Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To compare single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging scans using 201Tl and 99mTc-MIBI in detection of viable myocardium, in regions compromised by infarction. METHODS: Thirty-two (59.3±9.8 years old and 87% male) myocardial infarction patients were studied. All had Q waves on the ECG and left ventricle ejection fraction of <50%. They underwent coronary and left ventricle angiographies and SPECT before (including 201Tl reinjection) and after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Improvement in perfusion observed after surgery was considered the gold standard for myocardial viability. RESULTS: Among 102 studied regions of the heart, there were 40 (39.2%) areas of transient perfusion defects in the conventional protocol with 201Tl and 52 (51.0%) after reinjection. Therefore, 12/62 (19.4%) more viable regions were identified by reinjection. Using 99mTc-MIBI, only 14 (13.7%) regions with transient defects were identified, all of which were seen also in 201Tl protocols. After surgery, 49 of a total of 93 regions analyzed (52.7%) were viable. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative prediction values were, respectively, 201Tl SPECT scans - 65.3%, 90.9%, 77.4%, 88.9% and 70.2%, reinjection protocol with 201Tl scans - 81.6%, 81.8%, 81.7%, 83.3% and 80.0%; 99mTc-MIBI SPECT scans - 20.4%, 90.9%, 53.8%, 71.4% and 50.6%. Logistic regression demonstrated that the reinjection protocol with 201Tl was the best predictor of viability (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the election of 201Tl for viability studies, especially when using the reinjection protocol.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: A double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study involving 34 centers from different Brazilian regions was performed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of trandolapril, an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, in the treatment of mild-to-moderate systemic arterial hypertension. METHODS: Of 262 patients enrolled in this study, 127 were treated with trandolapril 2 mg/day for 8 consecutive weeks, and the remaining 135 patients received placebo for the same period of time. Reduction in blood pressure (BP) and the occurrence of adverse events during this period were evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: Significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic pressures were observed in patients treated with trandolapril when compared with those on placebo. Antihypertensive efficacy was achieved in 57.5% of the patients on trandolapril and in 42% of these normal values of BP were obtained. The efficacy of trandolapril was similar in all centers, regardless of the area of the country. In a subset of 30 patients who underwent ABPM, responders showed a significant hypotensive effect to trandolapril throughout the 24 hour day. The adverse event profile was similar in both trandolapril and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate, for the first time in a large group of hypertensive patients from different regions in Brazil, good efficacy and tolerability of trandolapril during treatment of mild-to-moderate essential systemic hypertension.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate echocardiography accuracy in performing and obtaining images for dynamical three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. METHODS: Three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction was obtained in 20 consecutive patients who underwent transesophageal echocardiography. A multiplanar 5 MHz transducer was used for 3D reconstruction. RESULTS: Twenty patients were studied consecutively. The following cardiac diseases were present: valvar prostheses<FONT FACE="Symbol">-</FONT>6 (2 mitral, 2 aortic and 2 mitral and aortic); mitral valve prolapse<FONT FACE="Symbol">-</FONT> 3; mitral and aortic disease <FONT FACE="Symbol">-</FONT> 2; aortic valve disease<FONT FACE="Symbol">-</FONT> 5; congenital heart disease<FONT FACE="Symbol">-</FONT> 3 (2 atrial septal defect<FONT FACE="Symbol">-</FONT> ASD - and 1 transposition of the great arteries -TGA); arteriovenous fistula<FONT FACE="Symbol">-</FONT> 1. In 7 patients, color Doppler was also obtained and used for 3D flow reconstruction. Twenty five cardiac structures were acquired and 60 reconstructions generated (28 of mitral valves, 14 of aortic valves, 4 of mitral prostheses, 7 of aortic prostheses and 7 of the ASD). Fifty five of 60 (91.6%) reconstructions were considered of good quality by 2 independent observers. The 11 reconstructed mitral valves/prostheses and the 2 reconstructed ASDs provided more anatomical information than two dimensional echocardiography (2DE) alone. CONCLUSION: 3D echocardiography using a transesophageal transducer is a feasible technique, which improves detection of anatomical details of cardiac structures, particularly of the mitral valve and atrial septum.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To characterize the risk profile for atherosclerosis (AS) in adolescents and young adults of a private university in São Paulo. METHODS: Clinical, nutritional, and laboratory parameters were evaluated in 209 students of both genders aged 17 to 25 years. In addition to determination of the lipid profile, the association of its abnormal values with other risk factors for AS was also investigated. RESULTS: Increased levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglycerides (TG) were observed in 9.1%, 7.6% and 16.3% of the students, respectively, and decreased levels of HDL-C in 8.6% of them. Prevalence of the remaining risk factors analyzed was elevated: sedentary life style (78.9%); high intake of total fat (77.5%); high cholesterol intake (35.9%); smoking, hypertension (15.8%) and obesity (7.2%). There was an association between elevated LDL-C and TG levels and sedentary life style and body mass index. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of risk factors for AS in young individuals draws attention to the need for adopting preventive plans.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To develop a stereological comparison between right (RV) and left ventricle (LV) myocardium during the third human gestational trimester. METHODS: Five human fetal hearts of the third trimester provided representative samples of 5 RV myocardium and 4 LV myocardium. The material was fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde, and processed through routine methods. Fifteen microscopic fields were randomly chosen and counted in each ventricular myocardium using an "M-42" test system. The following stereological parameters were assessed: Vv (%), Lv (µm²), Sv (µm²/µm³), Vp (µm³), Nv (1/mm³) and total N. RESULTS: No significant difference between the stereological parameters of the myocardial structures assessed was evidenced, when comparing RV and LV. CONCLUSION: Right and left human ventricular myocardium are very similar during the fetal period at least in regard to their structural aspects.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess the results observed during the early postoperative period in patients who had the posterior coronary arteries revascularized without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), in regard to the following parameters: age, sex,bypass grafts types, morbidity and mortality. METHODS: From January 1995 to June 1998, 673 patients underwent myocardial revascularization (MR). Of this total, 607 (90.20%) MR procedures were performed without CPB. The posterior coronary arteries (PCA) were revascularized in 298 (44.27%) patients, 280 (93.95%) without CPB. The age of the patients ranged from 37 to 88 years (mean, 61 years). The male gender predominated, with 198 men (70.7%). The revascularization of the posterior coronary arteries had the following distribution: diagonalis artery (31 patients, 10%); marginal branches of the circumflex artery (243 patients, 78.7%); posterior ventricular artery (4 patients, 1.3%); and posterior descending artery (31 patients, 10%). RESULTS: Procedure-related complications without death occurred in 7 cases, giving a morbidity of 2.5%. There were 11 deaths in the early postoperative period (mortality of 3.9%). CONCLUSION: Similarly to the anterior coronary arteries, the posterior coronary arteries may benefit from myocardial revascularization without CPB.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To report the result of patients treated with IV methylprednisolone divided into three groups and compare their follow-up during the last 12 years. METHODS: Seventy children with active rheumatic carditis (76 episodes) in heart failure Class III and IV (NYHA) were studied. The diagnosis was based on modified Jones' criteria. After ruling out infections and strongyloidiasis, treatment with IV methylprednisolone bolus was started three times a week until the laboratory tests became negative. Patients were divided into 3 groups, according to the time of hospital admittance: Groups 1, 2 and 3, comprising of 40, 18 and 12 children, respectively. RESULTS: Eighteen children in Group 1 (45%) were in their 1st attack: 2 series of pulsetherapy were used in 10 (25%), 3 in 9 (23%) and 4 in 21 (52%). In Group 2, 14 cases (77%) were in their 1st attack: 2 series were used in 7 (39%), 4 in 9 (50%) and 5 in 2 (11%). The echocardiogram showed a flail mitral valve in 12 (66%) of these patients (1 death occurred after mitral valvoplasty). In Group 3, 6 patients needed 5 or more series of pulsetherapy and a flail mitral valve was present in 5 (41%). One child underwent mitral valve replacement while still in the active phase, after 8 series of pulsetherapy, and another died. The number of patients who needed 5 or more series was significantly higher in Group 3. CONCLUSION: There were variations in the presentation and evolution of the cases during these 12 year. The established pulsetherapy protocol continues to be useful to treat severe cases.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To assess the presence and the prevalence of arrhythmias and the variability of the heart rate in the medium-term postoperative period following the maze procedure for chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Seventeen patients with a mean age of 51.7±12.9 years, who previously underwent the maze procedure without cryoablation for chronic atrial fibrillation, were evaluated with the 24 hour electrocardiogram (ECG) - Holter monitoring from the 6th month after the operation. Valvular and coronary procedures were concomitantly performed. RESULTS: The mean heart rate during Holter monitoring was 82±8bpm; the maximal heart rate was 126 ± 23bpm and the minimal heart rate 57±7bpm. Sinus rhythm was found in 10 (59%) patients and atrial rhythm was found in 7 (41%). Supraventricular extrasystoles had a rate of 2.3±5.5% of the total number of heartbeats and occurred in 16 (94%) patients. Six (35%) patients showed nonsustained atrial tachycardia. Ventricular extrasystoles, with a rate of 0.8±0.5% of the total heartbeats, occurred in 14 (82%) patients. The chronotropic competence was normal in 9 (53%) patients and attenuated in 8 (47%). The atrioventricular conduction (AV) was unchanged in 13 (76%) patients and there were 4 (24%) cases of first degree atrioventricular block (AVB). CONCLUSION: After the maze procedure, the values for the mean heart rate, AV conduction and chronotropic competence approach the normal range, although some cases show attenuation of the chronotropic response, first degree AV block or benign arrhythmias.
Abstract in English:We describe here two patients with angiographic diagnosis of intrastent restenosis and regional myocardial ischemia. One stent restenosis was located in a native coronary artery and the other in a vein graft. Both were treated with cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA), inflated at low pressures. Angiographic success was obtained and both patients were discharged in the day after the procedure. Cutting balloon angioplasty using low inflation pressures achieved important luminal gains, in these two cases of intrastent restenosis. Further studies are necessary before the effectiveness of this procedure can be precisely defined.
Abstract in English:Only rarely do myxomas originate from the mitral valve. This is the report of a 49-year-old woman presenting with congestive heart failure. The diagnosis of an intracardiac tumor involving the anterior cuspid of the mitral valve was made by transesophageal echocardiography. The patient underwent surgery for tumor resection and plasty of the valve was made with reconstruction and preservation of the valve. The diagnosis of myxoma was confirmed by histology. This is the 23rd case of myxoma of the mitral valve reported in the literature.