Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Events of both hybridization and polyploidy are capable of completely restructuring the genome, modifying phenotypic traits and affecting ecological interactions. For plants, these changes may affect floral traits that are important for interactions with pollinators, which could lead to shifts in pollinator behavior and taxa between hybrids/polyploids and parental/diploid species. Such pollinator shifts have great ecological and evolutionary relevance since they play a key role in the diversification of angiosperms. There is a growing number of studies that explicitly address the relationship between plant hybridization/polyploidy and pollinator shifts. However, questions remain about how often hybridization and polyploidy lead to pollinator shifts and what are the mechanisms that mediate this process. We reviewed studies that compared the reproductive biology of hybrids/polyploid with that of parental/diploid species. These studies are based on modifications of floral traits involved in attracting and rewarding pollinators. We also discussed how such changes in flower traits are widespread among plant taxa and affect pollinator visitation rates, pollinator fidelity, pollen movement, and could lead to pollinator shifts. All of these consequences are underexplored, especially from the perspective of pollinators, which foster future research that integrates genetics, ecology, and evolution of plant-pollinator interactions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This work aimed to morphologically characterize 22 species of Spermacoceae s.s found in the Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro with the purpose of improving palynological knowledge of the studied species. The studied species included six species of Borreria and Denscantia cymosa, Emmeorhiza umbellata, Hexasepalum apiculatum, H. radula, H. teres, Manettia fimbriata, Mitracarpus eichleri, M. frigidus, M. hirtus, M. lhotzkyanus, M. megapotamicus, Oldenlandia salzmannii, Pentodon pentandrus, Richardia brasiliensis, Richardia scabra and Spermacoce rubescens. Acetolysed pollen grains were analyzed using light (LM) and scanning electron miscroscopy (SEM). The pollen grains varied in size (polar diameter) from medium to large, with the exception of Hexasepalum teres which was very large. Pollen grains were oblate spheroidal in most species, suboblate in six species, prolate spheroidal in Spermacoce rubescens and subprolate in Manettia fimbriata. All pollen grains were colporate, while number of apertures varied (three-19). The endoaperture was lolongate in most species and lalongate in four species. Sexine ornamentation varied among reticulate, reticulate-granulate, microreticulate, granulate with perforation, echinate-perforate and vermiculate. Pollen attributes were found to distinguish the studied species, but do not separate genera, confirming that Spermacoceae is euripolynic.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The cultural importance of medicinal plants has been measured in terms of popularity (number of people who know a plant) and versatility (number of therapeutic indications mentioned for a plant). Previous works have provided evidence about some drivers of medicinal plant importance, such as attributes of availability, efficiency, palatability and taste. The present study tested whether local perception of efficiency, availability (ease of acquisition), palatability (degree of pleasantness), and taste influence the popularity and versatility of medicinal plants in two rural communities of Buíque, Brazil. Free-listing was applied to identify the medicinal plants known/utilized in the communities, while semi-structured interviews were performed to collect more information about the plants. Informants participated in exercises to score the plant-parts that they knew and used. Statistical analysis was performed through multiple linear regressions, with none of the models retaining all variables as explanatory for popularity and versatility. However, availability and efficiency jointly explained versatility in one of the communities, while palatability was inversely related to versatility and popularity in the other. This study demonstrated that the studied individuals select plants differently, which makes exposing the driving forces of such differences a challenge.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT External factors can interfere with the structure and biological activity of plants. Nevertheless, the susceptibility of plants to specific environmental conditions varies, which raises many questions about the behavior of medicinal plants when grown in urban areas. This study aims to detect possible changes induced by exposure of Eugenia uniflora L. to an urban environment, with emphasis on variation in external and internal leaf structure and differences in the production of its main metabolites. We compared leaves of E. uniflora cultivated in forest and urban sites and analyzed them for structural plasticity and characteristics indicative of stress in the urban environment. The leaves of the urban site revealed necrosis and reddish spots, higher stomatal density, smaller stomata and more numerous crystals and secretory glands, as well as evident storage of starch, lipids, and mucilage. The presence of numerous crystals had a high plasticity index and great potential as anatomical marker for evaluating the effects of the urban environment. Visual symptoms and anatomical changes were efficient at diagnosing stress in E. uniflora, while characteristics of the urban site, such as temperature, heat and pollution, are thought to be responsible for the observed variation and may influence your medicinal characteristic.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Marsypianthes is a Neotropical plant genus distributed from southern Mexico to northeastern Argentina. It is composed of six species - M. arenosa, M. burchellii, M. chamaedrys, M. foliolosa, M. hassleri, M. montana - with all occurring in Brazil except for M. arenosa, which occurs in Mexico. Marsypianthes burchellii, M. foliolosa and M. montana are endemic to Brazil, while M. hassleri also occurs in Argentina and Paraguay and M. chamaedrys is widely distributed from southern Mexico to Argentina. Species of Marsypianthes are found in all the biomes of Brazil - Amazonia, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, Pampa and Pantanal. Goiás is the Brazilian state with the greatest species richness of Marsypianthes, with four of the five species that occur in the country. According to IUCN criteria, three of the species are classified as Least Concern, one as Data Deficient and one as Vulnerable. The present study provides descriptions, an identification key, illustrations, geographic distribution data and information on the conservation status for all the taxa of Marsypianthes in Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Twenty-seven Tritirachium strains were present in the URM culture collection originally founded in Brazil by Augusto Chaves Batista. Fifteen freshly-prepared cultures were obtained from these original strains preserved under mineral oil. DNA was extracted for analysing phylogenetic relationships using the sequence information available from Tritirachium type materials and reference strains. Phylogenetic analysis using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA sequences revealed that eight of these strains belong to the same clade as of T. oryzae and that the four other strains belong to the same clade as of T. candoliense. The strain URM 38, which was previously identified as “T. brumptii”, appeared to exist as a single lineage, related to T. roseum and T. candoliense. Based on morphological features and multi-locus phylogenetic analysis, including the analyses of ITS and LSU rDNA, and rpb2 sequences, we propose that URM 38 belongs to the new species T. batistae. This novel species exhibited velutinous to cottony colonies of varying colour, septate hyphae without clamp connections, conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells, conidiogenous cells with a distinct sympodial rachis, and single-cell conidia that was globose to subglobose, obovoid, smooth, and hyaline. The morphological features of species accepted in Tritirachium are included in this study.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Fruit morphology of the tribe Malveae has been discussed since the first taxonomic classifications of Malvaceae. The fruits are schizocarps, with some genera possessing an endoglossum. Besides morphological variation in the endoglossum, other differences include the number seeds per locule and ornamentation of the exocarp. An in-depth study of the fruit morphology of Malveae is essential to gain insight into the relationships among taxa of the tribe. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the fruit morphology of Malveae, including micromorphology, variation in endoglossum structure and arrangement of seeds in the locule, to comprehensively evaluate the systematic relationships among its contained taxa. The results indicate morphological variation in fruit of various genera with regard to the number of mericarps, degree of dehiscence, relationship between calyx and fruit and their relative sizes, number and morphology of spines, number of seeds per locule, presence or absence of an endoglossum, presence and types of trichomes in exocarp and endocarp, and shape and presence of trichomes in the testa of seeds. Despite the morphological proximity of taxa, there are distinct combinations of characters that define some genera, and when one or more characters overlap, joint analysis makes it possible to clarify existing relationships.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We analyzed the phenological responses of shrub-tree species of lowland deciduous (LDF) and submontane deciduous (SFD) forests in the Pantanal, and assessed their relationships with climatic factors at the community level and with strategies for seed dispersal. Vegetative and reproductive phenophases of 50 tree-shrub species were monitored monthly (12 months), and their relationship with climatic variables was tested using multiple linear regression. Time of leaf budding differed between areas for autochoric species and between autochoric and anemochoric species at LDF. Leaf fall in communities and functional groups was seasonal and highly synchronous during the dry season (95 % of species). Leaf budding peaked at the end of the dry season with > 80 % synchrony. In general, the species presented low synchrony or asynchrony for flowering phenophases, while fruiting phenophases were weakly seasonal but differed between functional groups. Temperature and precipitation were the regulating factors of vegetative phenophases in LDF, while daylength regulated them in SDF. Abiotic factors only influenced flowering phenophases at the dispersion group level. Only ripe fruits were related to reduced daylength. The phenophases of the deciduous forests of the Pantanal seem to be regulated not only by climatic factors but also by strong endogenous control.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Morphological variations in angiosperm pollen grains may aid in the differentiation of families, genera and species. Sapindaceae pollen morphology holds promise for the recognition of taxa of this cosmopolitan family, which is well distributed in tropical regions and possesses great morphological diversity. This study presents the pollen morphology of 23 native Brazilian species of Sapindaceae from forest fragments in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The aim was to identify pollen types in order to expand the morphological knowledge of the analyzed species and contribute to the taxonomy and conservation of the family. Pollen grains were acetolysed, measured and photographed using light and scanning electron microscopy. Qualitative data were described for three pollen types, while quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive and multivariate statistics. The pollen grains are monads, isopolar or heteropolar, small to medium in size, peroblate to oblate-spheroidal and with a subcircular to quadrangular amb. Variation in the type of the apertures [3-porate, 3-(4)-colporate, 3-syncolporate or 3-parasyncolporate] allowed the analyzed genera to be separated into three pollen types. Furthermore, differences in ornamentation (psilate, rugulate, striate, microreticulate, reticulate) delimit species within the established pollen types.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Land-use change is the main cause of biodiversity losses, and for grasslands includes changes in management. The last 10 years has seen afforestation of traditionally grazed grasslands increase considerably in the understudied Serra do Sudeste region of the Brazilian Pampa, turning the region into a mosaic of tree plantations, natural ecosystems (partly in conservation areas without grazing management) and other land uses. We evaluated grassland plant community structure and composition in conservation areas considering two distinct types of land-use history and compared them to grasslands under traditional management. The study was carried out at 58 sites. Per site, three plots were established to sample the plant composition of the herbaceous and shrub layers. We used ordination techniques and indicator species analysis to describe patterns of community composition. We recorded a total of 516 species, thus confirming the high biodiversity of the region. We detected differences in vegetation structure and composition between primary and secondary grasslands. Our study emphasizes the need to increase conservation efforts in the region and points out that current conservation approaches should be evaluated critically regarding their effects for biodiversity conservation and that adequate grazing management is key for grassland biodiversity conservation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Herbaria represent irreplaceable repositories of biodiversity and are used to answer questions about conservation, ecology, systematics, and other sciences. In this sense, we characterize the infrastructure, human resources, and idiosyncrasies of Brazilian herbaria. To achieve this goal, curators were sent a structured and standardized questionnaire to gather information about herbaria. The Brazilian Herbaria Network listed 216 active herbaria in the year 2018, of which 139 answered the questionnaire. These herbaria hold 6,741,469 samples in their collections and more than 39,000 type samples. Most herbaria are in federal universities (40.28 %). Only 24 % of the curators considered that their herbarium is valued by their institutions and 52 % indicated inadequate storage areas. Only nine collections have smoke sensors. Our analysis showed that if an herbarium has an institutional policy the curator is 78 % more likely to consider its herbarium valued. Therefore, it is important for all herbaria to institute their policy. These numbers reflect the difficulty in maintaining herbaria, in many cases cared for only by its curator without institutional recognition and support. Despite recent losses in Brazilian natural history collections, herbaria are still threatened by a lack of basic infrastructure.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Grazing is an important determinant for the composition and structure of grasslands; however, soil seed bank (SSB) response to grazing intensity is poorly investigated. We analyzed SSB richness and density in a subtropical grassland in southern Brazil with different forage offers (low, intermediate, high and very high), that is, contrasting grazing intensities. The SSB was evaluated by the seedling emergence method. We collected ten SSB samples at two layers (0-5 and 5-10 cm) in spring and autumn in each of grazing intensity treatments. We surveyed the established vegetation to assess its similarity with the SSB. Treatment effects were analyzed by Poisson regression while compositional differences were visualized by ordination. We found 103 species in the SSB, of which 71 were also found in established vegetation. We found a positive correlation between SSB density and grazing intensity. High grazing intensity influences patterns of composition and dominance in the SSB, while no strong differences were found among the other treatments. The SSB was characterized by low participation of dominant grasses in the vegetation and the dominance of ruderal species, indicating that recovery from the SSB after total removal of vegetation (severe disturbance) may be limited in grasslands in the region.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Insect pollination has influenced the evolution and diversification of angiosperms. Consequently, knowing plants used as food sources by bees, the most important pollinator group, is the first step toward understanding how their ecological relationships works. Pollen source information is also highly relevant for bee management and associated fruit and seed production. Accordingly, to improve understanding of the trophic ecology of these bees and their relationships with native Amazonian plants the current study identified, quantified and compared pollen stored in nests of Frieseomelitta stingless bees along the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 31 pollen pots were sampled and found to contain 65 pollen types distributed across 52 genera and 29 botanical families (predominantly Arecaceae, Araliaceae, Fabaceae and Urticaceae). Euterpe was the commonest pollen type, being present in 32.2 % of the analyzed samples. Although the studied bees were generalists, pollen analysis suggested that different Frieseomelittaspecies may have distinct food preferences. The pollen profile of the studied bees was influenced more by nest location than by species phylogenetic proximity. The current study also provides a list of important plants for native bee management, which could improve beekeeping when grown near managed meliponarine colonies.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Thailand and other tropical regions have high fungal diversity. Our investigation and examination of microfungi on palms (Arecaceae) revealed two new ascomycetous species of Fissuroma. Fissuroma arengae and F. wallichiae spp. nov. are introduced using morphological and phylogenetic evidence. The novel species have coriaceous ascomata, cylindrical-clavate asci and ascospores with a distinct and thin mucilaginous sheath. Fissuroma arengae is similar to F. wallichiae but can be distinguished by minor morphology, host substrate and gene base-pair differences. Phylogenetic analyses of combined LSU, ITS, SSU, tef1-α and rpb2 sequence data showed that these strains grouped within Fissuroma, further confirming this genus as monophyletic. The two new species are described and illustrated to support their taxonomic placement. Fissuroma appears to be a highly diverse genus often occurring on palms. It is likely that more research will result in numerous new taxa being discovered.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Psathyrella atlantica is described based on material collected in an Atlantic Forest fragment in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. It is characterized by slender, whitish and caespitose basidiomata; pileus with orange, small and floccose-squamulose veil remnants; presence of a persistent but fragile-membranous annulus; basidiospores 5-7 × 3-4 µm; and inconspicuous germ pore. A full description plus illustrations and comments on morphological and phylogenetic data are provided.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Understanding how fire affects the plant biota of the Cerrado is essential for formulating conservational strategies. We evaluated the effects of fires during different periods of the year on the populational structure of Anacardium humile. The research was carried out in areas of typical cerrado stricto sensu in the territory of the Kalunga, state of Goiás, Brazil. These areas, which comprise the same population, were submitted to the following treatments: unburned (control), burned in May 2016 (early fire - EF), and burned in September 2016 (late fire - LF). In July 2018, we delimited two contiguous transects of 100 x 20 m, subdivided into 10 plots of 20 x 20 m, in each area. Fire stimulated the development of branches from basal regrowth in EF and LF. No differences were found in height and diameter of individuals among LF, EF, and the control area. Individuals of EF had size patterns similar to the control individuals, indicating a lesser effect of early fire. The greatest differences regarding all significant parameters were found between LF and control individuals. Early prescribed fires, depending on periodicity, may be less harmful to A. humile.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A literature-based checklist of species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces recorded in the Brazilian tropical dry forest (Caatinga), the largest tropical dry forest region in South America, is provided. A total of 130 species (60 Aspergillus, 57 Penicillium, and 13 Talaromyces) are reported. Soil was the most common substrate, with 122 species records. Various reported species are well known in biotechnological processes. This checklist reflects the limited knowledge of fungal species in tropical dry environments. These data provide a good starting point for biogeographical studies on species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces in dry environments worldwide. In addition, the new species Penicillium vascosobrinhous is introduced, an endophytic fungus isolated from cactus of the Caatinga forest in Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Botany is one of the oldest sciences done above the 60oS parallel with more than 180 years passing since the first professional botanist collected plants in Antarctica. Far from being a barren place, plants constitute an important part of polar ecosystems. Brazil is one of only 29 countries in the world with consultative status and to currently develop botanical studies in Antarctica. We discuss the importance of polar science to Brazil and the role that Brazil has in the international austral-polar scientific community, as well as the importance of its newly inaugurated scientific station.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Plants that occur in arid or semi-arid environments may restrict their flowering to the rainy season to ensure water availability for reproductive functions. However, the exposure of flowers to rainfall can compromise their functionality, such as complex self-pollination mechanisms. We experimentally tested how rainfall exposure affects the sequence of anthesis and reproductive success of Pavonia varians. This species is endemic to the Caatinga, and it has a rainfall-dependent flowering and a specialized mechanism of delayed self-pollination by style curvature. Our results demonstrate that wet flowers have difficulty in distending their petals, and although they maintain the sequence of anthesis, style curvature and corolla closure are delayed. Water exposure also compromised reproductive success by spontaneous self-pollination in bagged flowers but did not prevent fruit set by exposed flowers. These conditions allow cross-pollination in P. varians if rainfall is transient or localized, which is a common condition in the Caatinga. We believe that this type of experimental approach can bring important clues about how reproductive systems respond to abiotic factors, especially in the context of imminent climate change.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Plants have been reported as used by local populations to treat various infections for a long time, which has directed several pharmacological studies. The main aim of this work was to evaluate three plant selection criteria with better predictive power to detect extracts with antifungal action: (1) medicinal plants that are not used for indications of infection and inflammation; (2) plants with direct citations for inflammation, except for infection; (3) plants with direct citations for inflammation and infection selected quantitatively by Syndromic Importance Value (SIV). We tested the action of 23 hydroethanolic extracts of plants against the fungi Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii and found no differences in the number of active extracts among the different strategies used, but activity quality varied. The extract of Anacardium occidentale presented fungicidal activity against the three analyzed fungi. At least five species - A. occidentale, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Poincianella pyramidalis, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, and Mimosa oftalmocentra - presented fungistatic and fungicidal effects against all strains. Our findings indicate that selecting plants based on popular indications and quantitative prioritization techniques increases the chance of detecting potential antifungal candidates, and that the plants selected by these criteria were more effective against C. neoformans.