Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Anatomical and functional assessment of the heart through Doppler and echocardiography in patients with cell anemia (SCA). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with SCA and ages ranging from 14 to 45 years were prospectively studied in a comparison with 25 healthy volunteers. All of them underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation and Doppler echocardiography as well.The measurements were converted into body surface indices. RESULTS: There were increases in all chamber diameters and left ventricle (LV) mass of the SCA patients. It was characterised an eccentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle. The preload was increased (left ventricle end-diastolic volume) and the afterload was decreased (diastolic blood pressure, peripheral vascular resistance and end-systolic parietal stress ESPS). The cardiac index was increased due to the stroke volume. The ejection fraction and the percentage of the systolic shortening , as well as the systolic time intervals of the LV were equivalent. The isovolumetric contraction period of the LV was increased. The mitral E-septum distance and the end-systolic volume index (ESVi) were increased. The ESPS/ESVi ratio,a loading independent parameter, was decreased in SCA, suggesting systolic dysfunction. No significant differences in the diastolic function or in the pulmonary pressure occurred. CONCLUSION: Chamber dilations, eccentric hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction confirm the evidence of the literature in characterizing a sickle cell anemia cardiomyopathy.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Comparative analysis of the in-hospital results after primary implantation of stents or coronary balloon angioplasty in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: CENIC (National Center of Cardiovascular Interventions) gathered data on 3,924 patients undergoing coronary angioplasty (in the primary form, without the previous use of thrombolytic agents) in the first 24 hours after a MI, during the period of 1996-1998. From these 3,924 patients, 1,337 (34%) underwent stent implantation. We analyzed the success of the procedure and the occurrence of adverse cardiac events. RESULTS: In patients undergoing stent implantation there were more males (77% vs 69%, p=0.001), previous by pass surgery (6.3% vs. 4.5%, p=0.01), anterior MI and stent implantation in left descending artery (55% vs. 48% vs. p=0.009), and saphenous vein bypass grafts (3.3% vs. 1.9%). the procedure was more succesful in the group of stents (97% vs. 84%, p=0.001) and reinfarction rate (2.5 vs. 4%, p=0.002). The need for emergency revascularization was similar (1% vs. 1.1%, NS). Total in-hospital mortality was lower in stent group (3.4% vs. 7. 2%, p=0.0001) and this effect was in patients Killip class III/V (19.5% vs. 32.5%, p= 0.002) because there was no difference in patients class I/II (1.7% vs. 2.8%, p=0.9). CONCLUSION: Primary stent implantation in acute myocardial infarction showed better early results than balloon angioplasty alome.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To describe a new more efficient method of endocardial cardiac stimulation, which produces a narrower QRS without using the coronary sinus or cardiac veins. METHODS: We studied 5 patients with severe dilated cardiomyopathy, chronic atrial fibrillation and AV block, who underwent definitive endocardial pacemaker implantation, with 2 leads, in the RV, one in the apex and the other in the interventricular septum (sub pulmonary), connected, respectively, to ventricular and atrial bicameral pacemaker outputs. Using Doppler echocardiography, we compared, in the same patient, conventional (VVI), high septal ("AAI") and bifocal ("DDT" with AV interval ~ 0) stimulation. RESULTS: The RV bifocal stimulation had the best results with an increase in ejection fraction and cardiac output and reduction in QRS duration, mitral regurgitation and in the left atrium area (p <= 0.01). The conventional method of stimulation showed the worst result. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, when left ventricular stimulation is not possible, right ventricular bifocal stimulation should be used in patients with severe cardiomyopathy where a pacemaker is indicated.
Abstract in English:This is the report of a rare case of endomyocardial fibrosis associated with massive calcification of the left ventricle in a male patient with dyspnea on great exertion, which began 5 years earlier and rapidly evolved. Due to lack of information and the absence of clinical signs that could characterize impairment of other organs, the case was initially managed as a disease with a pulmonary origin. With the evolution of the disease and in the presence of radiological images of heterogeneous opacification in the projection of the left ventricle, the diagnostic hypothesis of endomyocardial disease was established. This hypothesis was later confirmed on chest computed tomography. The patient died on the 16th day of the hospital stay, probably because of lack of myocardial reserve, with clinical findings of refractory heart failure, possibly aggravated by pulmonary infection. This shows that a rare disease such as endomyocardial fibrosis associated with massive calcification of the left ventricle may be suspected on a simple chest X-ray and confirmed by computed tomography.