Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT In this study, pollen grains of Harleyodendron unifoliolatum, Holocalyx balansae, and Uribea tamarindoides, three monospecific genera with Neotropical distribution belonging to the clade Exostyleae, one of the basal lineages of the family Leguminosae, subfamily Papilionoideae, were analyzed. The palynological material was acetolyzed and analyzed under light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under LM, small and medium-sized pollen grains were observed, which showed a prolate-spheroidal to prolate shape, 3-colporate, microreticulate and reticulate exine, sexine and nexine of equal thickness in Harleyodendron and Holocalyx, while the sexine was thicker than nexine in Uribea. Analysis under SEM showed finely granulate, psilate, and granulate apertural membrane, while the exine ornamentation varied from perforate-microechinate in Harleyodendron, to perforate in Holocalyx, while in Uribea showed an irregular relief and granular projections on the perforate tectum. The pollen morphology of these species is similar to each other, varying in sexine/nexine ratio, apertural membrane, and exine ornamentation. Harleyodendron has a finely granulate apertural membrane, sexine and nexine of equal thickness, and a perforate-microreticulate exine ornamentation, Holocalyx shows a psilated apertural membrane, sexine and nexine of equal thickness, and exine ornamentation perforate, and Uribea has a granulate apertural membrane, sexine thicker than nexine, and exine ornamentation with granular projections.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The Chromolaena congesta complex (Asteraceae, Eupatorieae) presents a difficult challenge for biodiversity researchers due to the intertwined connections of its species and the difficulty of establishing morphological boundaries. In this study, we aimed to use morphometric analyses to evaluate the delimitation of the taxa belonging to the C. congesta complex, identify informative morphological traits and to understand the identity of several “atypical” specimens morphologically related to the complex. To achieve this, we used cluster and principal component analysis to evaluate 50 morphological traits from a total of 210 specimens throughout the geographic distribution of the species complex. We found support for the recognition of at least six species - Chromolaena ascendens, C. gentianoides, C. hirsuta, C. latisquamulosa, C. rhinanthacea and C. squarrulosa - according to a phenetic species concept and to corroborate the restoration of three species from synonymy. Furthermore, our results provide a morphological recircumscription of C. congesta and C. elliptica and indicate two taxonomic novelties, including a new combination and a new species. Despite the answers provided by morphology, many taxonomic issues remain to be solved, and further studies with other types of evidence should be carried to contribute towards a more stable classification.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract A new species of Annonaceae, Duguetia leucotricha M.L.Bazante & Maas, from lowland to submontane forests of southern Bahia, Brazil, is described. It differs from other species of the genus mainly by the dense greyish white stellate hairs on vegetative and reproductive structures, rather widely-spaced flowers, the large bract in the upper part of the well-developed pedicel, sepals and petals almost equal in length, and the few-carpellate fruits with rounded apex of the areoles. Commentaries concerning its morphological aspects and relationships of affinity, geographic distribution, conservation status and photos are provided, as well as a key to all Atlantic Coastal Forest species of Duguetia.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT A new species of Mahabalella B. Sutton & S. D. Patil was isolated from decaying leaves of an unidentified plant, during a survey in the Charles Darwin Ecological Refuge in Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brazil, in June 2018. The new species is morphologically distinguishable from the other Mahabalella species by the size of their conidia, conidiogenous cells and setae. In this study, the morphological descriptions, illustrations and cultural characteristics for Mahabalella pernambucana are provided, as well as a key to species of this genus. Total DNA from the isolate was extracted, and four genes were partially sequenced (nLSU, ITS cluster, TEF1 alpha, and beta tubulin). Based on the nLSU analysis, the phylogenetic position of the new species was determined within the Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota, as a sister genus to Neotracylla, in the Tracyllaceae family.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Stachytarpheta is the second largest genus of Verbenaceae, mainly distributed in xeric habitats of South America. The morphological revision of South American specimens clarified the taxonomic identity of three previously accepted species from informal group Gesnerioides: S. sprucei (from the Amazon Forest domain), S. alata, and S. tomentosa (from the Atlantic Forest domain). A new taxonomic arrangement is proposed here, with the synonymization of S. alata and S. tomentosa under S. sprucei. Consequently, the newly circumscribed S. sprucei evidences a remarkable geographic disjunction, with populations separated by the Caatinga, Cerrado, and Chaco domains (the South American dry diagonal). It inhabits inselbergs, tepuis, and savannas in the Amazon Forest domain, and top of inselbergs surrounded by forest in the Atlantic Forest domain. A detailed species description, taxonomic comments, a geographic distribution map, photos of living specimens, and an identification key to the species from the Gesnerioides group are included.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Nicotiana azambujae is an endemic species from Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, that was described in 1964 and has not been seen since then. During fieldwork, we found a population in Alto Matador, about 70 km from the presumable type collection, after 73 years of its last known collection. Thus, we bring the first in vivo pictures of this species, assess its conservation status, update the morphologic description and discuss its habitat preferences. Also, we discuss a possible mistake in the type of voucher label from the originally collected locality.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The development of scaly buds (= cataphylls) has been traditionally associated with seasonally cold climates, although only few species from the southern hemisphere were investigated in this regard. The present work focuses on apical and axillary buds of seven tree species native to the South-American Temperate Rainforests (STR). Due to differences in the lineages from which these species derived, high levels of inter-specific variation in bud structure were expected. Apical and axillary buds were dissected under stereomicroscope, and the sizes of their parent shoots were evaluated. Cataphylls and leaf primordia were counted, and the presence of colleters and/or trichomes registered. Both intra- and inter-specific variations in bud structure were found. The apical buds were scaly in two out of seven species, and naked in the other species. Axillary buds were scaly in all but one species. In general terms, larger shoots developed buds with more organs. The presence of colleters (in four species) was not restricted to those buds lacking an outer cover of cataphylls. Further studies should focus on the relevance at a broader scale of colleters and trichomes as protective structures in tree buds.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The present survey of leaf-blade trichomes of Mendoncia used SEM and light microscopy to investigate the diversity of trichome types in Neotropical and Paleotropical species of the genus. The eglandular trichomes are filiform, uniseriate, with asymmetric epidermal cells arranged radially around the trichome, these epidermal cells may be short or elongated, oriented in two groups. These cells, when elongated, are covered with epicuticular wax, forming smooth thick plates. African species have dendritic but not stellate trichomes. Character states such as number and length of basal cells were shown to overlap within the same species and therefore their use in isolation is not recommended for subgeneric classification of Mendoncia. Neotropical Mendoncia trichomes with well-developed epidermal cells arranged radially around the trichome appear to be unique to this group, without parallel in other plant families.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify plant species visited by Apis mellifera L. in honey producing areas with typical Caatinga vegetation in the State of Bahia, as well as morphologically characterize pollen grains of the most representative species. Flowering specimens were collected from both areas, herborized, identified and deposited at the HUNEB herbarium. Analyses of floristic similarities were performed between eleven municipalities close to the study areas. Pollen was collected from all specimens, acetolyzed, measured, statistically analyzed, morphologically described, and photographed in light microscopy. Of the total of species recorded, 67.46 % were regarded as having beekeeping importance, with the richest botanical families being Fabaceae, Malvaceae and Asteraceae. Additionally, 37.5 % of the recorded species were herbs. The analyzed municipalities showed 84 % of floristic similarity. Of the total species recorded with visits by A. mellifera, 25.52 % had their pollen grains already described in the literature as monads, tetrads and polyads; isopolar, apolar and heteropolar; and mostly prolate spheroidal shape. Sizes varied from small to large, and the amb circular was predominant. The exine ornamentation was greatly diversified, varying from psilate to echinate. The obtained data corroborate the palynological knowledge of plants regarded as having beekeeping importance within the Caatinga.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Diploschistes pakistanicus sp. nov. is described from the Himalayan moist temperate forest, Pakistan. ITS sequences confirm its position within the genus Diploschistes and, together with its morphology and chemistry, suggest that it is separate from other species of this genus. The taxon is characterized by grey to greyish white pruinose thallus, perithecioid-type ascomata, small apothecia 0.1‒0.4 mm wide, hypothecium 20‒25µm thick, ascus of 85‒110 × 9‒17 µm in size, 3‒5 transverse and 2‒4 longitudinal septa in large ascospores 42‒55 × 18‒30; also differing from related species in ITS region.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Piptocephalis includes mycoparasitic fungi, mainly targeting mucoralean species. Until now, there has been no compilation of data on the taxonomy and geographic distribution of Piptocephalis, which is a barrier to the proper identification of species of this genus by taxonomists. The present study provides an overview of Piptocephalis with taxonomic and occurrence data, in addition to reporting P. graefenhanii and P. xenophila for the first time in South America. Both species were observed parasitizing Mucor spp. The P. graefenhanii was observed growing on paca dung and P. xenophila was observed on guinea-pig dung in Recife, northeastern Brazil. Aspects of their morphology are discussed and a key for the genus is presented.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT A new species of Petunia (Solanaceae) is described and illustrated for the Brazilian flora. Petunia toropiensis Stehmann & Larocca is known only from a few sites along the middle Toropi river basin, in the central region of the Rio Grande do Sul state. The new species is easily recognizable by its erect or ascending habit, infundibuliform corolla with yellow tube and purple limb, yellow pollen, and erect peduncle in fruiting. The species was assessed as Critically Endangered due to the narrow geographic distribution, the few populations known, and the loss of habitat quality. A key for identification of Petunia species from Rio Grande do Sul is given. We also discuss the impact of the dams on the populations of the new species and the conservation efforts needed.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Global climate change is currently a serious threat to biodiversity. The understanding of the effects of climate changes on the flora is urgent. Here, we analyze the effects of future climate change on the spatial distribution of the three remaining groups of Carapichea ipecacuanha (Poaia) in the Americas. We built niche-based models for current and optimistic and pessimistic climate scenarios projected for 2050 and 2090. Our findings showed that climatically suitable areas for the Atlantic and Amazon Forest groups will be strongly reduced. The greatest risk of extinction was observed for the Amazon group due to the drastic spatial reduction and abrupt spatial displacement of climate suitability. The climate suitability for the Atlantic Forest group will be reduced, comprising a small suitable area in the transition zone between Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo. The climate suitability for the Panama group remained in an continuous region in Panama and Colombia. Our results encourage future studies that develop conservation management plans in order to ensure the continuation of ecological refugia for this species.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Myrtaceae has ca. 6,000 species, distributed into 140 genera with Pantropical distribution. The family is one of the five most representative flowering plants in species richness in Brazilian restinga and is also of great importance for the maintenance of the ecological cycles of this vegetation. However, few studies focus on Myrtaceae in restinga, mainly in the State of Bahia, which has the country's largest coastal extension. This study aims to present the first taxonomic study of Myrtaceae from the restinga of the State of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 10 field trips were performed from September 2016 to April 2019, and the most relevant herbaria of Brazil were consulted. A total of eight genera and 85 species of Myrtaceae were identified in the Bahian restinga. Myrcia was the most representative genus with 42 species, followed by Eugenia (23 spp.), Psidium (seven spp.), Campomanesia (five spp.), Myrciaria (four spp.), Neomitranthes (two spp.), and Blepharocalyx and Calycolpus (a single species each). Two of them represented new species to science, and four presented the first records to the studied area. The distribution patterns among the Brazilian biomes and the restinga phytophysiognomies are discussed, also a checklist, identification keys, and photographic plates are provided.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Within the last decades, phytoplankton biomass has significantly risen in many lakes worldwide. Global warming was proposed as the most probable cause of the discovered effect. In this work, attention was paid to other drivers than just global warming, in particular, variability in solar radiation to explain this unexpected diatom shift. Here, we use a combination of paleolimnological, dendrochronological and meteorological datasets, as well as local pollution information, to analyze the recent growth of diatom total abundance in Lake Rabbvatnet (69.7º N, 30.5º E, Northern Norway). The results show that the diatoms of the genus Aulacoseira were most abundant in the top layers of the sediment core. On the contrary, the biomass of small-sized Cyclotella species, which, as a rule, should grow simultaneously with warming, has decreased over the past decades. We suggest basing on the experimental data analysis (comparison of diatom abundance with solar irradiance and heavy metals, testing of air temperature trends) that the recent growth of the total diatom abundance observed in the subarctic Rabbvatnet Lake could be mainly due to an increase in photosynthetically active spectral solar irradiance fluxes in the visible and infrared ranges.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Intra-annual distribution of precipitation in central Amazonia often leads to a short mild dry season and an increase in irradiance, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit; however, the accurate effect of intra-annual microclimatic variability on stem growth is still under investigation. The objective of this study was to determine how stem growth responds to monthly variations in microclimatic factors in the central Amazon. During five years (2008-2012) we measured diameter stem growth of 109 trees (26 species) and used principal component regression to evaluate the effect of microclimatic variability on stem growth in diameter. We found that the mean stem growth in diameter across species increased in response to an increase in rainfall and reference evapotranspiration, but it decreased with a rise in mean and minimum vapor pressure deficit. A contribution of this study is to show that even when irradiance and temperature had no significant effect on stem growth, small changes in vapor pressure deficit significantly affect stem growth. If the dry season becomes longer, as predicted by models, trees currently more sensitive to microclimatic variability associated with droughts would be the most affected by climate changes.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Deforestation requests to government decision-makers aim for the legal permission to remove secondary forests for economic reasons. In the State of Rio de Janeiro, Resolução Conama nº 06/1994 drives the analysis of successional stages of such forests. It does not define which inclusion criterion (diameter at breast height) should be used in forest inventories. We used Floresta da Cicuta as a case study to evaluate the influence of different inclusion criteria on species richness, diversity and structure parameters having Resolução Conama nº 06/1994 as background. Using Hill numbers, we found that the DBH ≥ 2.5 cm highlighted species richness. Species richness is improperly addressed in Resolução Conama nº 06/1994. The use of DBH ≥ 2.5 cm detected 30 individuals of threatened species, while DBH ≥ 10 cm detected only nine. Basal area was the most accurate parameter to identify the successional stage. Mean DBH and mean height misidentified successional stage. We strongly advise environmental authorities to demand the use of DBH ≥ 2.5 cm in forest inventories for deforestation requests. We strongly encourage the review of Resolução Conama nº 06/1994 by environmental authorities in order to reduce the risk of mistaken classification of successional stage of secondary forests.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The campo rupestre in the Espinhaço Range is subject of many floristic studies due to its high rates of species diversity and endemism. These studies are made up of critical, easily accessible data about local richness and biodiversity, which are essential for subsidizing new studies in the fields of conservation, ecology, and systematics. This study describes the results of a survey of floristic studies carried out in the Espinhaço Range and provides a checklist of the plant species listed in them. We found that 294 floristic studies were conducted in the Espinhaço Range, but they were focused only on a few areas. Likewise, we detected sampling gaps in some areas. The Floras studied provide information on 3,191 plants or 6,3% Brazilian flora, of which 2,879 are angiosperms, 247 bryophytes, and 65 lycophytes and ferns. Finally, we observed a lack of standardization regarding the habits reported for angiosperms shrubs and subshrubs which is more problematic for Espinhaço’s flora because of its grasslands or shrublands vegetation. Thereby, we reaffirm the importance and need to encourage new floristic studies in the Espinhaço Range as a means to train new taxonomists and to provide new studies and projects.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Dalechampia seccoi is a new endemic species of Euphorbiaceae from the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil. Here we describe and illustrate the new species. Collections of botanical material, and standard herbarium practices were applied. The new species is vegetatively similar to D. alata, D. erythrostyla, D. pentaphylla, D. violacea, and D. purpurata, however it is distinguished by exclusive characters such as involucral bracts 4‒5-lobed, pinkish, staminate sepals vinaceous, resin darkish and stigma yellow lobed to crateriform. The new species is restricted to Seasonal Semideciduous Forest with altitudes of ca. 700 m from Caparaó, south of the state of Espírito Santo. In addition, we provide field photographs, preliminary conservation status assessments using IUCN Red List guidelines, as well as a checklist and key for morphological correlated species.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract As part of an ongoing treatment of species of the Brevantherum clade of Solanum, a new species from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil was discovered and is described here. Solanum helix Giacomin & Stehmann sp. nov. is a species well represented in herbaria that has been overlooked for almost two centuries. It has a unique expanded non-inflated fruiting calyx that resembles a propeller and that is not found in any unarmed species of Solanum. This discovery highlights the importance of continued herbarium and field work in hyperdiverse ecosystems, such as the Atlantic Forest in South America. Taxonomic affinities are discussed and images, as well as mapped distribution, are given. A key to closely related species for NE Brazil is also provided.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In the present study we propose a new Catasetum taxon belonging to the group of species with symmetrical and converging antennae. It was found in a vegetation of “terra firme” and “campinarana” in the central Brazilian Amazon. A detailed description of the taxon is given as well as a photograph plate and comments relating to distribution, habitat, phenology and conservation status. It is compared to C. rivularium and C. barbatum which are sympatric species and somewhat similar to the new taxon. Furthermore, we present a key to Catasetum species with symmetrical and convergent antennae occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract A nomenclatural type is the element to which a name is permanently linked and must consist of a gathering, or part of a gathering, of a single species or infraspecific taxon. However, sometimes more than one species may be mounted on a single herbarium sheet (‘Frankenstein type’), causing a nomenclatural confusion (admixture) in the use of a name, which creates difficulties on the delimitation of the species and application of its name (‘taxonomic headache’). This is the case of the assigned holotype to Mimosa asperoides Izag. & Beyhaut that is composed also of other Mimosa species. To solve the ‘Frankenstein type’ of Mimosa asperoides, we analyzed the original material, the protologue, and performed a morphological comparative analysis to distinguish the species involved in the admixture. These analyses allowed us to identify which of the fragments of the ‘Frankenstein type’ correspond to M. asperoides, enabling its lectotypification and providing new diagnostic features to amend its description. Finally, we reported the first citation of M. asperoides for Brazil and discussed the link between nomenclature and taxonomy to solve a taxonomic headache due to admixture.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The species of the Passiflora (Passifloraceae s.s.) are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions and are of great ecological importance. The Serra do Mar is formed of large escarpments along Brazil’s east coast, between the States of Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul. This study aims to point out occurrences of Passiflora species in herbaria along the Serra do Mar, in addition to evaluating the conditions of each specimen found. The richness and sample effort maps were prepared to establish the locations where the greatest numbers of species and records were encountered. We evaluated the relationship of species distribution through Canonical Correlation (CCA) and Quadratic Polynomial Analysis. We also evaluated the floristic composition using a cluster analysis. Calculations of the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) and Area of Occupancy (AOO) were performed for endemic species to the Atlantic Forest area occurring in the Serra do Mar. A total of 53 species, belonging to the Passiflora were found in the Serra do Mar. The States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo were the ones that recorded the greatest numbers of species and collection effort. The climatic variables Precipitation of the Driest Quarter and Annual Average Temperature are the most correlated to the distribution of Passiflora in the area. Twenty-two species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest area, and 21 are recorded as having some degree of threat on Official Lists. In this study, we present all the Passiflora species recorded for the Serra do Mar, the richness of species, including those endemics to the Atlantic Forest, demonstrates the importance of the area for conservation.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Among species of the genus Dyckia Schult. & Schult. f. there are 13 endemic species of the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina informally treated as the Dyckia selloa complex. This study employed standard plant anatomy techniques to investigate variation in leaf morphology of species belonging to the genus Dyckia with a focus of establishing characters that help delimit the Dyckia selloa complex. The results allowed the survey of morphological and anatomical characters important for the characterization of species. Such characters include color of spines, the presence of water-storage parenchyma and mechanical hypodermis on both leaf surfaces, and the presence of tetracytic stomata on only the abaxial surface. Analyses support the current delimitation of the complex and recommend the investigation of reproductive and/or vegetative organs to better understand the relationships among these species of Dyckia.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Pterodon emarginatus Vogel and P. pubescens (Benth.) Benth. are phylogenetically related trees that compose a clade of sister species abundant in the Brazilian Savanna. Despite their morphological differences, some individuals with intermediate morphological characteristics have been reported, indicating the formation of interspecific hybrids. This study proposed to evaluate the genetic structure and controlled pollination of individuals of P. pubescens and P. emarginatus in areas of sympatry with the presence of putative hybrids. For this purpose, we genotyped seven microsatellite loci from 61 individuals collected from four apparent contact zones between P. pubescens and P. emarginatus. Controlled pollination experiments were performed on 4,133 flowers from six trees of P. emarginatus and five of P. pubescens. We observed two genetic clusters (k= 2) that corroborate the divergence between P. pubescens and P. emarginatus. The individual genetic assignment showed evidence of natural hybridization between P. pubescens and P. emarginatus. The genetic assignment did not fully support the visual description of the diagnoses of individual morphological characteristics. Controlled interspecific pollination generated fruit and seed production, possibly indicating the absence of a reproductive barrier at the pollination and ovule fertilization levels between these species. Our results enlarge the understanding of the diversification process of Pterodon species.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the structure, diversity, composition and drivers of AMF communities in succession areas of Atlantic Forest. Soil and root samples were collected in three natural ecosystems (mature rainforests, early and late secondary forests) with three areas on each ecosystem. In total, 38 AMF taxa were identified in field samples and three more in trap cultures with a greater richness of Acaulospora and Glomus. Based on a richness estimator, 70% of the AMF species were identified. Highest rates of root colonization and number of glomerospores were recorded in the early secondary forest. AMF species diversity differed between early and late forests. The main drivers of AMF distribution were coarse and fine sand, silt, Al, P, Na, pH and base saturation. The greatest number of exclusive species was recorded in the mature rainforests. The distribution of AMF communities was influenced by different successional stages and some soil attributes.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract During a survey of mucoralean fungi in soil from an upland forest area located in Pernambuco, Brazil, a strain of Backusella (URM 8637) was isolated. Based on morphological, physiological, and molecular data [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA regions], it was recognized that this Backusella differed from all other species in the genus. Morphologically, the new species is characterized as forming varied-shaped columellae, including elongated, basally constricted, unisporate (rare) and multisporate sporangiola, and ellipsoidal sporangiospores. The maximum temperature growth of URM 8637 on malt extract agar and potato dextrose agar was 36 °C. In the phylogram, it was closely related to B. constricta. Based on the evidence from the analyzed datasets, a new species of Backusella is proposed. An updated identification key for Backusella from the Americas is provided.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Scaphyglottis Poepp. & Endl. (Orchidaceae) is a neotropical genus with 78 species, 14 of which are found in Brazil. Some of these taxa have an intricate taxonomy, especially due to the morphological similarity among species and the existence of species complexes. Our study aims to test if the labellum shape, the main source of species diagnostic characters, can confirm the proposed circumscription of Brazilian species of Scaphyglottis. We analyzed 136 flowers from 12 species, to which we applied 12 landmarks, using a geometric morphometrics approach. Our results show that most species can be distinguished. Most of the variation is observed in the claw and apices of labellum lobes, confirming that the labellum is important tool in taxon distinction. Species with distinctly 3-lobed labellum showed some overlap but, for these taxa, we have found distinction specially in the lateral lobes. Our study showed new morphologically variable features in Scaphyglottis that can be used in future taxonomic studies. For widely distributed species we suggest a population-level approach, as local environmental factors can impact morphology, causing expected intraspecific variation.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Serjania is the largest genus of Sapindaceae in the Americas; however, studies on its distribution are lacking. Current knowledge is based largely on the distribution pattern of the genus in Brazil, suggesting that species in wet areas have wider distributions than those in open or drier ones. Additionally, species in drier zones have been found to occur in various ecosystems, indicating niche specialization to resist hydric stress. In this study, we aimed to update the distribution pattern information for Serjania using Bolivia as a reference due to its diverse environmental conditions. We estimated species richness, identified environmental factors influencing species distribution, and created niche models. Our results confirm the previous hypotheses proposed by Acevedo-Rodríguez. We found that species occurring in dry zones are present in several ecosystems, all of which are Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests that are adapted to narrow ranges of temperature and rainfall regimes. Furthermore, our current and future projections show that the distribution of Serjania in South American Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests will become more interconnected. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the distribution of Serjania and its ecological requirements for its conservation and management in the future.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Lathyrus is an economically important genus, with different parts of some species used as foodstuff or animal feed. In this study, phytochemical compositions and bioactivities of Lathyrus brachypterus var. brachypterus, L. brachypterus var. haussknechtii, L. nivalis subsp. sahinii and L. tefennicus taxa which are endemic to Türkiye were investigated. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC, TFC) of methanolic extracts were detected. Then, phytochemical compositions, antioxidant features (radical scavenging (DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ABTS: 2,2′-azino-bis(3 ethylbenzothiazoline) 6 sulfonic acid), reducing power (FRAP:Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, CUPRAC:Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), metal chelating activity (MCA), and the phosphomolybdenum assays (PDA)) and enzyme inhibitory properties of the extracts were also determined. The highest values were found at L. brachypterus var. brachypterus for TPC, L. brachypterus var. haussknechtii for TFC. The highest antioxidant properties were seen in extracts of L. brachypterus var. brachypterus in DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC and PDA assays, while in extract of L. nivalis subsp. sahinii in MCA. The highest enzyme inhibitory activity was found in extract of L. brachypterus var. brachypterus in tyrosinase and glucosidase assays, while in extracts of L. nivalis subsp. sahinii in AChE (acetylcholinesterase), BChE (butyrylcholinesterase) and amylase. Finally, a taxonomic evaluation was made by considering the phytochemicals.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Mollinedia (Monimiaceae) presents numerous microendemic species, and its centre of diversity is in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, where more than half of the species occur. The taxonomy of microendemic species can be challenging because their morphological and genetic variations can be interpreted as a response to geographic isolation rather than a circumscription for different species. In this paper, we describe Mollinedia pignalii Lírio & Pauli, a microendemic species from the Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Vegetatively, M. pignalii is similar to Mollinedia elegans Tul. and Mollinedia schottiana (Spreng.) Perkins; however, it presents the following differences: white-puberulous leaves, staminate flowers with a flat receptacle and 6 to 14 stamens, white-puberulous pistillate flowers with a cupuliform receptacle and 8 to 22 carpels, and white-puberulous drupelets. Due to the similarity between the three species, M. pignalii has been collected and deposited in herbaria under different names. Here, we describe the new species based on morphology and genome size, a comparison with similar species, and ecological comments in an integrative approach. We also provide its conservation status and an identification key for the species of Monimiaceae occurring in the state of Espírito Santo.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Stachytarpheta is one of the largest genera of Verbenaceae, found mainly in the campos rupestres of Brazil. We describe a new species, Stachytarpheta lajedicola, and report for the first time the occurrence of the genus in limestone outcrops. The new species is endemic to the Caatinga domain, northern Minas Gerais state, growing in an open karst formation of the municipality of Matias Cardoso, locally known as Lajedão. Its main diagnostic characteristics are the branches with well-developed longitudinal edges, leaves with attenuate to caudate apex, and inflorescences with linear bracts, exceeding the calyx in length. We provide a detailed description, illustrations, photographs, a geographic occurrence map, and comparisons with the morphologically similar species. Stachytarpheta lajedicola may be considered Critically Endangered (CR), and the biological importance of Lajedão and the conservation of the new species are discussed.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Changes in climate, which can be understood as fluctuations in climate patterns as a reflection of natural or anthropic interventions, can generate changes in the environment and consequently affect the diversity of organisms. Fungi are extremely important in organic matter cycling in different environments, mainly forest areas, decomposing dead wood. To better understand the effects of climate change on two wood-degrading Agaricomycetes, their potential neotropical distribution was modeled using known occurrence data, available in the GBIF database and in specific literature, and associated with predictor variables extracted from Worldclim. A modeling package in R environment was used to analyze the present and future suitability for the optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. The results indicate the climate as an important factor in the distribution of Auricularia brasiliana and Megasporoporia neosetulosa. The suitability factors for the metrics used indicate that the models can be used to analyze climatic areas and that temperature and precipitation strongly influence the permanence of species in these locations. The results also indicate areas that can be affected by climatic effects, consequently causing a decrease in the occurrence and permanence of these fungi in the Neotropics. Our models can be useful as future guidelines in conservation studies for fungi.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Epixylic bryophytes - colonizers of decaying logs - are the third most endangered group of these plants, but few studies have been focused on them. Thirty logs in the proximity of three trails in a nebular forest in the Serra da Bocaina National Park in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were sampled. Our objective was to study and compare the composition of the communities in three levels of decomposition (10 plots per level): X = initial (solid wood and intact cortex); Y = intermediate (partially soft wood with cracks) and Z = advanced (completely soft wood with undefined shape). To compare the floristic relationships among plots, we used Sørensen’s similarity coefficient and phytosociological parameters. We found 74 species of bryophytes (40 genera and 24 families), 80% of which were pleurocarpous mosses. The results showed no preference of the species for any level of decomposition and no spatial structure (similarity x distance). We conclude that epixylic bryophyte species in Atlantic Forest are generalists and colonize different types of environments and substrates.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The structure of urban secondary forests and their potential for meliponiculture in the eastern Amazon was studied in the municipality of Belterra, Pará. The sampling was carried out in 25 plots of 40 m2 in two areas (0.1 ha) of secondary forests (SF), in which three classes of DBH values were considered (C1:1 cm ≤ DBH ≤ 5 cm; C2: 5 cm < DBH ≤ 10 cm and C3: DBH ≥ 10 cm). a total of 230 individuals were registered in SF I, comprising 66 species and 27 botanical families and 185 individuals in SF II, comprising 43 species distributed in 24 botanical families. The highest richness and abundance were verified for C1, followed by C2 in both areas. In SF I, the basal area values (G=1.509) were higher than in SF II, while the total volume (V=20.21) was higher than SF I, the mean height for C3 was higher in SF II, and C1 and C2 were higher in SF I. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was higher in SF I (H = 3.722) than in SF II (H=3.197). It was observed that 75% species have bee pollination systems (mellitophilous flora) and are thus considered sources of honey resources.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Limited experiential contact to natural environment can affect the knowledge of the local flora and, consequently, the intentions to conserve it. Therefore, this study aims to analyze whether high school students from Teresina (PI-Brazil) can identify more species of native than exotic plants and the factors that can affect this ability. 333 students from state public schools were interviewed through semi-structured questionnaires and with printed images of 20 species of plants found in the region. The data were analyzed using univariate non-parametric statistics. The results show that living in the countryside positively influenced the identification of local flora, but there was no significant difference in the number of identified plants between students who attended botany classes and those who did not. Two native plants (cashew-96.7% and pitomba-91.9%) and three exotic plants (mango-90.7%, guava-94.9% and acerola-82.0%) stood out among the most identified plant species. It was also found that, for two species of native plants very important for the State of Piauí, the caneleiro (0.6%) and the carnauba (26.7%), the identification rates were scarce. Thus, it is necessary to use Environmental Education and the teaching of Botany to prioritize native plant species, valuing local ecology and ensuring their protection.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Calilegua National Park is located in the Southeast of the province of Jujuy, Argentina. It is comprised of different districts within the Yungas Biogeographic Province, where conditions are optimal for fern development. The palynological studies with light microscopy in this area are very limited. The aim of this work is to present the morphology of spores from 42 taxa belonging to 9 families of isosporate ferns that grow in this protected area. The study was carried out with herbarium material. The families studied are Anemiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Athyriaceae, Blechnaceae, Cyatheaceae, Cystopteridaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Dryopteridaceae, and Equisetaceae. According to the spore aperture type, 35 taxa are monolete, five trilete, and two alete. The spores are yellowish, light to dark brown or brown greenish. The largest spores belong to Anemia australis and the smallest to Asplenium argentinum. Equinate, folded, cristate, alate, reticulate, ridged, psilate, verrucate, and baculate spores were observed. For the first time, the spores of 27 species are illustrated under a light microscope. An identification key of the spores is also provided. The morphological characteristics of the spores allowed for the identification of 23 species, contributing to spore bank analysis, aeropalynological and paleopalynological studies, and taxonomic identifications.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The Itatiaia National Park protects important Atlantic Forest remnants as well as a large number of rare bryophyte species. We reassessed the conservation status of 45 species of endemic and/or threatened mosses occurring in high-altitude fields in the Park. The conservation analysis followed the International Union for Conservation of Nature guidelines. The GeoCAT software was used to calculate the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) and Area of Occupancy (AOO). The threat vectors were characterized based on field observations and data from the literature. After the reassessment, 31 species were considered threatened, with 16 being considered vulnerable (VU), seven critically endangered (CR), and eight endangered (EN). Two species were considered “near threatened” (NT) and three were considered “data deficient” (DD), and seven were considered “least concern” (LC). The main threats in that region are wildfires and excessive tourism - factors that lower habitat quality and reduce their EOO and AOO. Recommendations to minimize imminent losses of the local bryoflora include incentives for research and microhabitat protection. Our results are designed to aid in the elaboration of conservation strategies for mosses in the Serra da Mantiqueira mountains.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Eleocharis multinerviglumis, a new species of Eleocharis ser. Tenuissimae (Cyperaceae) known only from the Poços de Caldas plateau in southeastern Brazil, is described here. The new species was found growing in an Atlantic Forest remnant as a submerged or emergent herb in a flooded environment. Eleocharis multinerviglumis differs from other Eleocharis ser. Tenuissimae species mainly by having dimorphic spikelets, with the upper glumes of the spikelets on the culm apex with 7 to 10 prominent longitudinal nerves on both sides (rib-like). Taxonomic notes, an occurrence map and illustrations (including SEM images) are provided.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Mandevilla calcicola, endemic to limestone formations in Goiás state, Brazil, is described. A key and photos for all Mandevilla species reported in Goiás and Distrito Federal, Brazil, are included. This new species is assessed as Critically Endangered (CR). A short note on the occurrence of geophytes in rauvolfioids and apocynoids (focused on Mandevilla) and its taxonomic value is included.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The genus Microbryum is recorded for the first time in Argentina, with a single species Microbryum davallianum. The species differs from others in the genus mainly by stegocarpous capsules, long setae and spore ornamentation. A description, photographs and illustration of the species are provided.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT A new species, Curcuma tuanii (Zingiberaceae), is described and illustrated from Hoa Binh Province northern Vietnam based on both the morphological and molecular data. The species is morphologically compared with its closest allies from subgenus Ecomata. Additionally, the anatomical structures of the species were provided.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract It is presented the first taxonomic study of the tribe Coreopsideae (Asteraceae) in Northeastern Brazil. A total of seven genera and 16 species were recorded in the region, with Bidens being the richest genus (8 spp.). Bidens tenera and Cosmos bipinnatus were recorded for the first time to the region, and Heterosperma ovatifolium represents the first record to Brazil. Bidens, Chrysanthellum, and Dahlia are taxonomically problematic that is reflected by several misidentifications found in the herbaria collections. Coreopsis, Cosmos, and Dahlia species are cultivated as ornamental but are scarcely represented in the herbaria. This study provides a checklist, an identification key to all species, in addition to discussing the importance of studying alien species for a better understanding of the Brazilian flora.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Dry conditioning and sucrose pulsing are techniques used to improve the durability of flower stems. Dry conditioning helps to balance the osmotic potential of the flower stems and can be applied after harvest and transportation. The objective was to evaluate how different dry conditioning times followed by sucrose pulsing may affect the postharvest quality, durability, and physiological aspects of torch ginger flower stems. For this purpose, flower stems were collected and submitted to dry conditioning for different periods: 0-h, 3-h, 6-h, 12-h, and 24-h. Every 3 days, visual quality, percentage of true flowers, absorption rate, water content, fresh and dry weights, and colorimetric parameters were evaluated. The concentration of pigments, biochemistry of the antioxidant system, and macromolecules were analyzed. Dry conditioning for more than 12-h is not recommended as it leads to a loss of quality and durability in torch ginger flower stems and accelerates senescence. The absorption rate decreases and pigments break down after this period, while H2O2 and lipid peroxidation concentrations increase. Furthermore, sugar and protein reserves are consumed during senescence. It is recommended to hydrate harvested stems immediately to avoid the negative effects of dry conditioning on postharvest quality and durability.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The present study analyzes the relationship between people and plants in the caatinga region of Northeastern Brazil, considering the influence of socio-economic factors on different categories of plant use in the community. Thus, it aims to associate socio-economic factors and knowledge in the use dynamics of medicinal, food and timber plants in Brejo da Conceição community, Currais, Piaui, Brazil. The data set was obtained through semi-structured interviews, interviewing one-hundred-one persons: 46 women and 55 men. A generalized linear model analyzed socio-economic factors influencing the knowledge of plants, built using Poisson distribution and having as explanatory variable age, gender, number of residents in household and education; as a response variable, the number of plants cited per respondent. To better understand the distribution of plants in use categories, we verified which species are the most important locally and, for that, we calculated the plants’ Cultural Importance Index and Relative Importance Index. The interviewees cited 126 plant species. Among these species, 74 were native, and 52 were naturalized. Overlapping the categories of use, the most prominent species in the categories medicinal and food, according to the indices of cultural importance (CI) and relative importance (RII), were the buriti palm tree (Mauritia flexuosa L.f.), orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.). For the overlap of medicinal and timber uses, catinga de porco stood out (Terminalia brasiliensis (Cambess.) Eichler) and birro de cangalha (Diplopterys sp.). The lemon balm herb stood out as its medical use (Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Br. ex Britton & P.Wilson). Just the number of residents and gender factors influenced the plants’ knowledge of Brejo da Conceição in medicinal use, food and wood resources. Given the complexity of current discussions that guide related to these characteristics, the proposed results can serve as a reference for future research that incorporates more aspects of local ecological knowledge, including analyzing other essential variables that shape the distribution of knowledge in the distinct categories of use.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The type of Elettaria brasiliensis was discovered at the herbarium in Pisa. The Italian naturalist Giuseppe Raddi collected this in Brazil in 1818 and published the name in 1828 and placed it in the genus, the type of which is green cardamom, E. cardamomum, native to Indian subcontinent. A close examination reveals that it belongs in the African-Neotropical genus Renealmia. As the epithet is already occupied, Raddi’s species will be a synonym of Renealmia chrysotricha and thus there is no taxonomic implication of the discovery. This species is endemic in the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil, where the seeds are used for medicinal and other purposes and referred to as Brazilian cardamom. We include a list of eight synonyms, two of which are new, an updated description including recent photographs taken in the wild, a distribution map and a preliminary Red List assessment following IUCN criteria. Lectotypes are designated for Elettaria brasiliensis and Renealmia reticulata and a neotype for Renealmia pycnostachys.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The internal structure of seeds is relevant to germination, seedling establishment, and early plant growth. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether internal seed structure can influence germination and initial growth in four native woody species of the Cerrado. The species chosen for this study were Anadenanthera falcata, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Stryphnodendron polyphyllum, and Tabebuia aurea. Seeds were dissected to evaluate: the lengths of the hypocotyl-radicular axis, the epicotyl and the embryonic axis, mass of the cotyledons and the embryonic axis, and eophyll number (preformed organs). Another group of seeds was germinated in a greenhouse for sixty days to verify the emergence of the epicotyl, eophylls, metaphylls, and to measure seedling biomass. Only A. falcata presented a plumule with differentiated eophylls. Anadenanthera falcata germinated before the other species in the greenhouse and had faster epicotyl and leaf emergence. Possibly, the presence of eophylls inside the seed enabled A. falcata seedlings to carry out photosynthesis, grow faster, and accumulate more aerial biomass than the other species soon after emergence. The presence of eophylls in a differentiated embryo (as in A. falcata) may hasten germination and favour seedling establishment.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Climate influences species distribution and selects different morphological traits. The Chaco biome has climatic gradients, leading us to question morphological trait distribution. Using Fabaceae as a study model, we aimed to understand how the dispersal traits of this family, such as fruit types, dispersal syndromes and dispersal units, are distributed along the climatic gradients in the Chaco. We performed a spatial analysis in order to generate spatial predictors and thus identify on which spatial scales climate and soil variables are relevant to the distribution of the traits. Also, we used Threshold indicator rate analysis to identify the variation of the traits along the gradients. Temperature seasonality, precipitation seasonality, and annual mean precipitation are significant predictors of the distribution of the analyzed traits. Anemochory and barochory show the occurrence of reductions in intermediate gradient values for temperature seasonality. Regarding precipitation seasonality, craspedium showed greater reductions. At intermediate values of the rainfall gradient, we observed an increase in the occurrence of drupes and follicles. Craspedium increases in drier regions. Understanding the dispersion patterns of Fabaceae, a group of significant ecological and ethnological relevance in the Chaco, should contribute to the consolidation of conservation plans in different dry forest areas in South America.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Convolvuloideae is a group of plants formed by genera with n = 15 and high stability of chromosome numbers. Despite being stable, polyploidy is the main mechanism of karyotype evolution for the group and seems to be related to speciation events. The present work aimed to comparatively analyze the karyotypes of diploid species from Convolvuloideae, with emphasis on Ipomoea, using fluorochrome banding and genome size. New counts were recorded for five species belonging to Camonea and Ipomoea, all with 2n = 30. The basic number x = 15 has been suggested for Convolvuloidae. The first genome size records are presented here for the genera Camonea, Distimake and Stictocardia, as well as for six species of Ipomoea. Genome size ranged from 1C = 0.78 pg in I. bahiensis to 1.38 pg in Distimake dissectus. Two types of heterochromatin bands were identified in Convolvuloideae, CMA+ bands were the predominant type, while DAPI+ bands were less frequent, with four banding variation described. Small genome sizes and stable chromosome numbers possibly represent evolutionarily strategies associated with adaptation and speciation in the clade, while the implications of heterochromatin variation remain unknown.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Brazilian biomes, such as the Atlantic Forest, are hotspots for microbial diversity. Fungi at some stages of their life cycle can inhabit the interior of plants without apparent damage and are called endophytes. This study aimed to verify the culturable diversity of endophytic fungi present in the leaves of Miconia mirabilis in a conservation unit of the Atlantic Forest, in Northeast Brazil. A total of 273 endophytes were isolated, and 88 % of the estimated richness was recovered from 40 taxa with a Shannon diversity index of H′ = 2.79. The most abundant order was Xylariales (37.73 %), with Xylaria cf. cubensis being the most abundant species, followed by Glomerellales (14.65 %), Eurotiales (3.66 %), and Diaporthales (3.33 %). Additionally, a novel endophytic fungal species of Muyocopron was identified. Our results indicate the potential of endophytic diversity in the plants of tropical forests, reinforcing the need for further studies to better understand their ecological relationships.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Species of Opuntia (prickly pears), widely propagated for human use, are present in many agroforestry systems. Like other perennials, they are subject to environmental pressures that influence their reproductive ecology and reproductive output. Here, we studied floral biology, breeding system, and flower-bee interactions of Opuntia atropes, which is subject to management, to better understand its reproductive ecology. We documented floral phenology, morphology, and mating system by observing live flowers, measuring fixed flowers, and performing pollination treatments. We recorded frequency, behavior, and floral visitors’ handling time to determine the most effective pollinator. Opuntia atropes has large, herkogamous flowers and high P/O ratios. These traits promote outcrossing, which was supported by the results of pollination treatments. Fruit weight and seed set exhibited moderate pollen limitation. Floral visitors comprised nine bee species. Diadasia sp. was the most effective pollinator according to frequency and behavior. Opuntia atropes shows preferential outcrossing through pollination by a specialist bee despite being in a modified habitat. Pollen limitation and variation in reproductive success may lead to mating system evolution in O. atropes. The observed bee diversity suggests that O. atropes is an important source of floral resources in the dry season in semi-arid environments under moderate human disturbance.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The anatomical attributes of young stems and leaves of newly formed shoots were studied for five Patagonian species of Myrtaceae: Amomyrtus luma, Ugni molinae, Luma apiculata, Myrceugenia exsucca and M. ovata var. nannophylla. The latter three species are more common in periodically-flooded areas than the former two. The vascular cambium and the first cork cambium of a shoot become active at about the same time, two months after budbreak. The cork cambium derives from cells located towards the inside of the perivascular fibers in A. luma, L. apiculata and U. molinae, and towards the outside in M. exsucca and M. ovata. Crystals and starch deposits were found in cortex, ray parenchyma and pith of all species. Total vessel area relative to total xylem area was higher in Myrceugenia spp. and L. apiculata than in A. luma and U. molinae. Interspecific differences in leaf anatomy concerned midvein structure and the development or not of substomatal chambers delimited by column-like cells (found only in Myrceugenia spp.). The anatomical traits of young shoots allow the distinction between species of this family and may contribute to explain each species’ ecological affinities.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The growth in the number of molecular sequences produced in recent years has provided valuable contributions to the knowledge diversity of red algae (Rhodophyta) in Brazil. However, many works indicate that there is still much to be studied. Here, we highlight the importance of compiling all these data to evidence possible taxonomic and geographic knowledge gaps in red algae through molecular data. So, this study presents a scientometric analysis of the molecular studies carried out on red algae in Brazil, based on the analysis of DNA sequences available in the public database GenBank. Our results demonstrated an increase in published papers from 1994 to 2020, corresponding to 165 studies analyzed. A huge disparity in the production of knowledge was observed, with the southeastern region concentrating the researchers responsible for most of the published studies, with emphasis on those in the University of São Paulo (USP). Bahia and São Paulo states stand out with the highest observed taxonomic richness, respectively. We also could identify the taxonomic groups with more molecular data generated, the sequence number deposited per institution since 1994, the main markers used, the regions that require a greater collection effort, and where the researchers who study red algae in the country are.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Microsatellites are short sequence repeats that make up the genomes of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. They are of great importance as DNA markers for studies in several fields of genetics. In the present review, we searched for studies published in the five years period of 2017 to 2021 regarding the use of microsatellites in studies with forest tree species from the Brazilian biomes, in order to examine the importance of these markers for forest resources conservation. We searched scientific papers in journals indexed on the Scopus and Web of Science databases. There were found 38 peer reviewed articles that used microsatellites in the Brazilian biomes. The Atlantic Forest was the biome with more studies (35.9 %) and most of the studies were published in 2018 (34.2 %). In addition, most of the studied species belonged to the Fabaceae family (34.2 %). The conclusions and recommendations made in these studies ratify the great contribution of microsatellite markers in the conservation of native forest species in Brazilian biomes.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Solanaceae comprises many species complexes, taxonomically challenging lineages that require specialized effort to be reliably delimited, and thus develop a reasoned hypothesis at the species level. To obtain an overview of aspects that permeate species complexes studies in Solanaceae, we collected and summarized details of selected works, resulting in 83 published articles comprising nine genera. Solanum, the most studied genus, spans all explored biogeographic realms, characterized by taxonomic complexity related to its long history of domestication. Capsicum is a unique case due to the adoption of complexes as an indicator of gene pool, while Petunia can potentially serve as a model for the use of species complexes to improve evolutionary knowledge given their phylogeographic studies. The Neotropical region concentrates the majority of research and presents the highest number of genera studied. Morphometrics is the main applied approach probably due to its low cost, followed by population genetics, reproductive biology, phylogeny, and others. Most studies do not present taxonomic decisions or apply integrated methods. We encourage studies with some neglected genera that may have hidden species complexes; a major effort to resolve the Solanum nigrum complex; and the use of effective, less applied fields of study such as ecology and palynology.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Vascular epiphytes stand out in tropical forests in terms of diversity. However, no comprehensive review of the group in the Amazon region has been performed so far. We carried out a literature review on the scientific knowledge of vascular epiphytes in the Amazon aiming to identify the main gaps, limitations and perspectives for studies on the subject. Searches were conducted in Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science using inclusion and exclusion criteria. 291 articles published in the period 1933-2022, mostly the 21st century, were included in the review. Brazil was the most studied country. However, knowledge gaps were found in regions located in the Brazilian arc of deforestation as well as in areas of Bolivia, Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname. There was a predominance of studies related to the floristics, systematics and biogeography of spermatophytes and ferns, focusing on the diversity and taxonomy of certain families (e.g. Orchidaceae). However, we found gaps for more comprehensive research, considering population dynamics, dominance (biomass), guidelines for evaluation of epiphyte and systematization of data for Amazon. We indicate the need of studies focused on ecology, floral and reproductive biology, biochemistry, phytochemistry, anatomy and physiology. Future research should also consider the impacts of current trends in deforestation and climatic changes on the diversity of vascular epiphytes in the Amazon.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract We investigated the literature to find the bioactive compounds’ profile of Brassicaceae microgreens and the influence of different production systems and the elicitors use in its overall quality. For this, a summary of the latest progress in bioactive compounds qualification and quantification are presented in the relevant databases. Determining the exact role of production systems is not a straightforward process, although it seems to have greater influence according to the intended plant. From the nutritional point of view, the microgreens production demonstrates a high content of bioactive compounds. The use of elicitors, as one of the dependent variables, appears to increase the concentrations of bioactive compounds, especially the use of the light. Besides that, the conditions of growth, harvest and processing remain crucial factors that should be considered in the successful development of the seed.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Baru tree (Dipteryx alata) is an arboreal, fruitful plant native to the Cerrado biome with an important socioeconomic impact. Populations of this species are a good model to study anthropogenic disturbances on the biome through the genetic information. In this study, we developed seven new polymorphic microsatellite markers for D. alata, using an enriched genomic library. We performed loci characterization in three populations, obtaining a total of 49 alleles, with an average of 5 to 5.57 alleles per locus. A significant content of polymorphic information was obtained, as indicated by the average expected heterozygosity (uHE), with a total average of 0.58 to 0.65 per locus. The average value of the observed heterozygosity (Ho) was also high, with a total average of 0.73 to 0.85 per locus. Some of the loci are in linkage disequilibrium, such as DalatG6 with DalatB3, DalatH3 and DalatB4. The estimate of the combined loci for the probability of paternity exclusion obtained an average value of 1.00 for all loci, and the average combined probability of identity, the values were (1.210^-5) to (4.410^-6). All markers are informative and suitable for studies on genetic diversity and population structure, aiming at the conservation and management of the species.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The assessment of plant extinction is strongly influenced by the number of populations and the number of localities found for the species target. A larger population and a large number of localities, the results of the assessment will be easier to conclude. However, if the population and location of the plant are not known, even if there is only one location recorded in the herbarium, then there is a challenge in determining the final result of the assessment. This paper will reveal the challenges and the final results of the assessment where only one location is known based on the herbarium records. The species is Beilschmiedia lancifolia Miq. The species was first published in 1852 collected from Mount Ungaran, Indonesia. There have been no additional records of B. lancifolia since its first collection. To update the conservation status of the species, we conducted population assessment in Mount Ungaran using a focused survey method. In spite of the intensive surveys on each side of Mount Ungaran within the species’ known elevation range, we could not find a single individual of B. lancifolia. Based on our findings, we proposed to add the Possibly Extinct (PE) to the present status of B. lancifolia.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The Myrtaceae family is home to several species of economic and ecological importance, but many are in areas of constant environmental degradation, demanding studies aiming at the conservation status evaluation or other characteristics of interest. One of the widely used tools for these purposes is SSR markers. This study sought to evaluate the transferability of 11 new SSR markers characterized in Eugenia uniflora to 14 different species of the family Myrtaceae. Out of the 11 markers tested, nine were amplified in at least one of the examined species. For seven species, this is the first report of cross-species transfer of SSR markers. These markers may contribute to the characterization of the genetic diversity of the species and planning policies for the conservation and breeding of these genetic resources.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT This work aimed to examine the germination and initial growth of Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell.) Bureau ex Verl. seedlings at different pH values. pH of the deionized water was adjusted with hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide to 4.7, 5.7, 6.7, 7.7 and 8.7. The following parameters were evaluated: final germination percentage (GP), germination speed index, time required for 50% germination, germination rate, viability of the remaining seeds and length of the radicle. All parameters were reduced in alkaline pH. Maximum germination of 94% was reached in the treatment control, followed by pH 4.7. At alkaline pH (7.7 - 8.7), GP was 43 and 31%, respectively. Therefore, at these pHs, germination was reduced. We provided direct evidence that pH is a limiting factor for germination and for the radicle growth of Z. tuberculosa seedlings. In addition, we show experimental evidence of why this species is widely distributed in the Cerrado biome, where the soils are more acidic, and the relationship between soil composition and high germination in acidic medium was corroborated with this study. We suggest that the germination test at different pHs be included in reforestation programs with native species to predict the establishment of seedlings in soils with different pH.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The shape of the galls can be adjusted by factors such as natural enemies and climatic conditions to which the galls are subjected. Studies that evaluate the climatic regime as a possible driver of the morphology of galls are scarce and do not consider Neotropical systems. To fill this knowledge gap, this study evaluated the influence of seasonality on the morphology of Cecidomyiidae galls induced on Myrcia neoobscura (Myrtaceae) growing in the Cerrado of Bahia. A total of 270 galls were sampled during the dry and rainy seasons. The average monthly precipitation was obtained. The galls were refrigerated, weighed, and measured within 72 h of collection. The average weight of the galls ranged from 0.106 g to 0.780 g; while, the volume ranged from 35.07 mm3 to 726.70 mm3 and the surface area from 20.03 mm2 to 719.57 mm2. The average weight, volume, and surface area of galls were approximately 50% higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. These three variables were also positively related to average precipitation. These results support the hypothesis that seasonality may contribute to the observed variation in the final shape of galls on a local scale.