References and illustrations: proper organization

Maria Lucia Brandão

Faculdade de Educação da Universidade Federal Fluminense - Rio de Janeiro, RJ - Brazil

Mailing Adress

The publication of scientific papers necessarily implies references to be included – which is not always an easy task. It may be an even a harder task when guidelines vary from one journal to another, with new types of requirements. It may even turn to be unstimulating when updatings must be checked and consulted quite frequently.

The Brazilian Society of Cardiology (SBC) – attentive to the interests of members and collaborators – decided to have the updating of guidelines published to serve as an easy, helpful tool to be used by all those interested.

The guidelines set forth by the SBC for the Brazilian Cardiology Archives have been harmonized with those of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors – also known as the Vancouver School. Such decision relies on the fact that those are the guidelines used by most international journals. Last update was done in October, 2005, and is available in its full version at: <> or at <>.

The presentation of guidelines in this paper tries to be very didactic, and uses examples to illustrate corresponding norm. Therefore, all the reader has to do is watch proper punctuation, spacing, capitalization or non-capitalization – which is to say, it is much easier for consultation when working on the checklist.

Guidelines also include norms for illustrations. The initiative meets the need for proper manuscript illustration formatting (Figures, Tables and Charts), thus avoiding unnecessary doubts.

In addition to organization convenience, reference and illustration systematization will certainly contribute for improved quality of manuscripts submitted to SBC for publication.


The Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT) has defined reference as a set of standard patterns of descriptive elements from a document to allow individual identification (ABNT, Aug, 2002).

The Brazilian Archives of Cardiology use cardinal sequency numbering for references, written out in superscrit number, and listed at the end of the article ranked in order of appearance in the text. Abbreviations of journals names comply with Index Medicus, of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), available at:


1. Scientific Articles Published in Journals

• Up to 6 authors: cite all

Vasconcellos DV, Duarte ME, Maia RC. Efeito antitumoral dos bisfosfonatos: uma nova perspectiva terapêutica. Rev Bras Cancerol. 2004;50(1):45-54.

• More than 6 authors: cite 6 first authors, followed by the expression et al.

Mattos LA, Sousa AGMR, Chaves A, Feres F, Pinto I, Tanajura L, et al. Influência da pressão de liberação dos stents coronários implantados em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio. Análise pela angiografia coronária quantitativa. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2003;80(3):250-59.

• If there is no issue number or volume, please ignore

No issue number

Gifford Jr. RW. Management of hypertensive crises. JAMA.1991;266:829-35.

There is no volume

Turan I, Wredmark T, Fellander-Tsai L. Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Orthop. 1995;(320):110-14.

There is neither volume nor issue number

Browell DA, Lennard TW. Immunologic status of the cancer patient and the effects of blood transfusion on antitumor responses. Curr Opin Gen Surg. 1993:325-33.

• If there is Supplement, or Part, please indicate accordingly

Supplement is in volume

Webber LS, Wattigney WA, Srinivisan SR, Berenson GS. Obesity studies in Bogalusa. Am J Med Sci. 1995;310 (Suppl 1):S53-61.

Supplement is in issue

Payne DK, Sullivan MD, Massie MJ. Women's psychological reactions to breast cancer. Semin Oncol. 1996;23(1 Suppl 2):89-97.

Part is in volume

Mayland C, Allen KR, Degg TJ, Bennet M. Micronutrient concentrations in patients with malignant disease; effect of the inflammatory response. Ann Clin Biochem. 2004;41(Pt 2):138-41.

Part is in issue

Poole GH, Mills SM. One hundred consecutive cases of flap lacerations of the leg in ageing patients. N Z Med J. 1994;107(986 Pt 1):377-78.

• Reprints

Reprints are to be transcribed as published.

Lion MF, Andrade J. Drogas cardiovasculares e gravidez. Separata de: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia. São Paulo 1981;37(2):309-40.

• A groups of researchers as author

BARI Investigators. The bypass angioplasty revascularization investigation. Comparison of coronary bypass surgery with angioplasty in patients with multivessel disease. JAMA. 1997;277:715-21.

• Institution / organization as author

Sociedade de Cardiologia do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Diretrizes para a Abordagem das Síndromes Coronarianas Agudas sem Supradesnível de ST. Rev SOCERJ. 2000;13 (Supl B):1-20.

• Unknown author, start by title

21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ.2002;325(7357):184.

• Abstract / Summary / Editorial

Lofwall MR, Strain EC, Brooner RK, Kindbom KA, Bigelow GE. Characteristics of older methadone maintenance (MM) patients [Abstract]. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;66(Suppl1):S105.

• Forthcoming, please indicate at the end of reference

Leshner AI. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine addiction. N Engl J Med. In press 1997.

Souza Fº O. Cirurgião oncológico, fator de prognóstico no tratamento do câncer. Rev Bras Cancerol. No prelo 2004.

2. Books and other monographs

• Individual Author(s)

Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

• Editor(s), organizer(s), coordinator(s) as author(s)

Gilstrap LC, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP (eds). Operative obstetrics. 25th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.


1. If there is more than one location for one publishing house, only the first location is to be cited;

2. If there are two publishers, both are to be cited, with corresponding locations;

3. A book must be cited in the language it was published (2nd ed or 2ed).

• Institution / Organization as Author

Sociedade Brasileira de Hipertensão, Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia, Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia. IV Diretrizes Brasileiras de Hipertensão Arterial. São Paulo: BG Cultural; 2002.

• Book Chapter

Zanella MT. Obesidade e fatores de risco cardiovascular. In: Mion Jr D, Nobre F (eds). Risco cardiovascular global: da teoria à prática. 2ed. São Paulo: Lemos Editorial; 2000. p.109-125.

• Thesis / Dissertation

Brandão AA. Estudo longitudinal de fatores de risco cardiovascular em uma população de jovens [Tese de doutorado]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; 2001.

Roussoulières ALS. Insulinemia de jejum e sua relação com a pressão arterial casual e com a avaliada pela monitorização ambulatorial em uma população de adultos [Dissertação de mestrado]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro; 1997.

3 Annals / Minutes / Scientific Events Proceedings

• Event as a whole

I Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Hipertensão; 1992. São Paulo. Livro de Resumos. São Paulo: Sociedade Brasileira de Hipertensão; 1992.

• Papers presented at scientific events

Magalhães MEC, Pozzan R, Brandão AA, Cerqueira RCO, Roussoulières ALS, Szwarcwald C, et al. Early blood pressure level as a mark of familial aggregation of metabolic cardiovascular risk factors. The Rio de Janeiro Study. Proceedings of the XIII World Congress of Cardiology; 1998 Apr 26-30; Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998;31(5 Suppl C):408C.

4. Other Publications

• Dictionary / Encyclopedia Catalogue or Similars

Ferreira ABH. Novo Aurélio Século XXI: o dicionário da língua portuguesa. 3ed. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira 1999. p.1040.

Houaiss A (ed). Enciclopédia Mirador Internacional. São Paulo: Melhoramentos 1975. 20v. p.5747.

• Legislation (laws, provisory measures, decrees, and similars)

São Paulo (Estado). Secretaria do Meio Ambiente. Diretrizes para a política ambiental do Estado de São Paulo. São Paulo; 1993.

Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Portaria nº 3535/GM de 2 setembro 1998. Diário Oficial da União 3 set 1998; seção 1:75-77.

Brasil. Medida provisória nº 1569-9 de 11 dezembro 1997. Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil. 1997; Seção 1:29514.

• Journals as a whole

Revista da Sociedade de Cardiologia do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro: SOCERJ 2002;15(4). Trimestral.

• Article or newspaper story (interview, review, story, and others)

Marinho A. Imunização pode prevenir alergia a alimentos. Jornal do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro 30 mar 2003; Seção Jornal da Família; p.3.

• Atlas / Maps and Other Cartographic Documents

Stary HC. Atlas of atherosclerosis: progression and regression. New York: Parthenon Publishing Group;1999. p.89.

Pratt B, Flick P, Vynne C (cartographers). Biodiversity hotspots [Map]. Washington: Conservation International; 2000.

• Audiovisual Material (videocassette, DVD, films and others)

Chason KW, Sallustio S. Hospital preparedness for bioterrorism [videocassette]. Secaucus (NJ): network for Continuing Medical Education; 2002.

Sociedade Brasileira de Hipertensão. Departamento de Ligas de Hipertensão Arterial. Hipertensão ou Pressão alta [3 videocassetes]. São Paulo (SP); 2002.

• Iconographic Documents (transparencies, slides, photographs, pictures, and others)

O que acreditar em relação à maconha [31 diapositivos color. + 1 cassete sonoro]. São Paulo (SP): CERAVI 1985.

Kobayashi K. Doença dos xavantes. [1 fotografia color.].1980.

5. Electronic Materials


Koogan A, Houaiss A (eds). Enciclopédia e dicionário digital 98. [5 CD-ROM]. São Paulo (SP): Delta; Estadão 1998.

Sites finder: an easy way to find important cardiovascular websites in the internet. Cardiovascular. [1 CD-ROM]. Zurich (Switzerland) 2000.

ESC Congress 2003. Abstracts [1 CD-ROM]. Amsterdam (The Netherlands): Conifer 2003.

• Internet Sources

Ministério da Saúde [homepage na Internet]. Secretaria Executiva. Datasus [acesso em maio 2005]. Informações de Saúde. Morbidade e informações epidemiológicas. Disponível em: <>

Sabroza PC. Globalização e saúde: impacto nos perfis epidemiológicos das populações [anais eletrônicos] In: IV Congresso Brasileiro de Epidemiologia 1998. Rio de Janeiro; Abrasco 1998 [acesso em janeiro 1999]. Disponível em: <>

Foley KM, Gelband H (eds). Improving palliative care for cancer [monograph on the Internet]. Washington: National Academy press; 2001 [cited 2002 jul 9]. Available from:



Illustrations are an integral part of manuscript development, and play a key role in the expression and in the synthesis of ideas.

They are to be placed as closely as possible to the section they refer to, except when, for space reasons, that may not be possible. Illustrations are to be numbered in citations. Ex: Figure 1, Chart 5, Table 7.

Illustrations comprise: Figures, Tables and Charts.

1. Figures

• Figures are visual images to illustrate manuscript text, and comprise graphs, photographs, charts, flowcharts, and others;

• They should be circumscribed to indispensable information for best communication; they should be self-explanatory as well;

• Figures are to be sequencely numbered in arabic cardinals as manuscript is developed, irrespective of the type of figure;

• Identification is to be placed at the bottom of figure, and contain: Figure + sequence number + title. Title and legend (if any) should be in smaller font size as compared to manuscript;

• Figures should allow good quality graphic reproduction; if sent via the internet, they should be sent in one of the following formats: .jpg / .tif / .eps ;

• For good graphic quality reproduction, it is recommended that images taken from opaque originals be scanned in at least 300dpi resolution;

• Color or black and white images (photos, graphgs, figures, etc) should be in .jpg / .tif / .eps format, at least 14cm x 21cm in size. Best reproduction will be obtained if authors send in original photos and slides to graphic designer;

• Special attention is required when using special keyboard formats (F1 and F2 keys) due to differences in different programs. PowerPoint or Excel are not recommended for image generation, since they will produce low resolution files.

• Color figures will be restricted to the indispensable;

• Graphic design (ECG, Holter, ergometric and hemodynamic tests, etc) must be photocopied with good level contrast and be reduced to allow comfortable reading;

• Figures should not exceed 9cm x 12cm when published;

• Figures are to be placed at the end of manuscript, as independent listing on separate sheets, with corresponding numbers and following sequence as in manuscript. Proper position of figures are to be indicated by arrows;

2. Tables

• Tables are a synthetic, demonstrative element and autonomous units. They are the organized records of results from previous calculations and usually present statistic information;

• Formatting requires lines and columns, but no lateral closing; no frame is to be used for lateral limits;

• Tables are to be sequencely numbered in arabic cardinals, along manuscript text;

• The title should be short and clear, placed at the top of the table, and include: Table + sequence number + title. Legends (if any) are to be placed at the bottom part of the table. Both the title and the legend are to be in smaller font size as compared to manuscript;

• For good graphic quality reproduction, it is recommended that tables keep generation measures as described for Figures. It is recommended that tables are organized following "Table" in Word Menu.

• Tables are to be placed at the end of manuscript, as independent listing, on separate sheets, with corresponding numbers and following the sequence as in manuscript.

3. Charts

• Charts are also a special type of illustration; they are used for schematic presentation of text-based information;

• Formatting requires frames; lines and/or columns may be used;

• Charts are to be sequencely numbered, in arabic cardinals, as manuscript develops;

• The title should be placed at the top of the chart, and include: Chart + sequence number + title. The title, as well as legends (if any) of charts are to be in smaller font size as compared to manuscript;

• It is recommended that charts are organized following the "Table" in Word Menu.

• The charts are to be placed at the end of manuscript, as an independent list, on separate sheets, with corresponding numbers as in manuscript.


A RCPM faz parte do esquema geral de tratamento médico, devendo sempre ser considerada dentro deste contexto. Portanto, para o seu início impõe-se o encaminhamento e consentimento do médico assistente. Cabe ao coordenador/responsável médico a liberação do paciente para iniciar as atividades e a alta de cada fase da reabilitação, sempre em sintonia com o médico assistente do paciente.

These Guidelines are based on the following references:

1. International Committee of Medical Journals Editors [homepage on the Internet].Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Sample references [cited 2005 Out. 30]. Available from: <>

2. Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. NBR 14724:2002. Informação e documentação – Trabalhos acadêmicos – Apresentação. Rio de Janeiro: ABNT ago 2002. 6p.

3. Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. NBR 10719:1989. Apresentação de relatórios técnico-científicos. Rio de Janeiro: ABNT ago 1989. 9p.

4. Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. NBR 6023:2002. Informação e documentação – Referências – Elaboração. Rio de Janeiro: ABNT ago 2002. 24p.

5. Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. NBR 10520:2002. Apresentação de citações em documentos . Rio de Janeiro: ABNT ago 2002. 17p.

Mailing Adress

Maria Lucia Brandão

Rua Abade Ramos, 107/101

22461-090 – Rio de Janeiro, RJ - Brazil


Received on 02/15/05

Accepted on 03/07/05

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    13 Feb 2006
  • Date of issue
    Jan 2006
Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC Av. Marechal Câmara, 160 - 3º Andar - Sala 330, 20020-907, Centro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - Brazil, Tel.: +55 21 3478-2700, Fax: +55 21 3478-2770 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil