenone, which, based on the conducted literature search, is reported for the first time.
  • Synthesis and mechanistic study of 2-(trifluoromethyl)-10H-phenoselenazine from double cross coupling reaction Chemical Sciences

    SIQUEIRA, CÁSSIO; CIANCALEONI, GIANLUCA; SABA, SUMBAL; BRAGA, ANTONIO L.; RAFIQUE, JAMAL; BOTTESELLE, GIANCARLO V.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Phenoselenazines are nitrogen and selenium-based heterocyclic compounds that have important biological activities. However, their preparation methods are scarce and difficult to handle. The synthesis of a phenoselenazine from a simple and robust CuO nanoparticle catalyzed methodology, using bis-aniline-diselenide and 1,2-dihalobenzenes under microwave irradiation. Also, the double-cross-coupling reaction mechanism for C-Se and C-N bond formation, including the observation of a reaction intermediate by mass spectrometry have been studied.
  • The effect of linseed oil/canola oil blend on the coating and thermal properties of waste PET-based alkyd resins Chemical Sciences

    EROL, TUĞBA; ÖZALTUN, DEMET H.; ÇAVUŞOĞLU, FERDA CIVAN; ACAR, IŞIL; GÜÇLÜ, GAMZE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aims to prepare oil-modified alkyd resins using a linseed oil/canola oil (LO/CO) blend and waste PET depolymerization product, suitable for environmentally friendly coating applications. Waste PET flakes obtained from grinding post-consumer water bottles were depolymerized by the aminoglycolysis reaction at high pressure. Raw depolymerization product (DP) was used in the synthesis of four components, 50% oil alkyd resins by monoglyceride method. DP has partly replaced the dibasic acid component in the PET-based alkyd formulations. Besides PET-based alkyds, reference alkyds without DP were also synthesized for comparison. Then, the surface coating properties and thermal behaviors of alkyd films were determined. The effect of DP usage and the changing ratios of LO/CO blend on coating properties and thermal behaviors of alkyd films were investigated. In addition, the optimum LO/CO blend ratio which is compatible with alkyd formulation was attempted to be determined. At the end of this study, glossy, soft/medium-hard films were obtained with excellent adhesion, impact strength, and chemical resistance. Thermal resistance and final thermal oxidative degradation temperature increased with adding DP to the alkyd formulation. Using LO/CO blend in the formulations affected oxidation rate and ratio, hence, drying time/degree and oxidative stability of alkyd films.
  • Reactive oxygen species impair Na+ transport and renal components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system after paraquat poisoning Biomedical Sciences

    CIRILO, MARRY A.S.; SANTOS, VALÉRIA B.S.; LIMA, NATÁLIA K.S.; MUZI-FILHO, HUMBERTO; PAIXÃO, ANA D.O.; VIEYRA, ADALBERTO; VIEIRA, LEUCIO D.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Paraquat (1,1’-dimethyl-4,4’-bipyridyl dichloride) is an herbicide widely used worldwide and officially banned in Brazil in 2020. Kidney lesions frequently occur, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI) due to exacerbated reactive O2 species (ROS) production. However, the consequences of ROS exposure on ionic transport and the regulator local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) still need to be elucidated at a molecular level. This study evaluated how ROS acutely influences Na+-transporting ATPases and the renal RAAS. Adult male Wistar rats received paraquat (20 mg/kg; ip). After 24 h, we observed body weight loss and elevation of urinary flow and serum creatinine. In the renal cortex, paraquat increased ROS levels, NADPH oxidase and (Na++K+)ATPase activities, angiotensin II-type 1 receptors, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6. In the medulla, paraquat increased ROS levels and NADPH oxidase activity but inhibited (Na++K+)ATPase. Paraquat induced opposite effects on the ouabain-resistant Na+-ATPase in the cortex (decrease) and medulla (increase). These alterations, except for increased serum creatinine and renal levels of TNF-α and interleukin-6, were prevented by 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (tempol; 1 mmol/L in drinking water), a stable antioxidant. In summary, after paraquat poisoning, ROS production culminated with impaired medullary function, urinary fluid loss, and disruption of Na+-transporting ATPases and angiotensin II signaling.
  • Neuromuscular electrical stimulation changes glucose, but not its variability in type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial Health Sciences

    MACEDO, ALINE C.P.; BOCK, PATRICIA M.; SAFFI, MARCO AURÉLIO L.; MADALOSSO, MARIANA M.; LAGO, PEDRO DAL; CASALI, KARINA R.; SCHAAN, BEATRIZ D.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can be an alternative to conventional exercising. This randomized clinical trial evaluated the effect of NMES in type 2 diabetes patients. Twenty-eight individuals with type 2 diabetes were assigned to NMES (n=14) or NMES-placebo (n=14) applied to knee extensor muscles for 60 minutes. Glucose variability, microvascular function and endothelial function were evaluated through continuous glucose monitoring system, near infrared spectroscopy and flow-mediated dilatation, respectively. Glucose levels (mg/dl) decreased 2h (184 ± 11 vs 223 ±15), 3h (179 ± 12 vs 219 ±14) and 4h (177 ± 12 vs 212 ±12) after NMES, in comparison to NMES-placebo. No differences in glucose variability were found: coefficient of variation (%) at 0-6h (11.4±1.3 vs 11.4±1.2), 6-12h (9.8±1.0 vs 11.6±1.6), 12-18h (15.5±2.0 vs 11.4±2.1), 18-24h (12.8±2.3 vs 10.0±1.6); standard deviation (mg/dl) at 0-6h (21.6±2 vs 24.6±3.5), 6-12h (19.5±1.8 vs 20.3±2.8), 12-18h (29.9±3.5 vs 21.3±2.8),18-24h (22.8±4.1 vs 16.6±2.0) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (mg/dl) 54.9±25.0 vs 70.3±35.7. Endothelial and microvascular functions did not change. In conclusion, one acute NMES session was strong enough to trigger glucose reduction in individuals with type 2 DM, but it failed to induce any significant change in glucose variability, endothelial and microvascular functions.
  • Patentometric analysis of the technological development of biotechnology for health in higher education institutions in Rio Grande do Sul Health Sciences

    MENDES, CÁSSIA REGINA A.; PAPPEN, EMELIN; BAETA, ADELAIDE MARIA C.; DOMINGUES, WILLIAM B.; DELLAGOSTIN, EDUARDO N.; CAMPOS, VINICIUS F.; TIMMERS, LUÍS FERNANDO S.M.; GOETTERT, MÁRCIA INES; HENRIQUES, JOÃO ANTONIO P.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Biotechnology offers solutions and opportunities to meet various societal demands, thereby contributing to significant scientific advancements. This study aimed to characterize the technological development of biotechnology in the healthcare sector in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 2016 to 2022 by analyzing patents filed by and granted to public and private Higher Education institutions. For data collection, a quantitative exploratory approach was employed using statistical methods and a patent analysis of institutions in the patent database of the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI), focusing on patents related to the healthcare field. Data were collected in October, November, and December. A total of 580 patent records were collected from the INPI, belonging to Sections A and C of the International Patent Classification (IPC) related to educational institutions. Furthermore, this study highlighted that higher education institutions have a higher number of patents in the healthcare field. These results provide an understanding of the strategic areas for technological development in biotechnology in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
  • Density of high endothelial venules and PDL-1 expression: relationship with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in primary cutaneous melanomas Health Sciences

    STOLFO, JOSIANE B.; MOTTA, ADRIANA C. DA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Studies have highlighted melanoma immunogenicity, and the prognostic importance of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and mechanisms of tumor immune evasion, such as hyperexpression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL-1). High endothelial venules (HEV) are specialized blood vessels that can facilitate the lymphocytes migration to the tumor. Here we evaluate the association of HEV density and PDL-1 expression in primary cutaneous melanomas with the presence and degree of TILs and with other clinicopathological variables (age, sex, tumor location, melanoma histological type, Breslow thickness, ulceration, regression signs, mitotic index). HEV density and PDL-1 expression were assessed immunohistochemically in 78 melanoma cases, using a specific antibody, and were detected in 59% and 76% of these, respectively. Positive associations were identified between HEV density and PDL-1 expression with the presence and degree of lymphocytic infiltration, melanoma histological type and ulceration presence. No correlation was found between HEV density and PDL-1 expression. Our findings confirm the HEV role in the recruitment and facilitation of lymphocyte transport in cutaneous melanomas, where HEV density is strongly associated with the degree of TILs. Additionally, PDL-1 hyperexpression suggests a possible mechanism of tumor immune evasion, which may lead to inactivation and reduction of the tumor lymphocytes number.
  • Assessing the Time Evolution of COVID-19 Effective Reproduction Number in Brazil Health Sciences

    SILVA, EDSON PORTO DA; LIMA, ANTONIO M.N.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this paper, we use a Bayesian method to estimate the effective reproduction number (R(t)), in the context of monitoring the time evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil at different geographic levels. The focus of this study is to investigate the similarities between the trends in the evolution of such indicators at different subnational levels with the trends observed nationally. The underlying question addressed is whether national surveillance of such variables is enough to provide a picture of the epidemic evolution in the country or if it may hide important localized trends. This is particularly relevant in the scenario where health authorities use information obtained from such indicators in the design of non-pharmaceutical intervention policies to control the epidemic. A comparison between R(t) estimates and the moving average (MA) of daily reported infections is also presented, which is another commonly monitored variable. The analysis carried out in this paper is based on the data of confirmed infected cases provided by a public repository. The correlations between the time series of R(t) and MA in different geographic levels are assessed. Comparing national with subnational trends, higher degrees of correlation are found for the time series of R(t) estimates, compared to the MA time series. Nevertheless, differences between national and subnational trends are observed for both indicators, suggesting that local epidemiological surveillance would be more suitable as an input to the design of non-pharmaceutical intervention policies in Brazil, particularly for the least populated states.
  • A preliminary study of cutaneous wound healing on the upper eyelid in a small Brazilian population using Rhizophora mangle-based cream Health Sciences

    SILVA, JERRAR J.X.; LEAL, LEILA B.; SÁ, JÉSSICA G.A.; SABINO, LARISSA R.A.; CAVALCANTI, ISABELLE M.F.S.D.; SILVA, LUZIA A.; SANTANA, EDUARDA S. DE; FERNANDES, FERNANDO HENRIQUE P.; C. FILHO, IRANILDO JOSÉ; BRANDÃO, WESLEY F.M.; VIEIRA, JEYMESSON RAPHAEL C.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Plants used in traditional medicine offer an affordable new alternative in tissue repair therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the 5% Rhizophora mangle cream compared to the 5% dexpanthenol cream in healing open surgical wounds on the upper eyelid. A total of 18 patients were submitted to the experiment and divided into 2 groups with 9 patients each who used topically and daily 5% dexpanthenol cream (control group) or 5% R.mangle cream (intervention group) for 7 days. Clinical, morphometric and histomorphometric analyses of wounds and surgical procedures for skin removal were performed. In the morphometric analysis, all wounds treated with R.mangle and dexpanthenol creams showed complete macroscopic scars, without inflammatory signs and infection free. The skin hydration values in pre and post application periods of the cream were 43.82 ± 43.93 and 62.12 ± 67.40 respectively. The histomorphometric study showed lower values of epithelium distance in R. mangle group and higher in dexpanthenol group with significant difference between groups (p < 0.05). The R.mangle 5% cream proved to be effective in healing wounds of human upper eyelid skin with a significant improvement in epithelization compared to dexpanthenol 5% cream.
  • Huanglian Decoction treats Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis by inhibiting NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway and reducing renal IgA deposition Health Sciences

    HU, LIAN; LI, LINLIN; CHE, HONG; ZHAO, BINGJIE; XIAO, LI; LIU, PEIJIA; YI, WENJING; LIU, SONGSHAN

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) is a systemic vascular inflammatory disease. Huanglian Decoction (HLD) ameliorates renal injury in nephritis; however, the mechanism of action of HLD on HSPN has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the protective mechanism of HLD treatment in HSPN. The effects of HLD on HSPN biochemical indices, kidney injury and NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway were analyzed by biochemical analysis, ELISA, HE and PAS staining, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western Blot. In addition, the effects of HLD on HSPN cells were analyzed. We found that HLD treatment significantly reduced renal tissue damage, decreased the levels of IL-17, IL-18, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and increased the levels of TP and ALB in HSPN mice. It also inhibited the deposition of IgA, IgG, and C3 in kidney tissues and significantly decreased the expression of IκBα, p-IκBα, NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β in kidney tissues and cells. In addition, PMA treatment inhibited the above-mentioned effects of HLD. These results suggested that HLD attenuates renal injury, IgA deposition, and inflammation in HSPN mice and its mechanism of action may be related to the inhibition of the NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway.
  • Hippocampal acetylcholinesterase activation induced by streptozotocin in mice is protected by an organotellurium compound without evidence of toxicity Health Sciences

    PEIXOTO, NILCE C.; BERNARDI, JAMILE S.; OLIVEIRA, CLÁUDIA S.; SANTOS, MARIANA SUELEN C.; MARION, SARA L.; SILVA, RAFAEL S.; ROSA, RAQUEL M.; RODRIGUES, OSCAR E.D; PEREIRA, MARIA ESTER

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The cognitive deficit, which is like Alzheimer’s disease and is associated with oxidative damage, may be induced by exposure to streptozotocin. This study aimed to evaluate if the tellurium-containing organocompound, 3j, 5’-arylchalcogeno-3-aminothymidine derivative, interferes with the effects of streptozotocin, as well as to investigate its toxicity in adult mice. Cognitive deficit was induced by two doses of streptozotocin (2.25 mg/kg/day, 48 h interval) intracerebroventricularly. After, the mice were subcutaneously treated with 3j (8.62 mg/kg/day) for 25 days. The effects were assessed by evaluating hippocampal and cortical acetylcholinesterase and behavioral tasks. 3j toxicity was investigated for 10 (0, 21.55, or 43.10 mg/kg/day) and 37 (0, 4.31, or 8.62 mg/kg/day) days by assessing biometric parameters and glucose and urea levels, and alanine aminotransferase activity in blood plasma. 3j exposure did not alter the behavioral alterations induced by streptozotocin exposure. On the other hand, 3j exposure normalized hippocampus acetylcholinesterase activity, which is enhanced by streptozotocin exposure. Toxicity evaluation showed that the administration of 3j for either 10 or 37 days did not cause harmful effects on the biometric and biochemical parameters analyzed. Therefore, 3j does not present any apparent toxicity and reverts acetylcholinesterase activity increase induced by streptozotocin in young adult mice.
  • Bone-marrow mononuclear cells and acellular human amniotic membrane improve global cardiac function without inhibition of the NLRP3 Inflammasome in a rat model of heart failure Cellular And Molecular Biology

    TAKEJIMA, ALINE L.; MACHADO-JÚNIOR, PAULO ANDRÉ B.; BLUME, GUSTAVO G.; SIMEONI, ROSSANA BAGGIO; FRANCISCO, JULIO CESAR; TONIAL, MURILO S.; MARQUEZE, LUIS FELIPE B.; NORONHA, LUCIA; OLANDOSKI, MARCIA; ABDELWAHID, ELTYEB; CARVALHO, KATHERINE A.T. DE; PINHO, RICARDO A.; GUARITA-SOUZA, LUIZ CÉSAR

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Recent studies have suggested that therapies with stem cells and amniotic membrane can modulate the inflammation following an ischemic injury in the heart. This study evaluated the effects of bone-marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) and acellular human amniotic membrane (AHAM) on cardiac function and NLRP3 complex in a rat model of heart failure.On the 30th day,the echocardiographic showed improvements on ejection fraction and decreased pathological ventricular remodeling on BMMC and AHAM groups.Oxidative stress analysis was similar between the three groups,and the NLRP3 inflammasome activity were not decreased with the therapeutic use of both BMMC and AHAM,in comparison to the control group.
  • Karyotypic changes and diversification time in Epinephelidae groupers (Perciformes). Implications on reproductive isolation Cellular And Molecular Biology

    AMORIM, KARLLA DANIELLE J.; COSTA, GIDEÃO W.W.F.; MOTTA-NETO, CLÓVIS C.; SOARES, RODRIGO X.; BORGES, AMANDA T.; BENETTI, DANIEL D.; CIOFFI, MARCELO B.; BERTOLLO, LUIZ A.C.; TANOMTONG, ALONGKLOD; MOLINA, WAGNER F.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Groupers (Epinephelidae and Serranidae) have attracted special attention to fish farming, and their species offer good opportunities for successful hybridizations. Cytogenetic data allow a better understanding of the role of karyotypic diversification in the acquisition of post-zygotic reproductive isolation (RI). Thus, chromosomal analyses were performed on E. striatus (Caribbean Sea), E. coioides and E. tauvina (Indo-Pacific Region), using standard procedures and mapping of six repetitive DNA classes by the in situ hybridization. The three species have 2n=48 chromosomes. The karyotypes of E. coioides and E. striatus are composed only of acrocentric chromosomes (FN=48), while E. tauvina has 8 submetacentric chromosomes (FN=56). Heterochromatin has a preferential centromeric distribution, and the microsatellite repeats are dispersed throughout the chromosomes of all species. The 18S and 5S rDNA sites are unique but show a colocalization arrangement in E. tauvina and E. striatus. The chromosomal organization suggests that the three species still maintain a significant amount of syntenic regions. The range of the karyotype divergence and the RI levels showed low, but goes turn proportionally greater in relation to the divergence time between the parental species. The slow acquisition of postzygotic RI is consistent with the high karyotype homogeneity presented by Epinephelidae family.
  • Hamamelis virginiana L. extract presents antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects, absence of cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory action, and potential to fight infections through the nitric oxide production by macrophages Microbiology

    AMÊNDOLA, ISABELA; VIEGAS, DAIANE DE J.; FREITAS, EDUARDO T.; OLIVEIRA, JONATAS R. DE; SANTOS, JULIANA G. DOS; OLIVEIRA, FELIPE E. DE; LAGAREIRO NETTO, AMANDIO A.; MARCUCCI, MARIA C.; OLIVEIRA, LUCIANE D. DE; BACK-BRITO, GRAZIELLA N.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The potential of H. virginiana L. was evaluated against Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis) and bacteria (Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans). Effect on murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) was also evaluated with respect to cytotoxicity and production of cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO). The most effective concentrations of the extract were determined by microdilution broth. These concentrations were analyzed on biofilms, after 5 min or 24 h exposure. Cytotoxicity was performed by MTT assay and quantification of cytokines and NO by ELISA and Griess reagent, respectively. The extract acted against the planktonic forms and provided significant reductions of all the microbial biofilms; besides, showed no cytotoxic effect, except at 100 mg/mL, after 24 h exposure. There was cytokine production; however, a modulatory effect was observed in groups exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli. NO production was similar or higher than the control group. Thus, H. virginiana L. extract showed antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects; absence of cytotoxicity for RAW 264.7; anti-inflammatory action; and potential to fight infections through the NO production.
  • High infestation and phylogenetic position of Epistylis sp. (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) on Aegla serrana Buckup & Rossi (Crustacea, Anomura) from southern Brazil Microbiology

    SOUZA, PEDRO M. DE; DIAS, ROBERTO JÚNIO P.; LOURES, ARTHUR; ROSSI, MARIANA F.; AMATO, JOSÉ FELIPE R.; D’AGOSTO, MARTA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract High infestations of epibiont ciliates on vertebrates or invertebrates are normally related to aquaculture tanks or similar environments, and the importance of this relationship in natural habitats is often disregarded. Here, we describe the first record of high infestation of ciliates on Aegla serrana in South America and conduct a brief morphological and phylogenetic characterization of these ciliates. Our findings confirm that cases of high infestation of ciliates on metazoans can indeed occur in natural environments.
  • Antifungal chemosensitization through induction of oxidative stress: A model for control of candidiasis based on the Lippia origanoides essential oil Microbiology

    SARRAZIN, SANDRA LAYSE F.; BOURDINEAUD, JEAN-PAUL; MAIA, JOSÉ GUILHERME S.; MOURÃO, ROSA HELENA V.; OLIVEIRA, RICARDO B.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this work, evaluated the antifungal chemosensitizing effect of the Lippia origanoides essential oil (EO) through the induction of oxidative stress. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. To evaluate the antifungal chemosensitizing effect through induction of oxidative stress, cultures of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ∆ycf1 were exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of the EO, and the expression of genes known, due be overexpressed in response to oxidative and mutagenic stress was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method. Carvacrol and thymol were identified as the main components. The EO was effective in preventing or reducing the growth of the microorganisms tested. The gene expression profiles showed that EO promoted changes in the patterns of expression of genes involved in oxidative and mutagenic stress resistance. The combined use of the L. origanoides EO with fluconazole has been tested on Candida yeasts and the strategy resulted in a synergistic enhancement of the antifungal action of the azolic chemical product. Indeed, in association with EO, the fluconazole MICs dropped. Thus, the combinatorial use of L. origanoides EO as a chemosensitizer agent should contribute to enhancing the efficiency of conventional antifungal drugs, reducing their negative side effects.
  • Redox profile of silver catfish challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and treated with hexane extract of Hesperozygis ringens (Benth.) Epling through immersion bath Microbiology

    ROSA, ISADORA A.; BIANCHINI, ADRIANE E.; BRESSAN, CAROLINE A.; FERRARI, FABÍOLA T.; ARIOTTI, KARINE; MORI, NATACHA C.; BANDEIRA JUNIOR, GUERINO; PINHEIRO, CARLOS G.; PAVANATO, MARIA AMÁLIA; CARGNELUTTI, JULIANA F.; BALDISSEROTTO, BERNARDO; HEINZMANN, BERTA MARIA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The growing increase in the fish farming sector has favored the establishment of bacterial outbreaks caused by Aeromonas hydrophila in several species. The hexane extract of Hesperozygis ringens (HEHR) (Lamiaceae) leaves increased the survival rate of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) experimentally infected by A. hydrophila. However, it is noteworthy that no reports have been found on the possible mechanisms of action of this extract in infected fish. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the HEHR, administered through single immersion bath, on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defenses in muscle and liver tissue of silver catfish challenged with A. hydrophila. The results showed that the oxidative status of silver catfish was altered, although oxidative stress was not triggered during the experiment. HEHR at 30 mg/L (HEHR30) was not characterized as a pro-oxidant agent in the presence of infection, unlike florfenicol and HEHR at 15 mg/L treatments in some cases. In short, HEHR30 provided an important increase in hepatic catalase activity, characterizing one of the possible mechanisms involved in the greater survival of fish experimentally infected by A. hydrophila. Additionally, HEHR30 did not induce lipid peroxidation, nor reduced antioxidant defenses of silver catfish infected or not by A. hydrophila.
  • Thermal niches and activity periods in syntopic Phymaturus and Liolaemus lizards from the Andes, Argentina Ecosystems

    LASPIUR, ALEJANDRO; MEDINA, MARLIN; AUSAS, MARÍA SOLEDAD; ACOSTA, JUAN CARLOS; KRENZ, JOHN D.; IBARGÜENGOYTÍA, NORA RUTH

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Explanations for differences in thermal biology within and between species of lizards employ concepts of phylogenetic inertia and plasticity. We compared the thermal biology of three liolaemid species in the Andean highlands in Argentina: two allopatric congeners (Phymaturus williamsi and P. aguanegra) each in syntopy with Liolaemus parvus. We predicted intra and inter-generic differences in ecophysiological traits and periods of activity at both sites, ecotypic differences between the (labile) Liolaemus populations, but predicted no interspecific differences between the (putatively conservative) Phymaturus. We determined the operative temperatures (T e), field body temperatures (T b), preferred temperatures (T pref), effectiveness of thermoregulation (E), and activity periods. As expected, P. williamsi differed from L. parvus in T b, T pref, and activity periods, likely as result of niche segregation. Contrary to predictions, the Phymaturus populations exhibited differentiation in T b and T pref, while L. parvus populations differed in T pref and E. Accordingly, Phymaturus species tend to be effective thermoregulators whereas L. parvus populations behave as good thermoregulators or thermoconformers depending on thermal conditions in fluctuating habitats. Phymaturus may be less evolutionarily conservative than previously suggested. The suite of co-evolving traits affecting thermal ecology may not be collectively conservative nor labile but rather a continuum between both evolutionary paths.
  • Isoetes candelariensis, a new species of Isoetaceae (Lycopodiidae) from Argentina Ecosystems

    MACLUF, CARMEN C.; MARQUEZ, GONZALO J.; KELLER, HÉCTOR A.; QUETGLAS, MARCELA A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Isoetes candelariensis is a new species of Isoetaceae from Misiones, Argentina. This species is ephemeral, and grows on basaltic bedrock outcrop pools, in Urutau Reserve from Candelaria Department. This taxon differs from other aquatic Isoetes in this region by the unique combination of characters of its leaves, ligule, labium and megaspore ornamentation.
  • Can species guilds act as hubs for energy transfer in macrophyte meadows of Amazonian floodplain lakes? Ecosystems

    OLIVEIRA, ANA CRISTINA B.; FREITAS, CARLOS E.C.; POUILLY, MARC; YAMAMOTO, KEDMA CRISTINE; HURD, LAWRENCE EDWARD; DEHART, PIETER; SANTOS, JAMERSON A.; REZENDE, CARLOS EDUARDO; ALMEIDA, MARCELO G. DE; SIQUEIRA-SOUZA, FLAVIA KELLY

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aquatic macrophytes are the main autochthonous component of primary production in the Amazon Basin. Floating meadows of these plants support habitats with highly diverse animal communities. Fishes inhabiting these habitats have been assumed to use a broad range of food items and compose a particular food web. We employed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope analysis to draw the trophic structure of these habitats and to trace the energy flow by its trophic levels. Fishes and other animals from 18 independent macrophyte meadows of a floodplain lake of the Solimões River (Amazonia, Brazil) were analyzed. The food web of macrophyte meadows consists of four trophic levels above autotrophic sources. In general, primary consumers exhibited a broader range of food sources than the upper trophic levels. Some fish species depended on a large number of food sources and at the same time are consumed by several predators. The energy transfer from one trophic level to the next was then mainly accomplished by these species concentrating a high-energy flux and acting as hubs in the food web. The broad range of δ13C values observed indicates that the organisms living in the macrophyte meadows utilize a great diversity of autotrophic sources.
  • Effect of seasonality and estuarine waters on the phytoplankton of the Guamá River (Belém, Amazon, Brazil) Ecosystems

    PIRES, PAOLA VITORIA B.; SOUSA, ELIANE B. DE; GOMES, ALINE L.; CUNHA, CELLY JENNIFFER S.; TAVARES, VANESSA B. DA COSTA; PINHEIRO, SAMARA CRISTINA C.; CARNEIRO, BRUNO S.; MELO, NUNO FILIPE A.C. DE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to analyze the application of the Phytoplankton Community Index-PCI and Functional Groups-FG in determining the water quality of the Guamá River (Pará, Amazônia, Brazil). Samplings occurred monthly for analyses of phytoplankton and physical and chemical parameters, for two years, at the station where water was collected for human supply consumption. Seasonality influenced electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, transparency, winds, true color, and N-ammoniacal. The ebb tide showed high turbidity and suspended solids. The density varied seasonally with the highest values occurring in September and December (61.1 ind mL-1 and 60.2 ind mL-1, respectively). Chlorophyll-a was more elevated in December (21.0 ± 4.7 µg L-1) and chlorophyll-c higher in relation to clorophyll- b indicated the dominance of diatoms. Functional Group P prevailed in the study months. Through the PCI índex the waters of Guamá River varied from reasonable to excellent and the TSI ranged from oligo to mesotrophic. The use of Functional Groups proved to be a promising tool in the determination of water quality since it covered the most abundant species in the Environment, but the PCI is not adequate to characterize Amazonian white-waters rivers, which have diatoms as the leading dominant group.
  • Distribution of Badhamiopsis and Badhamia (Physaraceae, Myxomycetes) in brazilian Biomes Geosciences

    OLIVEIRA, VIRTON RODRIGO T. DE; BARBOSA, DAVID Í.; CAVALCANTI, LAISE H.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The family Physaraceae (Physarales, Myxomycetes) is represented in Brazil by eight genera and 75 species. Based on data obtained from the GBIF, SpeciesLink, Flora and Funga do Brasil platforms, collections from the IPA and URM Herbaria and material collected since 1960 deposited in the UFP Herbarium, the microhabitats and distribution of Badhamiopsis (1sp.) and Badhamia (10 spp.) in Brazilian biomes are commented. An identification key for the species and the first report of B. melanospora from the state of Paraíba, B. panicea from the state of Paraná and B. ovispora from Brazil are presented.
  • Distribution of gamma-ray elements in Cerro do Jarau impact structure and a proposal of geothermal modeling Geosciences

    GARCIA, DIEGO D.; LEITE, EMILSON P.; VASCONCELOS, MARCOS ALBERTO R.; CHRISTOU, EVANGELOS; CRÓSTA, ALVARO P.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Large meteorite impacts release kinetic energy that induces rock deformation, high temperatures and fluid circulation during the cratering process. To understand the correlation between rock deformation and fluid circulation, it is relevant to investigate post-impact hydrothermal flux and its relation to the local geology. The Cerro do Jarau impact structure is a ~13.5 km diameter impact structure located in southern Brazil and formed on Cretaceous continental flood basalts of the Serra Geral Formation and underlying sedimentary strata. This study collected ground gamma-ray data over the structure and produced K, eTh and eU concentrations, eTh/K ratio and F-factor maps to characterize it in terms of its radiometric signatures and their respective spatial distribution. A general decrease in the concentration of the three elements was observed from the outer-rim towards the center of the crater. The central area is defined by very low radiometric values, with relatively high K values, thus indicating the occurrence of K-bearing rocks. Numerical simulations using the HYDROTHERM 3 code showed the fluid circulation pattern over the impact structure. Data interpretation resulted in a scenery consistent with potential fluid remobilization within the impact structure related to hydrothermal processes in the late stages of the crater formation process.
  • Evolution of the redox-altered, two-tiered Muralha Flow in the Fronteira Oeste Rift, southern Paraná Volcanic Province Geosciences

    HARTMANN, LÉO A.; RENNER, LEONARDO CARDOSO; KLABUNDE, EDUARDA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The thorough redox alteration of a lava flow is an undescribed feature in intraplate basaltic provinces. The Early Cretaceous (134.5 Ma) Paraná Province displays that alteration in the major Muralha Flow. This oxidized and reduced flow from the southern part of the province was studied with satellite images, field surveying, petrography, and published whole rock geochemistry. The 100 x 100 km flow from the Cuesta de Haedo presents two hydrothermal tiers – lower Tier 1 is gray to white, upper Tier 2 is red. Iron oxyhydroxides characterize Tier 2. Tier 1 contains clay minerals, zeolites, pyrite and calcite, and agate (possibly amethyst) geodes. In a first event, the upper Tier 2 was oxidized by hot water from the underlying Guarani Paleoaquifer. The high water/rock ratio decreased due to porosity clogging by precipitation of secondary minerals, and the fluid became reducing. Lowering of Eh and pH was caused by reaction of water with reducing particles (calcite, organic molecules) present in the paleoerg sandstones and with fresh rock surfaces. A lower Tier 1 was then formed during slow, hot water percolation. Reduction was interrupted below 30 °C (calcite formation). Large scale, similar alteration occurred in all studied oceanic ridges and only rarely in continental environments.
  • Growth performance, plasma and hepatic biochemistry of jundiá Rhamdia quelen fed dephytinized rice bran protein concentrate Animal Science

    LOUREIRO, BRUNO B.; ADORIAN, TAIDA J.; PIANESSO, DIRLEISE; MOMBACH, PATRÍCIA I.; LOVATTO, NAGLEZI M.; BENDER, ANA B.B.; SPERONI, CAROLINE S.; FERRIGOLO, FERNANDA R.G.; SILVA, LEILA P. DA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A 45-day feeding assay was carried out to evaluate the effects of crescent levels of dephytinized rice bran protein concentrate (DRBPC) on growth performance, nutrient deposition, plasma and liver parameters of jundiá Rhamdia quelen. Five experimental diets were formulated with inclusion of 0 (control), 10, 15, 20, and 30% of DRBPC. In total 500 jundiás (initial body weight 6.28 ± 0.12 g) were allocated in 20 tanks (230 L) to give four groups for each treatment. Fish were fed to apparent satiation for 45 days. Weight gain and specific growth rate were evaluated by cubic regression analysis (P < 0.05) and displayed maximal growth on the inclusion level of 25% of DRBPC. The results indicated that fish fed DRBPC15 and DRBPC30 had lower body protein deposition and hepatosomatic index compared to CONTROL diet, respectively. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were assessed in plasma parameters. The alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in fish fed DRBPC30 compared to CONTROL group. The present study has demonstrated that DRBPC displayed significant nutritional quality for the jundiá. Thus, this new ingredient could be included as a protein source in fish for minimizing the use of fish meal.
  • Dry residue of cassava on slow-growing broiler diets, with or without the addition of carbohydrases Animal Science

    ALMEIDA, ALEXSSANDRO Z.; EYNG, CINTHIA; NUNES, RICARDO V.; BROCH, JOMARA; SOUZA, CLEISON DE; SILVA, IDIANA M. DA; TENÓRIO, KARINE I.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dry residue of cassava was studied on the digestibility, performance, intestinal measurements, with or without inclusion of carbohydrases, of slow-growing broilers. 160 Label Rouge broiler chickens, 21-d-old, were distributed in a randomized, 2x5 factorial arrangement (male and female x 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% residue) (metabolism trial). 1,100 male chicks were distributed in a 2x5 factorial arrangement (with/without carbohydrases x 0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; and 10.0% residue), with five replicates (performance trial). Increasing residue levels led to increases in energetic values. Feed intake from 1–21-d-old and 1–63-d-old decreased linearly. At 42 d-old, feed intake and weight gain levels exhibited a quadratic response, which predicted a highest value at 3.32% and 4.77%, respectively, for diets without carbohydrases. For 21- and 42-d-old chickens, the inclusion of carbohydrases reduced the weight and length of the small intestine. The energetic values of the diets were positively influenced by the residue and had similar digestibility values for both sexes. Inclusion of up to 10% of residue in slow-growing broiler diets does not impaired performance and intestinal morphology. The addition of carbohydrases reduced the viscosity of the digesta but it was not enough to improve the performance of the birds.
  • Meat quality of pigs fed grape pomace in different production systems Animal Science

    GIULIANI, CAROLINE DOS SANTOS; ROSADO JÚNIOR, ADRIANO G.; MATEUS, ANA LÚCIA S.S.; FONSECA, PATRÍCIA A.F DA; FALK, RENATA B.; THIEL, SUSLIN R.; LEÃES, YASMIM S.V.; EBLING, FABIANI DA ROCHA; WAGNER, ROGER; NÖRNBERG, JOSÉ LAERTE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation the diet of pigs with grape pomace preserved in silage form (GPS) and its interaction with indoor and outdoor production systems, with and without access to vegetation, on the attributes of meat quality produced. Analyzes of proximal composition, cholesterol content, fatty acid profile, shear force, texture profile and sensory analysis were performed. During cold storage, oxidative stability and objective color were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed in a 3x2 factorial design (production systems (S) x GPS-feed (F)) and the interaction between them (S*F). The results showed that there was no interaction between the production system and GPS feeding for the attributes evaluated. The proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the muscle remained unchanged. Additionally, it provides higher subjective and objective tenderness, higher red color intensity, and reduces lipid oxidation under refrigeration. The supplementation of pig feed with GPS improve the quality of the meat and constitute a sustainable alternative for the winemaking residue.
  • Intraoperative thermal mapping of mammary tumors in dogs Animal Science

    CADENA, SILVIA MARIA R.; CABRAL, PAULA G.A.; SANTOS, SCARLATH O.P. DOS; ALVES, JOSÉ EDGARD O.; LEANDRO, HASSAN J.; DOS SANTOS JÚNIOR, MARCELO B.; SILVA, SAULO JOSÉ Q.; RIBEIRO, MARIANA S.; AMARAL, LIVIA G.; SHEFFER, JUSSARA P.; SOUZA, SÁVIO B. DE; ANTUNES, FERNANDA; OLIVEIRA, ANDRÉ L.A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study, videothermometry’s application in detecting mammary tumors in dogs is explored in-depth. The research hypothesizes that this technique can effectively identify cancerous tissues during surgery by analyzing thermal patterns. The methodology involved comparing thermal imaging results from dogs with palpable mammary nodules against a control group, focusing on capturing real-time thermal patterns. Results were significant, showing distinct thermal patterns in carcinomas. This indicates videothermometry’s capability in accurately identifying micro metastases and differentiating between neoplastic and non-neoplastic changes. The study concludes that videothermometry has considerable potential in enhancing surgical precision, especially in tumor resection and safety margin definition, but emphasizes the need for further research to thoroughly understand the thermal signatures of various mammary tumors in dogs.
  • Lack of country-wide systematic herpetology collections in Portugal jeopardizes future research and conservation Animal Science

    SANTOS, BRUNA S.; MARQUES, MARIANA P.; CERÍACO, LUIS M.P.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Natural History Collections (NHCs) represent the world’s largest repositories of long-term biodiversity datasets. Specimen collection and voucher deposition has been the backbone of NHCs since their inception, but recent decades have seen a drastic decline in rates of growth via active collecting. Amphibians and reptiles are amongst the most threatened zoological groups on the planet and are historically underrepresented in most worldwide NHCs. As part of an ongoing project to review the Portuguese zoological collections in the country’s NHCs, herpetological data from its three major museums and smaller collections was gathered and used to examine the coverage and representation of the different taxa extant in Portugal. These collections are not taxonomically, geographically, or temporally complete. Approximately 90% of the Portuguese herpetological taxa are represented in the country’s NHCs, and around half of the taxa are represented by less than 50 specimens. Geographically, the collections cover less than 30% of the country’s territory and almost all of the occurring taxa have less than 10% of their known distribution represented in the collections. A discussion on the implications for science of such incomplete collections and a review of the current status of Portuguese NHCs is presented.
  • Blood cell alterations in Colossoma macropomum juveniles caused by silver nanoparticles Animal Science

    MENESES, JULIANA O.; CUNHA, FERNANDA DOS SANTOS; DIAS, JOEL ARTUR R.; SOUSA, NATALINO DA COSTA; COUTO, MÁRCIA VALÉRIA S. DO; CUNHA, ANA FLÁVIA S. DA; PAIXÃO, PETERSON EMMANUEL G.; ABE, HIGO A.; NASCIMENTO, VICTOR RUAN S.; CARDOSO, JULIANA C.; COSTA, LUIZ P. DA; FUJIMOTO, RODRIGO Y.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated the median lethal concentration of silver nanoparticles and their effects in fish tambaqui Colossoma macropomum. Therefore, an acute toxicity assay was carried out in completely randomized design evaluating six different concentrations of silver nanoparticles on blood parameters of tambaqui. The silver nanoparticles were produced by chemical reduction with polyvinyl alcohol (AgNP-PVA). The lethal concentration 50% (LC50) was estimated using probit regression. The blood was collected, analyzed and the data were submitted to T-test (dying x surviving fish) and Tukey test (surviving fish). An increase in glucose, hematocrit, total plasma protein, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils as well as reduced MCV (mean corpuscular volume) in dying fish compared to surviving fish were observed. Survived fish exposed to 187.5 µg/L showed an increase in hematocrit, MCV, and MCH and a reduction in erythrocytes, total numbers of leukocyte, thrombocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil. The fish exposed to concentrations below 125 µg/L, had returned the blood parameter to baselines compared to control. The estimated LC50 was 165.09 µg/L and was classified as highly toxic for the fish tambaqui. In higher concentrations, it causes an acute respiratory toxicity, but in concentrations below 125 µg/L, the fish can adapt to the stressing agent.
  • Evaluation of the supply of Duddingtonia flagrans for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep Animal Science

    DELMILHO, GUSTAVO; BOHLAND, ELISABETH; STEPHANIE, NICOLE; VAZ, CLAUDIA C.P. DE; ALVAREZ, LEYLA R. DE; COSTA, RICARDO L.D. DA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Parasitic resistance imposes alternative control methods, like nematophagous fungi. In this study, two experiments were conducted supplying Duddingtonia flagrans aiming to evaluate the biological control of parasites in sheep. In the first, 24 sheep naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes were allocated, in randomized blocks, following the treatments: control or treated group, 0.5g/animal product containing D. flagrans, chlamydospores. Weight, body score, Famacha©, egg count per gram of feces (EPG), and larval percentage were evaluated. In the second experiment, D. flagrans (0.25 and 0.5g product) was infested with manure, plus or not protein concentrate, in a completely randomized design. In both experiments the dose was intentionally lower than recommended. Recovery and larval identification were performed. The SAS analyzed the variables by the MIXED procedure, repeated measures in time. Weight, body score, hematocrit, and Famacha© did not show differences between treatments (p>0.05); however, EPG (p<0.001) and the percentage of larvae identified in coproculture were different. In the second experiment, the inclusion of the fungus did not influence the recovery of larvae (p>0.05). In both experiments, colonization and advancement of the fungus were visualized. Under the experimental conditions, the fungus D. flagrans was not effective in the biological control of parasitic infection in sheep.
  • Genetic parameters for visual scores, growth and carcass traits in Nellore Cattle Animal Science

    SOARES, BYANKA B.; BRUNES, LUDMILLA C.; BALDI, FERNANDO SEBASTIAN; CARMO, ADRIANA S. DO; PEREIRA, LETÍCIA S.; CARVALHO, RAFAEL A.; NARCISO, MARCELO G.; AMORIM, SABRINA T.; SAINZ, ROBERTO DANIEL; MAGNABOSCO, CLÁUDIO U.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Growth and carcass traits are essential selection criteria for beef cattle breeding programs. However, it is necessary to combine these measurements with body composition traits to meet the demand of the consumer market. This study aimed to estimate the genetic parameters for visual scores, growth (pre and post-weaning weights), and carcass (rib eye area (REA), back and rump fat thickness) traits in Nellore cattle using Bayesian inference. Data from 12,060 animals belonging to the HoRa Hofig Ramos herd were used. Morphological traits were evaluated by the MERCOS methodology. The heritability estimates obtained ranged from low to high magnitude, from 0.15 to 0.28 for visual scores, 0.13 to 0.44 for growth, and from 0.42 to 0.46 for carcass traits. Genetic correlations between visual scores and growth traits were generally of moderate to high magnitudes, however, visual scores showed low correlations with carcass traits, except between sacral bone and structure and REA. Selection for visual score traits can lead to favorable responses in body weight and vice versa, but the same is not true for carcass traits. Morphological categorical traits can be used as complementary tools that add value to selection.
  • Effects of dietary β-glucans on the productive performance, blood parameters, and intestinal microbiota of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) juveniles Animal Science

    LIMA, ED C.S. DE; SOUZA, FELIPE P. DE; FURLAN-MURARI, PÂMELA JULIANA; PANDOLFI, VICTOR CÉSAR F.; LEITE, NATÁLIA G.; MAINARDI, RAFFAELLA M.; CHIDEROLI, ROBERTA T.; PEREIRA, ULISSES P.; ARAÚJO, EDUARDO JOSÉ A.; PUPIM, ANDRÉIA CARLA E.; KOCH, JOÃO FERNANDO A.; LOPERA-BARRERO, NELSON MAURICIO

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Among the potential feed additives, β-glucans are known to positively affect the growth performance, blood parameters, and intestinal microbiota of fish, even the ornamental species. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effects of the dietary supplementation of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-glucans concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2%) in juvenile angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) over a 42-day period. Regarding growth performance, no effects were observed on most parameters. However, 0.2% β-glucans supplementation produced higher condition factor values, indicating a better nutritional status. Furthermore, β-glucans supplementation did not affect blood parameters. Regarding intestinal microbiota, β-glucans supplementation increased the abundance of the potentially beneficial bacterial genus Phascolarctobacterium. The high abundance of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes, which can degrade β-glucans, may be attributed to the increased abundance of Phascolarctobacterium spp. In addition, 0.2% β-glucans supplementation produced more operational taxonomic units and higher Sobs (observed species richness), indicating effects on the overall bacterial community structure. These results demonstrate the potential application of β-glucans as a dietary supplement to improve the performance and modulate the intestinal microbiota of angelfish.
  • Mercury (Hg) concentration in fish commercialized in the São Luís fish market (MA) and potential exposure of consumers Animal Science

    LACERDA, LUIZ D.; MOURA, VICTOR L.; OLIVEIRA, RAYONE WESLEY S.; CARMO, KEVIN LUIZ C.F.; NUNES, JORGE LUIZ S.; FREITAS, ARLAN S.; BEZERRA, MOISES F.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Fish consumption is the main path of human exposure to Hg and may represent a risk to public health, even with low Hg concentrations in fish, if consumption rates are high. This study quantifies, for the first time, the Hg concentrations in nine most commercialized species in the São Luís (MA) fish market, where fish consumption is high, and estimates human exposure. Average Hg concentrations were highest in carnivorous species, yellow hake (Cynoscion acoupa) (0.296 mg kg-1), the Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) (0.263 mg kg-1), whereas lowest concentrations were recorded in iliophagous Mullets (Mugil curema) (0.021 mg kg-1) and the Shorthead drum Larimus breviceps (0.025 mg kg-1). Significant correlations were observed between Hg concentrations and fish length in two species: the Coco-Sea catfish (Bagre bagre) and the Atlantic bumper (Chloroscombrus crysurus), but not in the other species, since they presented relatively uniform size of individuals and/or a small number of samples. Risk coefficients, despite the relatively low Hg concentrations, suggest that consumers should limit their consumption of Yellow hake and Atlantic croaker, as they can present some risk to human health (EDI > RfD and THQ > 1), depending on the frequency of their consumption and the consumer’s body weight.
  • Impact of different Meloidogyne species on the development of sugarcane plants Crop Science

    BELLÉ, CRISTIANO; MOCCELLIN, RENATA; HAUBERT, MAURICIO; DOS ANJOS E SILVA, SERGIO DELMAR; GOMES, CESAR B.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the impact of Meloidogyne javanica, Meloidogyne incognita, and Meloidogyne arenaria on different aspects of the development of sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions. For this purpose, seedlings of the RB867515 genotype were individually inoculated with 5,000 eggs + second-stage juveniles of their respective nematodes/plant, and non-inoculated plants were used as control. After 330 days of inoculation, the plants were removed from the pots, and the following characteristics were evaluated: fresh mass of the aerial part and root system; leaf area; leaf chlorophyll index; culm diameter; fresh mass of culms; broth volume; contents of neutral and acid detergent fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, apparent sucrose in broth, and reducing sugars in broth; total soluble solids concentration. Subsequently, the final population of nematodes in the root system of inoculated plants was determined to calculate the reproduction factor of nematodes. The results showed that all tested Meloidogyne species negatively affected plant development and the composition of some analyzed fractions, in comparison to the non-inoculated control. However, the presence of the root-knot nematode in sugarcane plants increased the contents of neutral and acid detergent fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and reducing sugars, regardless of the Meloidogyne species.
  • Green manure (Crotalaria juncea L.) enhances Origanum vulgare L. biomass accumulation, essential oil yield, and phytochemical properties Crop Science

    ASSIS, RAFAEL M.A. DE; SANTOS, JANDEILSON P. DOS; HONORATO, ALAN DA CUNHA; ROCHA, JOÃO PEDRO M.; CARVALHO, ALEXANDRE A. DE; BERTOLUCCI, SUZAN KELLY V.; PINTO, JOSÉ EDUARDO B.P.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Green manure (GM) may reduce the use of chemical fertilizers, been an ecologically appropriate strategy to cultivation of medicinal plants. Crotalaria juncea, is one of the most used because it adapts to different climatic and high nitrogen content. Origanum vulgare. is widely used in cooking, pharmaceutical, cosmetic industries and food products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the GM on biomass, essential oil (EO), phenolic and antioxidant. The experiment consisted: control; 150, 300, 450, and 600 g (Sh= leaves+steam) more 200 g roots (R); 600 g aerial part; 200 g roots; and soil with 300 g cattle manure per pot. The highest dry weights were observed in the presence of GM and cattle manure (90 days). The control had an EO production 75% lower in relation to the dose of 450 g GM (Sh+R). Principal component analysis showed that GM and cattle manure positively influenced the dry weight, content, yield, and EO constituents, and total flavonoids. The GM contributed to the accumulation of the major EO compounds (trans-sabinene hydrate, thymol, terpinen-4-ol). The GM management may be beneficial for cultivating, because it can increase the production of biomass and the active components, in addition to being an inexpensive resource.
  • Influence of Chemical Nature of Citric and Tartaric Acids on Reaction Time of the Crosslinking of Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogels Engineering Sciences

    CASTRO, DIONE P. DE; SANTANA, RUTH MARLENE C.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) is a water-soluble polymer having a hydroxyl group as a functional group contributing to excellent membrane-forming and mechanical performance. PVOH is obtained by the hydrolysis of polyvinyl acetate, and its physical properties are affected by its degree of hydrolysis, whether, partial or complete. In this study, PVOH hydrogels were synthesized by a solution under stirring and heating techniques with citric (AC) and tartaric acids (AT) crosslinker agents, with different time reactions of 20 min.; 1; 2, and 3 h were investigated. These samples were characterized by the kinetics of water uptake, gel fraction, thermal analysis, and physical-chemical analysis, and their structure was elucidated. The results obtained have shown chemical modification by organic acids and improved the properties to good thermal stability and swelling to AT hydrogels up to 900% water uptake. In the gel fraction, the samples’ esterification was shown and verified by FTIR spectra. To AC hydrogels the chemical modification was low due to the steric hindrance, which caused disintegration of the hydrogel in swelling and gel fraction test, but with absorption in the moisture test performed. The incorporation and effects of citric and tartaric acids enable the development of new hydrogel systems, with specific properties.
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