Salt Preference is Linked to Hypertension and not to Aging

Patrícia Teixeira Meirelles Villela Eduardo Borges de-Oliveira Paula Teixeira Meirelles Villela Jose Maria Thiago Bonardi Rodrigo Fenner Bertani Julio Cesar Moriguti Eduardo Ferriolli Nereida K. C. Lima About the authors

Abstract

Background:

Seasoning is one of the recommended strategies to reduce salt in foods. However, only a few studies have studied salt preference changes using seasoning.

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to compare preference for salty bread, and if seasoning can change preference in hypertensive and normotensive, young and older outpatients.

Methods:

Outpatients (n = 118) were classified in four groups: older hypertensive subjects (OH) (n = 32), young hypertensive (YH) (n = 25); older normotensive individuals (ON) (n = 28), and young normotensive (YN) (n = 33). First, volunteers random tasted bread samples with three different salt concentrations. After two weeks, they tasted the same types of breads, with seasoning added in all. Blood pressure (BP), 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (UNaV, UKV) were measured twice. Analysis: Fisher exact test, McNamer’s test and ANCOVA. Statistical significance: p < 0.05.

Results:

Systolic BP, UNaV, and UKV were greater in HO and HY and they had a higher preference for saltier samples than normotensive groups (HO: 71.9%, HY: 56% vs. NO: 25%, NY; 6%, p<0.01). With oregano, hypertensive individuals preferred smaller concentrations of salt, with reduced choice for saltier samples (HO: 71.9% to 21.9%, and HY: 56% to 16%, p = 0.02), NO preferred the lowest salt concentration sample (53.6% vs. 14.3%, p < 0.01), and NY further increased the preference for the lowest one (63.6% vs. 39.4%, p = 0.03).

Conclusions:

Older and younger hypertensive individuals prefer and consume more salt than normotensive ones, and the seasoned bread induced all groups to choose food with less salt. Salt preference is linked to hypertension and not to aging in outpatients.

Keywords
Aged; Aging; Salt Tolerance; Food Preferences; Sodium Chloride,Dietary/adverse effects; Flavoring Agents

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