Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Studies involving endophytic fungi isolated from endemic plants and their antibacterial potential are largely unknown in the Pampa biome. In this study, we identified endophytic fungi isolated from Kelissa brasiliensis (Iridaceae), an endemic species of the Brazilian Pampa, and assessed their antibacterial activity. Endophytic fungi were first grouped based on macro-and micro-morphology, and one representative of each morphospecies was analyzed using sequences from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA region. We then tested the fungal extracts against laboratory isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli for antibacterial activity. A total of 30 endophytes were isolated from the tissues of K. brasiliensis, with the majority from the leaves. Endophytes were then grouped into seven morphospecies based on their morphological features and one representative from each was selected for phylogenetic analysis. The inference from the ITS rDNA sequences identified the endophytes of the seven selected morphospecies as belonging to six taxonomic groups: Colletotrichum (two), Diaporthe (one), Epicoccum (one), Fusarium (one), and Pestalotiopsis (one). The endophyte extracts revealed better results against E. coli than S. aureus, although the extracts from Colletotrichum and Pestalotiopsis sp. were statistically similar to the control antibiotic. Our study is a basis for endophytic fungi studies in Pampa.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT An updated checklist of the Orchidaceae from the state of Maranhão is provided. We confirmed 51 genera and 119 species, of which the most representative genera are Habenaria (17 spp.), Catasetum (14 spp.) and Epidendrum (10 spp.). Our checklist includes 30 species that are not listed in the Flora do Brasil for the state, many of which, however, have been recorded in previous publications. Thus, excluding these, six species are cited here for the first time to Maranhão, all of which are also new records for the Brazilian Northeast region. Comparing such data with previous lists, with 103 and 105 species, we detected a strong incongruity among the data. Of the former list, 25 species lack vouchers from the state and were not collected in our expeditions, thus these taxa are not confirmed, while of the latter we found 20 species that are also not confirmed for the same reasons. A list with the 34 excluded taxa is provided. Most of the collection effort in the state coincides with university campuses, and the northwestern region is the most species rich, but unfortunately it is also the most threatened area.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Climate change is expected to increase the occurrence of severe droughts in the tropics, and little is known about its influence on tree dynamics. Tree-ring width and remote sensing tools can help understand the impacts of climate change on tree growth. We evaluated the applicability of NDVI to obtain phenological metrics (e.g., start, peak, end, and length of growth season) and explored its relationship with tree-ring width of Tectona grandis (teak). The phenological metrics and tree-ring width were correlated with each other, and with both local (temperature, precipitation, solar insolation, Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index - SPEI) and large-scale (El Niño) climatic variables. The length of season and tree-ring width of teak were positively correlated with precipitation and negatively correlated with temperature in the initial months of the growth period. Tree-ring width was negatively correlated with El Niño events. Climate variables and length of season from the prior period were correlated with the tree-ring width of the current growing period. This study demonstrated that rather than directly affecting productivity, climate might also affect the length of the growing season, which would affect tree growth in the next season.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT As part of floristic surveys in the Southern Cone of South America and the Flora do Brasil 2020 project, we present a revision of Osmundaceae in Brazil. Osmundaceae is represented by two genera (Osmundastrum and Osmunda) and three species. One of them, Osmunda piresii, is endemic to the savannas of Central Brazil, occurring in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso. Osmunda gracilis is synonymized under Osmunda spectabilis. We present a dichotomous key, descriptions, diagnostic illustrations, distributions, and notes on taxonomy and ecology.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT During fieldwork in the Campos Amazônicos National Park, Amazonas state, Brazil, a new endemic species of Mabea was collected in savanna areas. Field collections and specimens in RON, MG, and HRCB were analyzed. To understand the species distribution and verify possible areas of occurrence, niche modeling was conducted using the sdm package in R. Mabea dalyana, the new species is a subshrub with xylopodia and reduced size (less than 1 m height) and small, yellow thyrses. There are several allopatric species of Mabea growing in Amazonian savannas, some widespread but others locally restricted, such as M. uleana from central Amazonia that has some superficial resemblance in leaves and inflorescences but can be distinguished from M. dalyana by pubescent adaxial leaf surface (vs. glabrous), 12-21 submarginal glands (vs. 10 submarginal glands), thyrse brownish to red (vs. yellow thyrse) and conspicuous caruncle (vs. caruncle inconspicuous). M. dalyana is endemic to hyperseasonal savanna, very well adapted to savanna, and fire tolerant. It has notable characteristics, such as a subshrub habit, a xylopodium, glabrous leaves, and sepals noticeably larger than the ovary.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A new combination and a new status, Pachira manausensis, is here proposed. After making field observations and analyzing type and herbarium specimens, we realized that P. aquatica var. manausensis should be treated as a species due to many morphological and distribution differences compared to the typical variety. We provide detailed descriptions and a distribution map, table, key, and plate to distinguish both species using morphological characteristics. Typifications and nomenclatural notes for related names were performed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Although enrichment planting is recommended to increase biodiversity in restoration, environmental filters can prevent the establishment of sowed/planted species. Euterpe edulis is a keystone palm in the Brazilian Atlantic forest, whose fruits are consumed by many animals. We assessed the viability of direct seeding of this palm in an Atlantic forest restored site in Southeast Brazil, guided by these questions: 1) Does germinability vary among seeds covered and uncovered by litterfall and according to litterfall depth? 2) Can direct seeding be impaired by seed predation? 3) Does seed size affect seed predation and seedling vigor? We found litterfall favored germination by reducing soil evaporation, but litterfall depth did not affect germination. Seed predation was low, as seed location was probably unpredictable to rodents. Smaller seeds were more removed, possibly because the larger ones impose transportation costs on small rodents. By removing the smaller seeds, predators may favor the production of larger and more vigorous seedlings. Direct seeding of E. edulis can be successful if implemented in medium regeneration stages of Atlantic forest sites, where shade and moisture provided by litterfall, and absence of mid- to large-sized seed predators, allow seeds to overcome the constraints on germination and predation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Fragmentation is one of the main causes of biodiversity loss in tropical forests through consequences on their different components. Beta diversity patterns across fragments have been studied across multiple spatial scales, but comparisons with intact landscapes and in a variety of vegetation types are scarce. In order to address this issue of anthropogenic landscape disturbance, we tested two hypotheses relating to fragmentation and beta diversity: 1. Floristic homogenization at patch-level scale and 2. Floristic differentiation at landscape-level scale. The study was conducted in the Espinhaço Range biosphere reserve, Brazil. Three landscapes encompassing a broad range of vegetation types were sampled in 115 plots. Two landscapes were fragmented due to mining activities (Sabará and Brumadinho) and one is protected (Parque Estadual Serra do Rola-Moça). Results showed high overall beta diversity both between landscapes (conserved and fragmented) and vegetation types (forest, Brazilian savanna “campos rupestres”, ecotone and ironstone “canga”) with high turnover and species losses, even in highly disturbed vegetation types. The conserved landscape was most diverse in terms of richness. Thus, fragmentation effects differed from the expected with a main role of differentiation processes, and we argue that high beta diversity is not always a good predictor of ecosystem health.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The impacts caused on Chaco plant communities by the removal of woody species, together with the effects on the composition and functional structure of herbaceous plants, are still unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of anthropization on herb-subshrub communities in preserved and disturbed Chaco areas. Specifically, we examined differences and similarities in species diversity, composition and proportion of life forms in eight areas of Brazilian Chaco. Samples were taken from herb-subshrub communities using 800 1x1m² plots located in disturbed and preserved areas. Among 130 recorded species, 46 were exclusive to disturbed areas. The composition of species differed between preserved and disturbed areas (PERMANOVA; p = 0.001). PCoA ordination analysis showed greater aggregation of the plots in disturbed areas than in preserved areas. In preserved areas, an analysis of indicator species showed Hemicryptophytes species as the most representative life form. In disturbed areas, the proportion of life forms among indicator species was Hemicryptophytes, followed by Therophytes and Chamaephytes. Our study shows evidence that alterations in species composition, structure, and diversity, as well as sets of indicator species, occur in herb-subshrub communities. The removal of trees and bushes leads to a new configuration of this component in Chaco environments.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Although the Araucaria Mixed Forest has long been recognized for their woods and ecosystem services, we still lack basic information on what tree species occur there. Habitat loss and overexploitation have led several tree species of this forest into an extinction process. Therefore, it is urgent to compile what are the tree species of this forest type, identify if these species are threatened and which were not assessed for their threat category. We aimed to answer: (1) How many tree species occur in the Araucaria Mixed Forest? 2) How many of these species are under a threat category? (3) Does the number of threatened species per state/province mirror the species richness of the state/province through the Araucaria Mixed Forest distribution? We found 1,213 tree species for the forest type. The states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro presented the highest species richness. The number of assessed species reflected the total number of species per state/province. Of the species listed, 5.3 % were classified as threatened and 72.8 % have not been assessed. We provided the most comprehensive tree species list to date for the Araucaria Mixed Forest and unveiled the conservation status of its tree flora.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Eremitis is one of the three genera of the subtribe Parianinae (Poaceae, Bambusoideae, Olyreae) and is restricted to the Atlantic Forest in eastern Brazil. Eremitis aemula, herein described and illustrated, is microendemic to the Alto Cariri State Park, located in the Baixo Jequitinhonha region, an area considered to be extremely important for conservation of the flora in the state of Minas Gerais. This new species is morphologically similar to Eremitis jardimii and E. robusta. However, E. aemula is differentiated from both species mainly by its longer decumbent culms (47-50 cm long vs. 22-25 cm and (15-)25-28 cm, respectively) with shorter inflorescences (4.5-5 cm long vs. 5.5-6 cm and 6-6.5 cm, respectively), and by its leaf blades with rounded base (vs. attenuate in E. jardimii and E. robusta). The total number of bamboos in Minas Gerais thereby rises to 79 species with 16 endemic to the state, reinforcing the fact that the Baixo Jequitinhonha is of extreme importance to the conservation of the Minas Gerais flora.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Atlantic Forest is made up of different vegetation types over extensive latitude. Most of its remnants are in mountain ranges, which are responsible for the maintenance of most endemic and threatened species in this domain. Here we present the floristic composition of the Área de Proteção Ambiental Mestre Álvaro (APAMA), a coastal massif at Espírito Santo State with expressive altitudinal amplitude (100-800 a.s.l.) containing remnants never floristically studied. Knowing the composition of this protected area is important because it includes an altitudinal range not yet evaluated in floristic comparisons involving highland and lowland forests between the latitudes 18-21° S. We found 493 species (in 292 genera and 91 families): ten are regional endemic species, nine are new records of occurrence for the state, and 52 are under some degree of threat of extinction. Our results indicate the presence of flora elements' typical of both highland and lowland forests, which makes the APAMA essential in a scenario extremely fragmented. Finally, our data provide an unprecedented floristic list for regional forest restoration projects, as well as an invaluable source of data for biogeographic studies that seek to understand the effect caused by neighboring vegetation types on the composition of lowland forests.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Target of rapamycin (TOR) is a very critical protein in plants, which connects with biological process, glycometabolism, life span, and photosynthesis. Here, the evolutionary relationship, conserved motif, gene structure and cis-acting elements of TOR were analyzed. Promoter cis-acting elements analysis indicated various cis-acting elements respond to light, auxin, ABA and multiple signal pathway. Transcriptome sequencing and the co-expression network of VvTOR, sugar and abscisic acid (ABA) related genes from Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon berries indicated that VvTOR might participate in sugar and ABA signaling. The expression of VvTOR in grape suspension cells analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR showed that VvTOR responded to ABA and glucose treatment. These results predicted the potential functions of VvTOR in glucose metabolism and ABA signal pathway.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Non-indigenous communities are particularly insightful in terms of understanding the process of healing plant acquisition and loss. This study explores the traditional medicinal plant knowledge and use of a long-isolated, African-descended community in the Atlantic rainforests of northeastern Brazil. We investigated the primary plant species used and their therapeutic applications. We hypothesized that women and the oldest members of the community would be the most knowledgeable about medicinal plants. We carried out semi-structured interviews and walk-in-the-woods plant collecting techniques with 74 informants. We identified 133 ethnospecies of plants used to treat a wide variety of illnesses. The most commonly used plant parts were leaves; the most common form of preparation was as infusion. As anticipated, medicinal plant knowledge generally increased with age. However, there was no significant gender difference in plant knowledge. We attribute this to the increasingly similar livelihood roles and geographical spaces occupied by men and women in the community. There was, however, a trend for women to be more knowledgeable about the healing properties of herbaceous and cultivated plants. Increasing contact with the outside world has resulted in a confluence of traditional, often African-derived healing therapies, with the novel healing plant knowledge and allopathic medicine of outsiders.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We assessed the impacts of the biological invasion of Azadirachta indica on the quality of plant species native to a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest. We planted Amburana cearensis, Libidibia ferrea, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, and Cenostigma pyramidale individuals alone and interacting with the exotic species. We measured their diameters at ground level and heights for four months, calculating their monthly and general average. After this period, seedlings were destroyed to obtain their number of leaves, leaf area, specific leaf area, length and primary root area, wood density, wood dry matter, leaf dry matter, shoot dry matter, primary root dry matter, secondary root dry matter, root system dry matter, and total dry matter. The presence of the exotic species affected the functional characteristics of native species in different ways. We observed negative effects in M. caesalpiniifolia and A. cearensis, positive effects in C. pyramidale, and mixed effects in L. ferrea. In addition, we identified conflicting demands between pairs of characteristics of the interacting species A. cearensis and M. caesalpiniifolia. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude that A. indica decreases the quality of individuals of most native species studied, which may have consequences for their establishment and the local biodiversity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Our research focused on the reproductive phenology of Mauritiella armata, a key veredas species in southeastern Brazil, and aspects of its floral and fruit morphology and sexual system. We observed the reproductive phenological patterns of M. armata for 36 months, and examined the relationships between phenophases and environmental variables to describe its phenological patterns in relation to environmental filters, as well as its floral and fruit morphologies, sexual system (to evaluate dioecy), and the biometry of its reproductive parts. Flowering was observed in the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season, with fruiting occurring during the rainy season. The reproductive phenophases responded to environmental seasonality, principally temperature in the period immediately preceding the expression of the phenophase, as well as to environmental variations that had occurred up to six months earlier. The dioecious sexual system of M. armata was confirmed, with flowering synchronization between the sexes. The population studied did not exhibit apomixis, having xenogamy as its reproductive system. The staminate inflorescences were larger than the pistillate inflorescences and had greater numbers of flowers, although the pistillate flowers were larger. Wind pollen dispersal was not observed, thereby indicating that this species requires biotic pollination for fruit production.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Papilionoideae is the most diverse subfamily of Leguminosae, representing approximately 39 % of its species. Although it is particularly species rich and diverse in the Caatinga, the main phytophysiognomy of the semiarid Northeast Region of Brazil, little is known about the pollen morphology of the species that occur there. This study analyzes and describes the pollen morphology of the 27 species of Papilionoideae endemic to the Caatinga. Pollen grains were acetolyzed, mounted on permanent slides, measured, described and photomicrographed using light and scanning electron microscopy (LM and SEM, respectively). The main variable morphological features were pollen grain size, shape, amb, apertural type and exine ornamentation under LM (microreticulate, reticulate, psilate or finely scabrate) and SEM (microreticulate, reticulate, rugulate, granulate, fossulate and perforate). High intergeneric morphological heterogeneity was observed while morphological variation within each genus was subtle. Nonetheless, size, endoaperture shape, fastigium presence/absence and exine ornamentation were found to be important characteristics for the identification of some species.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Croton section Adenophylli is the largest section in the genus, with around 223 species distributed in the neotropical region. One of the main diagnostic characteristics of this section is the fruit columella, which has three prominent ascending terminal appendages. During a taxonomic review of this section in Brazil, we observed that C. campestris has a problematic taxonomic circumscription, thereby being confused with some other congeners. We investigate the circumscription of C. campestris through the examination of several herbarium specimens across its entire geographic range, and in its different habitats. We conducted macro- and micro-morphological studies as well as molecular analyses based on DNA sequences. Our results allow us to propose two new species (C. hatschbachii and C. stellatorotatus), update the nomenclature of C. campestris and C. subvillosus, and define the systematic positions, phylogenetic relationships, morphology and leaf anatomy of the above-mentioned taxa. The species are described, and their geographic distributions, morphological relationships, flowering and fruiting times, and conservation statuses are commented on. The two new species are also illustrated. Seventeen new synonyms, thirteen lectotypes and two neotypes are proposed. We also provide a key for the identification of 11 taxa belonging to the section Adenophylli, previously confused with C. campestris.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Explaining where plants originated and how plants migrated between eastern Asia and other Northern Hemisphere regions is still challenging. The genus Arisaema is considered a good example to illuminate this process, due to its wide distribution in both the tropical and temperate zones. Based on comprehensive taxon sampling, the historical biogeography of Arisaema was conducted using the molecular data from four chloroplast DNA regions. The phylogeny of Arisaema was studied by using ML and BI methods. Divergence times of Arisaema species were estimated by the uncorrelated lognormal Bayesian method. The ancestral area reconstruction of Arisaema was performed with BioGeoBEARS and Bayes-DIVA. Our results indicated that the crown group of Arisaema originated in Southeast Asia ca. 31.28 Ma. After the initial origin, Arisaema was inferred to have become widespread in Southeast Asia. Members in Himalayas, Africa and North China, Japan, the Korean Peninsula region (NJK region) were derived from migrants originating in Southeast Asia. American members were derived from migrants originating in the NJK region. Arisaema originated in Southeast Asia during the Oligocene with the development of tropical rainforest and a warm, moist climate. During the Oligocene to Miocene, Southeast Asia was the original center for the diversification of Arisaema in the NJK region.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Alpinia is considered the largest genus of Zingiberaceae with ca. 250 species occurring in tropical and subtropical Asia, Australia, and Pacific Islands. The historical biogeography of Alpinia was conducted to explain where Alpinia originated and how it migrated to other regions. The phylogeny, divergence times and ancestral area reconstruction of Alpinia were performed by using the molecular data based on the comprehensive taxon sampling. Our results provide an objective approach to understand the historical biogeography of Alpinia. The genus originated in Asia during the Late Cretaceous ca. 69 Ma and started to diverge after the K-Pg boundary during the early Paleocene with the presence and development of the tropical rainforest and a warm, moist climate. Alpinia migrated to Malesia and then dispersed to Australasia. The molecular analyses supported the diversification of Alpinia in Asia and Malesia. Additionally, the Indian Alpinia has likely a common ancestor with Renealmia and Aframomum, and it is possible that after originating in Asia, Alpinia migrated from Asia to India then to Africa during the early period of collision between the Indian subcontinent and Eurasia to form the common ancestor of Indian Alpinia, Renealmia, and Aframomum. Our phylogeny provides a framework for studies in biogeography, comparative ecology, and evolution.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is located in the extreme south of Brazil, within a transition region between the tropical and subtropical zones of South America that has been frequently affected by fluctuations in climate and vegetation over the last millennia. Palynomorphs preserved in sediments have provided excellent study material for paleoenvironmental reconstitutions of this region, as they reveal the source organisms and their respective environments over geological time. The present study was conducted to provide additional palynological reference material preserved in Quaternary sediments from the RS coastal plain for paleoenvironmental reconstruction studies. Here, we present taxonomic descriptions of pollen from 29 angiosperm taxa extracted along two Quaternary sedimentary profiles: the Pirataba forest profile (29° 15’ S 49° 51’W) and the Faxinal forest profile (29° 21’ S 49° 45’ W), Torres municipality, in the extreme north of the coastal plain of RS. Ecological data and pollen photomicrographs accompany the taxonomic descriptions. This reference material, together with the other palynomorphs found in the two sedimentary profiles, was the basis for our study of paleoenvironments from the last millennia in southern Brazil, according to the dynamics of climate and vegetation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Acisanthera saxatilis is described, illustrated, and compared with putative relatives. The first specimen of this new species was collected 119 years ago by Oskar Andersson Gustaf Malme during his "second expedition Regnelliana". Acisanthera saxatilis is a little collected species apparently endemic to rocky sandstone formations in Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. It differs from similar species by its perennial habit, lignotubers, isomorphic to slightly subisomorphic androecium, stamens positioned in a circle around the style during anthesis, antesepalous stamens with short connectives, small inconspicuous staminal appendages, and purple anthers. Photos of living specimens, a distribution map, scanning electron photographs of seeds and leaves, a preliminary conservation status assessment, as well as comments on vascular plant endemism at the Chapada dos Guimarães are provided.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Mikania is a pantropical genus of Asteraceae with ca. 450 species distributed mainly in South America. Although most of its species occur in forested phytophysiognomies, significant richness is found in the mountaintop grasslands known as campos rupestres in Brazil. Recent botanical exploration of campos rupestres areas outside their core distribution, namely Serra do Padre Ângelo, Pico da Aliança, and Sete Salões State Park, all located in the eastern part of the state of Minas Gerais and within the Atlantic Forest phytogeographic domain, led to the description of several new plant species. After fieldwork and study of herbarium specimens, we recognize two new species of Mikania endemic to Pico da Aliança and Serra do Padre Ângelo. Mikania semirii is related to Mikania phaeoclados and differs by leaf indumentum, subinvolucral bract shape and size and position on the peduncle. Mikania funkiae is related to Mikania glauca and Mikania obtusata, and differs by the petiole length, leaf shape, texture, and margins. We provide full descriptions, illustrations, distribution maps, composite color figures, preliminary conservation status assessments, and comments on the taxonomy and ecology of these two species. These findings highlight the continued importance of floristic and taxonomic work on the rich eastern Brazilian flora.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Colleters produce a secretion composed of hydrophilic and/or lipophilic substances which lubricates and protects the shoot apical meristem against biotic and abiotic agents. Little attention has been given to these structures in Clusiaceae. In the present study, the structure and development of the leaf colleters of Clusia criuva subsp. criuva were described and variations in the exudate composition of the colleters at different stages of leaf development were identified. The samples were collected and processed according to techniques for light and scanning electron microscopy. Colleters are of the standard type and not vascularized, and during leaf development, changes in color, structure, and secretion abundance were observed. Asynchrony in the development was noticeable in the leaf primordia and young leaves, from colleters in early formation to those in early senescence. In early phases there was an abundance of polysaccharide, lipid, and protein secretions, whereas adult and senescent leaves revealed an accumulation of phenolic compounds and cell degradation. The secretion was released by the rupture of the cuticle. The structural changes and secretion composition during leaf development emphasize the role of colleters in protecting meristems and developing organs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Male euglossine bees (Euglossine: Apidae) pollinate flowers of as many as 1,000 Neotropical plant species and there is evidence that blooming in these plants is synchronized with the seasonality of euglossine pollinators. The present study aimed to monitor for two years the phenology of Sarcoglottis acaulis (Orchidaceae - Spiranthinae subtribe) and the seasonality of its pollinators at three Atlantic Forest fragments, two of which surrounded by urban anthropized areas. Phenologies in the three areas were related to abiotic factors, suggesting that precipitation on months prior to the beginning of the flowering period influenced the fructification rates of S. acaulis. Additionally, water shortage during the driest months resulted in vegetative dormancy. Sarcoglottis acaulis sets only a low number of fruits by self-pollination, and the plant’s reproductive success depended on the frequency of its main pollinator, i.e., the male euglossine bees Eulaema atleticana. Lower rates of pollinia removal were observed in areas where this bee is less frequent and, consequently, less fruits were formed, suggesting a high dependency on this pollinator.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Tropical forests are the most diverse on the planet, and it is essential to understand how plant species adapt to the environmental differences inherent in this environment. This study describes the wood anatomy and hydraulic architecture of Bathysa cuspidata and Bathysa nicholsonii in two remnants of the Atlantic Forest through a paired analysis of the hydraulic system related to taxonomic and environmental aspects. Samples were collected non-destructively, processed following techniques of wood anatomy. Sympatric species differ taxonomically in Bathysa cuspidata showed vessels either solitary or radial multiples of 2 to 4 elements, septate fibre-tracheids with thick walls, and larger rays with sheath cells. At the same time, B. nicholsonii has a higher vessel frequency, septate fibre-tracheids with thin walls, narrower rays, vessels with smaller diameters. Although each species’ hydraulic system shows acclimatization variations to different sites of occurrence, the structural differences in wood ensure the segregation between the species in each site. Our results corroborate the relevance of the anatomical wood anatomy studies as a subsidy for a better definition of morphologically similar taxa and show structural aspects aimed at survival in the Atlantic Forest. This data combination has often been neglected in understanding biodiversity in the tropics.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Distyly is a floral polymorphism with reciprocal placement of male and female structures, heteromorphic self-incompatibility, and other ancillary traits. However, breeding system breakdowns and loss of polymorphism are common. Here we traced the diversification of breeding strategies in the type genera of tribes Palicoureeae and Psychotrieae and discussed the evolution of distyly in a phylogenetic framework. We used literature and field information for breeding systems transitions in 46 species of Palicourea and Psychotria. Beyond distyly, we found four additional breeding systems, including monomorphism with herkogamy, homostyly (without herkogamy), monoecy and dioecy. Breeding transitions arose independently and were mostly derived from distyly. Only two species presented monomorphism as an intermediate state into gender specialization. It was not possible to evaluate the origin and evolutionary pathways for distyly in Psychotria and Palicourea as a whole, since distyly seems to be ancestral to their diversification. Breeding transitions in Psychotria and Palicourea appeared to be phylogenetically and biogeographically independent and occurred mostly in islands or isolated forest fragments, with distinct divergence times. Breeding transitions were not related to changes in ploidy. We propose that evolution of breeding transitions in Psychotria and Palicourea represent phylogenetically independent strategies to reproductive assurance in isolated or disturbed habitats.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Forest understorey contains remarkable plant diversity, contributing to the heterogeneous environments for other biotic gatherings and soil supplement aggregations. Nonetheless, the biomass of the understorey vegetation is neglected because of the lack of appropriate allometric equations without which there are uncertainties in biomass estimation. This study was aimed at developing multispecies allometric equations that will be used to estimate the aboveground biomass of different compartments (trunk, crown, and leaves) of understorey trees in the semi-deciduous rainforest of Cameroon. Understorey tree diameter (1.0-10.0 cm), height, and crown diameter were measured on 1023 trees as biomass predictors. The results showed that the fit of the model improves with more predictive variables, four of which were considered in all studied compartments (trunk, crown, and leaves). Existing specific and pantropic allometries based on diameter tend to overestimate the aboveground biomass of understorey trees when compared to the allometry developed in this study. This study highlighted the importance of a specific aboveground biomass allometric equation for understorey trees. Furthermore, the multispecies allometric equation developed for understorey trees complements those recently developed for overstorey trees, thereby contributing to the total aboveground woody biomass estimation in semi-deciduous forest in the Congo Basin.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Pterodon (Fabaceae) species known as “sucupira-branca” are traditionally used in Brazilian medicine. This South American monophyletic genus has species delimitation problems. To separate the recognized Pterodon species we described the wood anatomy of P. abruptus, P. emarginatus, P. pubescens, hybrid (between P. emarginatus and P. pubescens) and P. apparicioi, the latter two for the first time. Wood anatomical studies were undertaken, and qualitative and quantitative features statistically tested. Qualitatively the species are very similar, but in most quantitative features, differences were observed, especially axial parenchyma quantity and type. Pterodon abruptus was easily separated by high density narrow vessels allied to a low area of axial parenchyma but with confluent almost forming bands. Hybrid was more similar to P. emarginatus and had a significantly greater axial parenchyma area than other Pterodon species. PCA analysis separates only P. abruptus. Cluster analysis using qualitative and quantitative data were able to separate P. abruptus and P. apparicioi from the other species. Vessels, ray and axial parenchyma features enable to clarify the distinction in identification key.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Peatlands are ecosystems that play a special role in conserving biodiversity because they are refugia for unusual wetland-dependent species. Nevertheless, these ecosystems are threatened in southern South America by the overharvesting of Sphagnum moss, used in horticulture as substrate. Moreover, the biodiversity measurement as species richness has not been considered in management practices. Thus, our purpose was to study the bryophyte and lichen diversity and abiotic factors of Chiloé peatlands to distinguish habitat preferences and key abiotic factors to improve peatland management. The study was conducted in eight peatlands of Chiloé Island in Chile (42-43° S and 75-73° W). We found good predictors to overall species richness and each organism group. The observed patterns of cryptogamic species richness are well explained by microtopographic variables and moisture, increasing in tree base, and decreasing in saturated substrate and carpet. We highly recommend conserving “tree base” microtopographic areas as reservoirs of species richness in intervened areas by harvesting. Furthermore, we also suggest monitoring water chemistry variables such as pH or ionic ratio (IR), to provide information to predict impacts on the biodiversity of peatlands under Sphagnum harvesting. These recommendations give rise to sustainable management and to transforming moss into a renewable resource for farmers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Canga ecosystems develop over superficial iron crusts with shallow and nutrient-poor soils. Under these conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in helping plants to overcome abiotic and biotic stresses. Canga can suffer periodic burning and yet it is unknown what the impacts of fire are to AMF communities. We aimed to compare AMF in Canga areas affected by burning (BC) with those with no previous history of burning (NC). We compared AMF species composition, spore numbers, species richness, and mycorrhizal inoculum potential. The total number of spores, AMF species richness and mycorrhizal colonization measured in the infectivity bioassay were not significantly different between areas. A total of 23 species in 10 genera were recovered, with most species belonging to Gigasporaceae and Acaulosporaceae. BC and NC shared 52 % of AMF species. Gigaspora albida, Gigaspora gigantea, and Dentiscutata heterogama sporulated exclusively in trap cultures. We concluded that AMF spore communities were not affected by burning in Canga soils as measured by spore abundance, species richness and infectivity. Our data contribute to the inventory of soil biodiversity associated with Canga, a high biodiverse and threatened Brazilian ecosystem.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A new species in the genus Lobothallia (Megasporaceae, lichenized ascomycetes), from Margalla Hills, Pakistan, is described and illustrated here under the name Lobothallia densipruinosa. It is characterized by contiguous, clustered, densely pruinose dark olive apothecia, conidia 6-10 µm long, and large areoles and lobes. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS-nrDNA sequencing placed our species relative to L. pruinosa. Descriptions and images of the new species are provided, as well as a key for the 21 species of Lobothallia known to the world.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Auxin is a plant hormone that is highly associated with various biological processes, especially plant growth, development and fruit ripening. The Small Auxin Upregulated RNA (SAUR) genes, whose family is the largest one of early auxin response genes, has received less attention from genome-wide analyzes compared to other gene families. In this study, we successfully conducted a genome-wide analysis of Fragaria vesca L. and identified 66 SAUR genes. In this paper, we provide important information on the identification of all SAUR genes in Fragaria vesca, including gene and protein sequences, chromosome mapping, and phylogeny analyzes. Gene expression data from the strawberry eFP Browser demonstrated that FvSAUR genes had diversified expression patterns in vegetative tissues. The RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated that 10 selected SAUR genes based on eFP strawberry browser could be expressed with expression divergence at least in one of the strawberry organs/tissues tested. Our analysis provides some basic genomic information for the FvSAUR genes in strawberry and a foundation for further investigations for deciphering their function during plant development and fruit ripening.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Leaf venation has not been widely used in taxonomic integrative works, although some potential in delimiting taxa has been reported. Hyptidendron, a neotropical genus with 20 species, seemed to present some variation in leaf venation patterns, which we sought to further investigate. A number of different herbaria were consulted, and herborized leaves were diaphanized for 20 species of Hyptidendron and a set of unidentified material. The taxa were classified according to their venation patterns. Hyptidendron possesses pinnate semicraspedodromous venation with reticulate irregular tertiary, quaternary and quinternary veins. Freely Ending Veinlets show some variation between species but without clear taxonomic importance. Otherwise, perimarginal veins were greatly informative, being present only in the unidentified material. Together with differences from other species of the genus in leaf shape, margins shape, calyx indumentum and petiole size, we hypothesize the unidentified material as a new species: Hyptidendron cerradoense, described here. We provide a full description, illustration, a distribution map, a preliminary conservation assessment and comments on both the taxonomy and ecology of the new species. Our study supports the importance of leaf venation for taxonomic studies, even in smaller genera.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The importance of understory vegetation cannot be denied as an integral component of forest ecosystems, but there is a dearth of studies to explore the effects of environmental variables and canopy species on its diversity and composition. Here we investigated the effects of environmental variables and overstory stand structure on the understory vegetation in old-growth Monotheca buxifolia dominated forests with considerable co-dominance of other broadleaved by using ecologically standardized data collection methods across Pakistan. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the vegetation composition and different species assemblages with multiple influencing variables. We found a total of 58 understory species belonging to 55 genera and 30 families mostly representing pluriregional (33.89 %) chorological affinities with therophytic (17 species) life-form dominance and microphyll (34.48 %) leaf-size spectrum. Likewise, significant differences were observed in species richness and diversity indices between different understory community types. Attributes such as elevation, aspect, soil properties, and tree canopy structure were most strongly correlated with the Redundancy Analysis (RDA-ordination), indicating that several factors exert the strongest influence and explained the spatial pattern of understory vegetation. The findings of this research can assist forestry resources managers, forest biologists and ecologists in restoration and conservation plans for understory vegetation in the region.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Bryaceae is a species-rich moss family comprising ten genera and 660 species, with four genera and 54 species occurring in Brazil. Bryum is the largest genus, with 440 cosmopolitan species, while Anomobryum comprises 47 cosmopolitan species. Identifying taxa in Bryaceae is usually a difficult task, mainly due to the lack of the sporophyte in herborized specimens. This study aimed to provide a taxonomic treatment for the species of Anomobryum and Bryum in Brazil. Field expeditions were performed in all Brazilian biomes and States, with specimens deposited in the SP herbarium. We examined type specimens and collections from national and international herbaria, but mostly from the SP herbarium. Two species of Anomobryum and 18 species of Bryum were recorded for Brazil. Twenty species occur in the Atlantic Forest, with Bryum pallescens, Anomobryum conicum and A. julaceum being exclusives. Bryum pallescens is a new record for Brazil, and B. riparioides is a reestablished name also endemic to Brazil. We present the first description of the sexuality of Bryum renauldii. Ten taxa of doubtful occurrence and 20 excluded names for Bryum were reported for Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The newly described species, Lecidella iqbalii sp. nov., is so far only known from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. A comparative morpho-anatomical study combined with a phylogenetic analysis based on the marker ITS placed this species together with two accessions from southern South America in a distinct and highly supported group at the base of the Lecidella stigmatea clade. The taxon is characterized by a shiny thallus, strongly convex apothecia, a thin excipulum, a dark brown epihymenium and relatively small ascospores (10-) 11-12 (-13) × (6-) 6.5-8(-9) µm.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Dyes used in the textile industry contribute significantly to the increase of water pollution as they are disposed of, most of the time, without proper treatment. Indigo carmine is a synthetic dye widely used in the coloring of jeans and is considered difficult to remove, causing irreversible damage to the food chain in ecosystems. Mycomediation appears as an economical and sustainable way to treat textile effluents, and this work tested three strains of Trametes collected in Brazil against the ability to discolor the indigo carmine and also the activity of laccase, lignin and manganese peroxidases. The experiment was carried out in Kirk medium under static, non-sterile condition, at ± 28 °C for 120 h. Trametes lactinea (URM8350) discolored 81.40 % of the indigo carmine, T. lactinea (URM8350) 85.09 % and T. villosa (URM8022) 96.11 %. Laccase was detected in all specimens. Manganese peroxidase was detected in T. villosa and T. lactinea (URM8354), while lignin peroxidase was not detected in any of the isolates. The ability of T. lactinea to discolor dyes is reported for the first time. The discoloration rates demonstrate the ability of the strains to discolor carmine indigo and their promising use in the discoloration processes in wastewater from the textile segment.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Although extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) are reported as extremely important to understand ecological interactions, the diversity of EFN-bearing plants remains underappreciated. In Brazil, studies are concentrated in Cerrado and extremely poorly known in other phytogeographic domains, such as Atlantic forest. Thus, this study provides one of the first checklists of angiosperms with EFNs in a protected area of the Brazilian Atlantic forest, bringing information about the richness, location of EFNs on the plant’s organs, as well as plant’s habit and conservation status. A total of 93 EFN-bearing species belonging to 61 genera and 29 families is reported, which corresponds to 16.5 % of the local flora. The vast majority has not been evaluated for their conservation status, and twenty species are endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Vines and trees are the predominant plant habits and EFNs are mostly found on leaves. More than half of the species (53.7 %) comprises new additions to the world list of EFN-bearing plants, including the first record in Dilleniaceae. Our findings show a large number of EFN-bearing plant species from a single and small protected area in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. It reinforces the lack of studies of this nature, where further investigations are strongly recommended.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT High-Altitude Fields are ecosystems with high bryophyte abundances and diversities. One of the principal threats to these ecosystems are wildfires, which mainly affect terricolous species. Chronosequence studies can aid in understanding post-fire effects on bryophytes. We studied terricolous assemblages of bryophytes in the High-Altitude Fields of Itatiaia National Park (INP) by establishing three 20x1 m transects in five areas: three areas of a post-fire chronosequence (treatments 2017, 2007, and 2001) and two control areas. We analyzed the species richness, floristic composition, life-forms, and floristic similarities of those transects, identifying 27 species of mosses (18 genera; 11 families) and 26 species of liverworts (20 genera; 16 families). Ditrichaceae was the principal moss family and Cephaloziellaceae the principal liverwort family. The life-forms encountered were turf (43 %), weft (38 %), thalloid (10 %), and mat (9 %). Turf predominated among mosses (85 %), and weft among liverworts (62 %). Species richness and floristic compositions varied among the post-fire gradients. The grouping dendrogram and ordination diagram evidenced greater similarity among transects within the same area. However, there was no evident gradient of floristic composition along the post-fire gradient, and further studies will be needed to quantify environmental gradients and their influences on bryophyte composition.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Mineral extraction areas are a significant environmental concern due to soil, water, and plant food resources contamination. Some medicinal plant species, such as those of the genus Baccharis, potentially bioaccumulate toxic elements. We evaluate the metal content from coal mining activity present in Baccharis sagittalis and in the soil; and whether this plant consumption represents a risk to human health. Cd and Pb presented levels that exceed those recommended by three global health agencies. Cd and Pb showed high levels in the projections of the daily intake recommended by international health agencies. After interviewing local residents close to mining areas, we found that 53.8 % of the interviewees mentioned the consumption of Baccharis sagittalis as infusion. These results indicate that the consumption of metal-contaminated Baccharis sagittalis can cause health problems as those metals accumulate in the human body. However, studies on Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn acceptable levels in plants consumed by humans are scarce. The contamination of plant species with associated traditional use close to mining areas can increase food security vulnerability of people who live near those areas and are constantly exposed to these agents, using plants gathered in the region.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We investigated the influence of Quaternary climate fluctuations on the current distribution of three species of Leguminosae (Fabaceae) occurring in the Chaco. Potential distribution models of Bauhinia hagenbeckii, Muellera nudiflora and Neltuma rubriflora with a supposed endemism area were generated. The Last Interglacial, Last Glacial Maximum, Holocene Middle and current scenarios were used. The species showed a potential distribution according to the South American biogeographic history regarding the glacier regression and the formation of the Dry Diagonal. The models for each Quaternary event exhibited a tolerable AUC ≥ 0.9 for the validations. The LGM was the event that favoured the current species establishment areas in the Dry Diagonal. Quaternary climatic events were related to the current Leguminosae distribution. Bauhinia hagenbeckii and Neltuma rubriflora present similar areas of environmental suitability. Muellera nudiflora models with areas of environmental suitability were larger for the LIG and Holocene than for areas from other periods. All scenario models (LGM, HM and current scenario) highlighted the potential distribution of the three species concomitant with the glacier regression events and were consistent with the history of formation of South American dry areas.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The knowledge of the geographical distribution of fungi is essential to promote the understanding of global and national fungal diversity patterns. In this study, we provide a literature-based checklist of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species recorded in the biomes of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and the Brazilian Pampa. Only Penicillium digitatum was reported for the Pampa biome. For the Atlantic Forest, a total of 169 species (68 Aspergillus, 79 Penicillium, and 22 Talaromyces) are reported, of which 20 are typified with specimens from this biome, including the novel species Penicillium nordestinense (section Lanata-Divaricata) that is described in this study. Penicillium nordestinense is phylogenetically related to the invalidly described species Penicillium setosum, and this species is validated here. Soil was the most common substrate from where species were reported. Several reported species are well known in biotechnological processes. Penicilliopsis zonata and Sclerocleista ornata, species previously treated in Aspergillus, are recorded. This checklist reflects the limited knowledge of fungal species in tropical environments, such as the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and Pampa biomes. This information is a good framework for understanding the Brazilian diversity of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces and provides data for future fungal biogeographical studies in tropical environments.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Glandular trichomes are epidermal structures that produce, store and release a variety of chemical compounds. Their high morphological diversity allows their taxonomic use at various levels. Therefore, their description and standardization of terminology become challenging. Cannabaceae is a well known family of Urticalean Rosids because of the presence of cannabinoid-secreting trichomes in Cannabis sativa. Other Urticalean Rosid families (Moraceae, Ulmaceae and Urticaceae) are neglected in this regard. Thus, the morphology and distribution of glandular trichomes were studied in Cannabaceae and Ulmaceae species and compared with published data for Moraceae and Urticaceae. Surface and anatomical analyses were performed on vegetative and floral organs. Urticalean Rosids show at least 15 types of glandular trichomes, 12 of them capitate and three filiform. In particular, Trema micrantha, a Cannabaceae species, has six different types. A trichome with biseriate stalk and pluricellular head, found in Trema micrantha and Pteroceltis tatarinowii, was not previously reported. Glandular trichomes are widely distributed in the plant body, which may be related to protection against herbivory. The greatest difficulty was the large quantity of terms and the lack of morphological details of the glandular trichomes in previous studies. A standardization of the terminology of glandular trichomes was therefore proposed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Iron Quadrangle [IQ]), in Minas Gerais, Brazil, exhibits high geological and geomorphological diversity, reflected by its high heterogeneity of vegetation. Its rock outcrops, particularly ironstone, harbor endemic-rich plant communities and contribute substantially to the biodiversity of the biomes they are embedded within the Atlantic Rainforest and Cerrado region. The aim of this study was determining the distribution, phenology and state of conservation of one new species for science with occurrence in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Random walks were carried out in the areas of potential occurrence of the species and individuals were collected to allow description. The plant species was identified and categorized as being new to science and known only from this location: Agalinis marianae (Orobanchaceae). This new species is morphologically similar to A. itambensis but can be recognized by the smaller pedicels and the shape of the corolla. The distinct geographic distribution of these species is an additional factor that supports this separation. Here, we describe and illustrate A. marianae, and provide notes on its distribution, habitat, phenology, and conservation status. We also present a key to the species of Agalinis from Minas Gerais.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We describe a new species of Blechnum from Mato Grosso, Brazil: Blechnum rivulorum sp. nov. This new species was discovered as a result of visits to the herbaria BM, K, P, PR, and S, as part of the Reflora Project, by the first author. We also indicate its position in a new Blechnum phylogeny. Additionally, we confirm the occurrence of Blechnum meridense Klotzsch in Brazil and provide an updated key to all species of Blechnum in the country.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Studies about seed dispersal and germination are important to understand patterns of plant distribution and abundance, and help establish strategies for environmental conservation. We evaluated the role of two different dispersers, the ant Atta laevigata and the maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus, in the germination of Copaifera arenicola seeds, a characteristically myrmecochorous plant species. Germination was evaluated for seeds subjected to four treatments: (1) seeds manipulated by the ant, (2) seeds ingested by the maned wolf, (3) seeds that had the elaiosome removed manually, and (4) seeds with elaiosome (unmanipulated seeds). Seeds manipulated by the ant and seeds that had the elaiosome removed manually required less time to germinate and had higher germination percentages (98.6% and 95.8%, respectively) than the other treatments. However, seeds ingested by the maned wolf also had a high germination percentage (87.7%), above that of unmanipulated seeds (34.7%). Probably, elaiosomes of unmanipulated seeds and small remnants of this structure that resist digestion by maned wolf can decrease to some extent seed germination. We argue that dispersal of C. arenicola seeds by the ant and by the maned wolf result in different patterns of seed distribution in the environment and that they have complementary roles in structuring plant populations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aims to investigate the importance of biomass allocation in the invasive success of Xanthium strumarium, an alien invasive species across an elevation gradient in Pakistan. This plant was selected as a model due to its lowland invasion capacity and going up the elevation gradient. Sites were sampled in three different elevation groups, ≤ 200m, ≤ 600m, and ≤ 1000m while ≥ 1400m above sea level, to analyze X. strumarium biomass allocation, related environmental variables, and community diversity. Root/Below ground, stems, leaves, fruits, total dry biomass and, its ratios were found to vary with elevation (P < 0.05). The total dry biomass and density of the species had a significant negative effect on community diversity, where the crown cover was the main contributing factor to total biomass accumulation. Environmental factors such as elevation, sand, clay, nitrogen, organic matter, phosphorus, and pH were most strongly correlated in CCA-ordination, which indicates that several topographic, edaphic, and soil variables influence the spatial pattern of biomass allocation in this invasive species. It was concluded that X. strumarium invasion continues at a higher elevations, adapting to new environmental conditions, particularly reproductive dry biomass.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Uruguay occupies an area of special relevance for species of terrestrial orchids of the subtribe Spiranthinae because it is located in one of the largest continuous grassland regions of the Americas. The aim of this study is to provide a taxonomic study of Spiranthinae species from Uruguay. A total of 22 species distributed in seven genera were confirmed to the country, representing almost half of the species of terrestrial orchids in Uruguay. Cyclopogon (8 spp.), Skeptrostachys (5 spp.) and Brachystele (4 spp.) were the most representative. Additionally, a new synonym in Brachystele dilatata (=Brachystele waldemarii) is proposed. The group was found in all departments and ecoregions of the country, mainly in the southeastern (Maldonado: 10 spp., Rocha: 12 spp. Lavalleja: 10 spp.) and northeastern (Rivera: 11 spp., Tacuarembó 9 spp.) regions. Among the ecoregions, the “Serrano Forest” (17 spp.) and “Graben de la Laguna Merín” (14 spp.) were the most species-rich. Descriptions, illustrations, an identification key, and comments on geographical distribution of the species are provided.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Many features of flowers comprise the key elements of the pollinating strategies of flowering plants. Our aims were to describe features that attract pollinators and to identify the pollination system of Petunia interior, a species for which bees have been suggested as the probable pollinators. Therefore, we described the morphology and floral biology, assessed nectar production, concentration, and composition, examined reproductive mode and identified pollinators. P. interior has a purple, infundibuliform, zygomorphic corolla with a short and wide tube and blue pollen. Flower opening and pollen release were asynchronous throughout the day. The pollen grains have pollenkitt on the surface. The nectar sugar composition has a proportion of sucrose lower than the proportion of glucose + fructose, and the nectar supply was constant, in small amounts, at a concentration between 16.6-23.1 %. The reproductive system is xenogamous and bees were the exclusive pollinators. P. interior exhibits a set of floral traits that prevent self-pollination and maintains attractiveness to the bees. The greater reproductive success under natural conditions highlights the importance of bees for the reproductive success of P. interior. As far as floral traits are concerned, only the sugar concentration in the nectar does not correspond to melittophily.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine if there are any differences in the attributes and composition of the phytoplankton and epiphyton communities between organic (OF) and conventional (CF) rice fields. We also strove to identify if there were any variations in these communities by comparing samples taken from two different periods (12 and 35 days) after the application of the herbicide clomazone and penoxsulam in CF. The farms are located in the Pampa Biome, Southern Brazil. Phytoplankton samples from the subsurface water and epiphyton samples from the rice stems were analyzed using the Utermöhl method. The CF and OF had distinct environmental conditions (pH, conductivity, and turbidity values), and the residual concentration of the herbicides decreased over time. There were no significant differences in epiphyton and phytoplankton density, or in phytoplankton richness, between the rice fields; only the epiphyton richness and taxonomic composition showed differences between the rice fields. Cyanobacteria and Chlorophyceae comprised a large proportion of the epiphytic density in CF and OF, respectively. However, Bacillariophyceae and Chlorophyceae had greater phytoplankton densities in CF and OF, respectively. The taxonomic composition of communities should be considered an effective tool to show the differences between the two cultivation systems.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT During fieldwork in Serra Negra da Mantiqueira, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, a new taxon of Passiflora, subgenus Astrophea, was collected in cloud forest areas. Passiflora purii, the new species, is characterized by the conical trochlea and the totally vinaceous corona, and was named in honor of the Puri ethnic group that inhabited the mountain range where its population was located. Detailed data on the distribution, habitat, reproductive phenology, and conservation status of the new species, as well as a key to closely related taxa of subgenus Astrophea are provided.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Piper is a large genus in the Piperaceae family, with the subgenus Ottonia having about 30 species distributed in the Neotropics, most of which occur in Brazil (26 species). Ottonia is characterized by the flower densely papillate, pedicellate or sessile, with four stigmas, four stamens and 4-ribbed fruits with persistent stigmas. The recent global studies of Piper propose that all the species of Ottonia should be considered a subgenus of Piper. Beacause Brazil doesn’t have a revisionary study with the subgenus or with Piper, most of the names of the Piper subgenus Ottonia, about 100 names, need to be re-evaluated. We presented 26 species of Piper subgenus Ottonia, which one three are new species from Brazil Piper brumadinense M. Carv.-Silva & E.F. Guim., Piper cariacicaense M. Carv.-Silva & E.F. Guim., and Piper moringanum E.F. Guim. & M. Carv.-Silva. A synopsis of the Piper L. subgenus Ottonia Spreng. (Piperaceae) is presented, including diagnostics aspects and comments on species, descriptions of the new species, synonyms, lectotypes, and a key to the species and illustrations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Lowland forests, also known as tabuleiro forests, are the predominant phytophysiognomy in the Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. We inventoried the Orchidaceae present in the northern section of those forests, from the state of Rio Grande do Norte until the southern region of the state of Pernambuco. We examined specimens from seven regional herbaria and undertook field expeditions to four conservation units in the region. A total of 65 species belonging to 36 genera and to subfamilies Epidendroideae (44 species), Orchidoideae (16), and Vanilloideae (5) were identified. The most diverse genera are Epidendrum e Habenaria, with eight and seven species, respectively. Native species represented 96 % of the total observed, with 27 % being endemic to Brazil. Epiphytic (35) and terrestrial (27) species predominated; only three species are hemiepiphytic. We registered 14 new records of species for Rio Grande do Norte, two for Paraíba, and one for Pernambuco. Diagnoses of genera and species, as well as an identification key, data on geographic distribution, taxonomic and ecological comments, conservation status, and photos of the species are provided.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The vegetation cover is the result of many biological and abiotic interactions. To identify the different factors that cause changes is crucial when defining future sustainable development and protection of natural resources. In the Brazilian semiarid region, the vegetation cover has been subjected to drastic deforestation and land use at centennial-scale that has led to desertification. Pollen analysis is an efficient tool to reconstruct the different processes of degradation of the vegetation cover over time. We built a referential data set for the vegetation cover using 48 pollen surface samples collected in the reservoirs of the Ceará. We used satellite images for comparison with the pollen signatures and defined an alteration score to express the correlation between terrestrial pollen and anthropic cover. Our results showed our surface samples to be generally representative of the vegetation cover and of the general degradation of the landscape. Our study areas can be considered as degraded as the initial categories “preserved” or “intermediary” are not reflected in the pollen assemblages, in agreement with results of botanical surveys and the historical background. The on-going process of desertification is climate-independent and was initiated many decades or centuries ago by intensive land use for agriculture and grazing.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Northeastern Brazil has xerical vegetation with different biomes. Its botanical heterogeneity represents shelter for diverse fauna. The region is rich in bees, which demand the resources offered by the plants, and provide pollination services. Bee pollen has been used as a beneficial food source for humans due to its high nutritional content and being a natural antioxidant. Pollen analysis can determine the plant species visited by bees, using them as the source of pollen supply. This study aimed to identify the main pollen types present in the pollen collected by Apis mellifera in the Northeastern Brazil and to define its botanical affinity. Commercial bee pollen samples produced in the region were treated by acetolysis method, mounted on slides, and the frequency of occurrence was estimated for each type of pollen. It was possible to distinguish 113 pollen types belonging to 35 botanical families, distributed in 92 genera. Fabaceae and Asteraceae were the families that most contributed to pollen types. Pollen types of Cocos nucifera and Myrcia were found in more than 50% of the samples. The families Arecaceae and Fabaceae showed high beekeeping potential. There is a striking similarity between the pollen samples from the states of Pernambuco and Rio Grande Norte.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Justicia calycina is a subshrub well distributed in northern South America. Despite its widespread occurrence, little is known about its anatomy and plasticity in different environments. Our study aimed to evaluate how leaf anatomical traits of J. calycina adjust in forest areas with variations in canopy openness in the Southern Amazon, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Forest areas were: Open and Dense Ombrophilous Forest, and Seasonal Deciduous Forest (rocky outcrop). We performed anatomical measurements in leaves sampled on 10 individuals in each forest site, with the help of usual anatomy techniques. Foliar anatomy of J. calycina showed similar pattern among the studied forests, with significant difference (p<0.05) in four leaf traits among 22 studied: vascular bundle diameter, palisade parenchyma thickness, stomatal density and trichome density in adaxial epidermis. These leaf traits showed high plasticity index, with higher values in Dense Forest and in Deciduous Forest. Even though J. calycina showed overall little anatomical variation among forest types, the few attributes that differed are fundamental in the photosynthesis process. The adjustment in leaf anatomical traits under different luminosity conditions demonstrates a degree of phenotypic plasticity in the species, which contributes to its distribution in different forest phytophysiognomies in Brazilian Amazonia.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Galactia is a pantropical genus, which is part of the Galactia clade, and together with the genera Betencourtia, Caetangil, Cerradicola, Collaea, Lackeya, Nanogalactia, and Rhodopis, it maintains a taxonomic relationship that has already been the focus of previous studies. However, the palynology of these groups has not been extensively studied, with gaps in pollen descriptions. Thus, a palynological study of 30 species belonging to Galactia and related genera was performed. For this purpose, pollen grains were acetolized using the standard methodology, subjected to scanning electron microscopy analysis, and then quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated. Generally, pollen grains of this genera are medium or large size, isopolar or heteropolar, 3-colporate, and may have microreticulate or reticulate exine. Pollen data for Rhodopis and Nanogalactia agree with the most recently proposed circumscription of these genera. Other genera exhibited similar pollen characteristics; however, the diameter of the lumen, associated with other pollen characteristics, proved to be important for the differentiation of the genera. Thus, the pollen morphology provided information that contributes to the description of the genera, mainly Brazilian representatives of Galactia and related genera.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Attalea speciosa (babassu) is a native palm of the primary forest from Amazonian and Cerrado biomes, and has multiple economic and cultural uses. However, this palm can become dominant in open areas, with a long-term persistence in the community. The objective of this study was to compare the population structure and morphology of babassu in three habitat types characterizing forest succession: primary forest, pasture, and babaçual (babassu-dominated secondary forest). For this purpose, we monitored 6,333 individuals for three years at six life stages in 11 sites with 25 plots located in PA-Benfica, Itupiranga-Pará, Brazil. The morphological parameters showed differences between secondary environments (pasture and babaçual) and primary forests, suggesting that this species has a high capacity for phenotypic plasticity. The inverse J-shaped distribution was observed only in primary forests, with the density of all stages constant along the whole study, unlike pastures and babaçual areas. While the density of seedlings is highest in primary forests, stage 4 and 5 juveniles and adults are most numerous in babaçuals. Our results suggest that the higher dominance of A. speciosa in babaçual areas can be associated with the resilience of this species to anthropogenic disturbances.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT During our surveys of mushrooms in 2019 and 2020, an interesting species of the genus Lepiota was collected from three different areas of Punjab (Bahawalnagar, Sheikhupura, and Muzaffarghar), Pakistan. These areas vary in their altitude and somewhat climatic conditions, nevertheless, morpho-anatomical comparisons and molecular analyses proved that these collections represented the same taxon, described here as Lepiota brunneogranulosa. This new species is characterized by a pileus with a yellowish-brown central disc, with brown colored granules on a very pale brown background, dextrinoid, ellipsoid basidiospores, frequently bi-sporic basidia, and narrowly clavate cheilocystidia. Because of the hymeniform pileus covering, and the placement in the phylogeny, based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (nrITS) and Larger Subunit (LSU), it belongs to the Lepiota sect. Lilaceae.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Two new Penicillium species are reported from soil of an agroforestry system and an Atlantic Rainforest fragment in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. Using a polyphasic approach, combining partial β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM), internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) gene sequences and morphological characters, Penicillium gercinae sp. nov. (section Ramigena, series Georgiensia), and Penicillium stangiae sp. nov. (section Lanata-Divaricata, series Dalearum) are described. Descriptions based on morphological features are provided. Penicillium gercinae is phylogenetically closely related to P. georgiense; however, P. gercinae does not grow on Czapek yeast extract (CYA) and has monoverticillate and biverticillate conidiophores. Penicillium stangiae is phylogenetically closely related to P. penarojense and P. vanderhammenii. As diagnostic features, P. stangiae had slower growth on CYA (28-30 mm in 7 days) and on DG18 (6-7 mm in 7 days) and lacked the production of acid on creatine agar. This research contributes to the expansion of knowledge on the taxonomy and diversity of Penicillium species in Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Firewood is still a major source of household energy in most parts of the world, including Brazil. This study establishes baseline fuelwood consumption for domestic cooking by rural families in Bahia, Brazil, as part of a socioenvironmental project centered on stove substitution. The project, titled “Fogão do Mar” (Seaside Stove), engaged families in adopting more efficient stoves to replace the traditional open-air, rudimentary models. The study involved household visits and interviews with 103 low-income rural families to estimate firewood consumption for domestic cooking. The results showed that all households have liquid petroleum gas (LPG) stove, but most of the families prefer to use a firewood stove for cooking. The annual per capita consumption of firewood was estimated to be 1,297±952 kg, which is higher than estimate by governmental data (560 kg), as well as other rural regions. Therefore, the consumption of firewood is regionalized. Economic factors are decisive in the choice of fuel for cooking.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Pannaria hookeri (Borrer ex Sm.) Nyl. is reported as a bipolar cyanolichen that occurs in more than twenty countries in both Hemispheres. In the Northern Hemisphere, a minor variation is attributed to the species, whereas larger morphological and chemical variations have been reported in specimens from the Southern Hemisphere. Six P. hookeri DNA sequences are available in GenBank, and only one (from Australia) is associated with a published morphological description. In this study, we performed a preliminary phylogenetic analysis including seven nuITS and mtSSU sequences from eight specimens collected in south Argentina. In addition, we provide an update of the taxon circumscription based on 50 specimens from 13 countries. Here, the molecular analyses revealed a well-supported monophyletic group formed by the P. hookeri sequences from Argentina, Australia, Norway and USA (Alaska). Regarding the morphological and anatomical characteristics, the Southern Hemisphere specimens did not present the historical reported variations, resulting in the proposition of a concise species description that accomplishes most of P. hookeri known geographical distribution.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Pitcairnia is a species-rich genus with about 400 species distributed mainly in the Neotropics. We propose and diagnose a new rheophytic species of Pitcairnia, P. mineira, found in campos rupestres vegetation in the Southern Espinhaço Province (Minas Gerais State). We provide a description, including anatomical characters, illustration, distribution map, photographs, preliminary conservation assessment and comments on the distribution, habitat, phenology, and taxonomy of the new species. We also include an identification key to all species of Pitcairnia in the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Brejos de Altitude are enclaves of higher altitude humid forests in the semiarid lowlands of the North-eastern of Brazil. They present unique characteristics in terms of soil and air humidity, temperature, vegetation cover, and biodiversity. Due to these conditions, many cattle ranchers and farmers develop activities that have caused habitat loss and fragmentation of biodiversity. In this study, we aimed to describe the diversity of conidial fungi that occur in the leaf litter of the riparian vegetation in a Brejo de Altitude in Pernambuco, Brazil. Decomposing leaf material was collected from the forest floor in the dry and rainy periods of 2019, incubated in moist chambers and observed daily for fungal structures, for up to 45 days, under dissecting microscope and light microscope. Eighty-four taxa of fungi were identified, totaling 335 occurrences. The air and soil temperature, and precipitation showed an influence on the fungal community. Species richness was greater in the dry period and abundance was greater in the rainy period. The multivariate analyses revealed differences in the conidial fungi community between the dry and rainy periods. A high richness of leaf litter conidial fungal was uncovered in this area of humid forest surrounded by the semiarid vegetation of Caatinga.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for plants, as a cofactor in multi-heme cytochromes and within iron-sulfur clusters. However, Fe can be toxic at high concentrations. Free Fe in cells can disrupt the cell redox balance toward a pro-oxidant state, generating oxidative stress. The focuses of this review were to elucidate the Fe detoxification strategies used by plants, as well as describe the Fe excess effects on the plant body and its impact on the physiological, morphological and metabolic traits. Therefore, we highlight the importance of evaluating Fe toxicity and provide a paper compilation on Fe detoxification strategies and morpho-physiological responses to excess Fe, directing further research in this segment.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Diversity and distribution of flower coloration is a puzzling topic that has been extensively studied, with multiple hypotheses being proposed to account for the functions of coloration, such as pollinator attraction, protection against herbivory, and prevention of damage by ultraviolet light. Recent methodologies have allowed studies to consider the visual system of animals other than humans, helping to answer questions regarding the distribution of flower coloration. A survey of keywords in Web of Science shows floral color to be mainly studied in relation to macroevolutionary traits and biochemistry of pigments, focusing on pollination and anthocyanins, respectively. The present paper reviews mechanisms that determine the color of flowers. First, it is discussed how pigment, visual systems and signaling environments influence flower color; secondly, patterns of convergent evolution of flower color is debated, including evolutionary history, pollinator preference, flower color change, flowering season, and habitat. Third and last, patterns of flower coloration that have been found around the globe are addressed. In short, the aim is to contribute to ongoing research, by underlining mechanisms that lead to global patterns of coloration and indicating perspectives for future study on the topic.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The name Hyptis lythroides was published in early 1800, attached to a specimen member of H. sect. Polydesmia, collected in Central Goiás, Brazil. After some adjustments, generic in Hyptis and subtribal in Hyptidinae over the last 70 years, this species was recently transferred to the genus Oocephalus. For years, this name was mistakenly assigned to a species commonly found in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal and eastern Goiás, which turned out to be a distinct species, Oocephalus grazielae. Here, we propose a new combination for the name Oocephalus lythroides under the genus Cantinoa, based on morphological features and redefinition of the species limits. Additionally, a second step lectotypification is proposed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Gene flow allows connectivity of geographically isolated populations and which genetic diversity is reduced. Understanding how gene flow occurs is essential to conservation and selection of priority populations for intervention. In this study, the rates of migration and selfing of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. sampled in Cerrado fragments in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were estimated through computer simulations. Different selfing and migration rates were tested and the combination that showed values of observed and expected heterozygosity closest to those previously obtained with microsatellite markers was selected. According to the simulations, selfing and migration were low. Due to the high geographical distances among the fragments, gene flow was limited and may have led to low genetic diversity in the fragments. It is recommend enriching the area with high genetic diversity germplasm and reducing disturbance to promote the occurrence of pollinators, in order to increase the genetic diversity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Trindade Island has lost much of its original vegetation cover as a result of approximately three centuries of human occupation and intense herbivory caused by invasive mammals. Since the eradication of some of these herbivores, the recovery of some plant species has started. Plantago trinitatis is an endemic herb from Trindade Island, which was considered extinct until 1998, when it was rediscovered in the higher areas of the island. The regeneration of the species was attributed to the soil seed bank. This communication reports new records of P. trinitatis close to sea level on Trindade Island, at lower altitude than previously documented. The new records suggest that P. trinitatis is recolonizing the island, but leaves doubts whether sampling gaps in the past have led to the non-detection of the plant in its vegetative form in these locations, emphasizing that other species considered extinct may share this issue. Regardless of recolonization or sampling gaps, the eradication of invasive herbivores is necessary as a strategy to protect local flora and native vegetation. Understanding the population status can help in making decisions about the need of environmental management and species population recovery.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Andreaea subulata is a moss species that occurs throughout the Southern Hemisphere. In Brazil, it is restricted to high-altitude fields in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The last recorded collection of this species in the country was made 95 years ago in the Itatiaia National Park (INP). It was never seen or collected again since then and it was, therefore, considered ‘probably extinct’ in Brazil. Here we report the rediscovery of this species in the INP and provide information on its ecology and conservation status in Brazil (Critically Endangered) as well as conservation recommendations. The newly found population is very small and grows on granitic rocks in humid areas. The principal threat to the species in Brazil is habitat loss.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The need for grassland restoration in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, has become evident in the last two decades, when more than 1 million hectares were converted to other uses only in the Pampa region. Since then, studies have started to verify the most suitable ways to restore subtropical grasslands. Around the world, species introduction is one of the principal restoration techniques. We investigated the availability of seedlings and seeds of native grassland species in the local market and the legal framework regarding the restoration of grassland vegetation in RS. We found, in total, only seven companies that sold seedlings or seeds of nine native species from grasslands, a very limited number given the great biodiversity of South Brazilian grasslands. In addition to that, we found no criteria and procedures for grassland conversion or obligatory replacement established in legal norms for grasslands to Pampa region, as there are for forest vegetation. Without legal requirement, a market for seeds and seedlings likely will not develop and, without a market, there will be no producers, and restoration will remain limited. Our results support the need to create initiates and legislation with basic guidelines for the grassland conversion and restoration in RS.