Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess the behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. METHODS: Two groups of Wistar rats were studied as follows: control group (C), comprising 28 animals; and smoking group (S), comprising 23 animals exposed to cigarette smoke for 30 days. Left ventricular cardiac function was assessed in vivo with transthoracic echocardiography, and myocardial performance was analyzed in vitro in preparations of isolated left ventricular papillary muscle. The cardiac muscle was assessed in isometric contractions with an extracellular calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L. RESULTS: No statistical difference was observed in the values of the body variables of the rats and in the mechanical data obtained from the papillary muscle between the control and smoking groups. The values of left ventricular systolic diameter were significantly greater in the smoking animals than in the control animals (C= 3.39 ± 0.4 mm and S= 3.71 ± 0.51 mm, P=0.02). A significant reduction was observed in systolic shortening fraction (C= 56.7 ± 4.2% and S= 53.5 ± 5.3%, P=0.02) and in ejection fraction (C= 0.92 ± 0.02 and S= 0.89 ± 0.04, P=0.01). CONCLUSION: The rats exposed to cigarette smoke had a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, although their myocardial function was preserved.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a difference exists in coronary heart disease clinical manifestations and the prevalence of risk factors between Japanese immigrants and their descendents in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of coronary artery disease clinical manifestations and the prevalence of risk factors, comparing 128 Japanese immigrants (Japanese group) with 304 Japanese descendents (Nisei group). RESULTS: The initial manifestation of the disease was earlier in the Nisei group (mean = 53 years), a difference of 12 years when compared with that in the Japanese group (mean = 65 years) (P<0.001). Myocardial infarction was the first manifestation in both groups (P = 0.83). The following parameters were independently associated with early coronary events: smoking (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.35-3.77; P<0.002); Nisei group (OR = 10.22; 95% CI = 5.64-18.5; P<0.001); and female sex (OR = 5.04; 95% CI = 2.66-9.52; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of coronary heart disease in the Japanese and their descendents in the city of São Paulo was similar, but coronary heart disease onset occurred approximately 12 years earlier in the Nisei group than in the Japanese group.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the serum levels of N-Terminal ProBNP fraction (ProBNP) allow us to identify with accuracy the clinical functional status of patients with heart failure (HF), because the clinical diagnosis of this syndrome is based basically on clinical data when the complementary tests have lower specificity. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with a history of HF were studied. Their mean age of was 53.5 years and 78.3% were males. All underwent clinical and echocardiographic evaluations and a test to determine the serum dosage of ProBNP. According to clinical manifestation, patients were in the following functional classes (FC), 14% FC I, 40.6% FC II, 28.1% FC III, and 23.4% FC IV. The mean ejection fraction (EF) was 0.28. RESULTS: ProBNP did not differ according to age, sex, and cause of cardiopathy. No correlation existed between EF and the ProBNP serum level. ProBNP levels were significantly lower in patients in FC I than those in FC II (42 vs 326.7 pmol/L; P=0.0001), and in FC II than those in FC III (P=0.01). ProBNP levels did not differ statically between FC III and IV patients (888.1 vs 1082.8 pmol/L; P=0.25). ProBNP values greater than 100 pmol/L identify patients with decompensated HF with a sensitivity of 98%. CONCLUSION: ProBNP values over 100 pmol/L were indicative of HF, and patients with advanced HF had values over 270 pmol/L. A ProBNP dosage test was an excellent auxiliary in the clinical characterization of patients with HF.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of dyslipidemias in adults in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes, in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro, and to identify its relation to risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based, observational study with sampling through conglomerates and stratified according to socioeconomic levels, sex, and age, with 1,039 individuals. Risk factors, familial history, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were determined. RESULTS: The following prevalences were observed: of dyslipidemias 24.2%; of hypercholesterolemia, 4.2%; of elevated LDL-C, 3.5%; of low HDL-C, 18.3%; and of hypertriglyceridemia, 17.1%. The following mean levels were observed: cholesterol, 187.6± 33.7 mg/dL; LDL-C, 108.7±26.8 mg/dL; HDL-C, 48.5±7.7 mg/dL; and triglycerides, 150.1±109.8 mg/dL. The following variables showed a positive correlation with dyslipidemia: increased age (P<0.001), male sex (P<0.001), low familial income (P<0.001), familial history (P<0.01), overweight/obesity (P<0.001), waist measure (P<0.001), high blood pressure (P<0.001), and diabetes mellitus (P<0.001). The following variables had no influence on dyslipidemias: ethnicity, educational level, smoking habits, and sedentary lifestyle. CONCLUSION: The frequency of lipid changes in the population studied was high, suggesting that measures for the early diagnosis should be taken, in association with implementation of programs for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis.
Abstract in English:The patient is a 5-year-old male with Kawasaki disease, whose involution of giant aneurysms of the left coronary arteries was surprising after a prolonged period of treatment, which lasted 80 uninterrupted days and comprised anti-inflammatory drugs associated with anticoagulation agents. The distal diameters of the anterior interventricular, the diagonal, and the circumflex arteries normalized by the end of the treatment. A residual giant aneurysm localized at the beginning of the anterior interventricular artery did not cause ischemia. Continuation of the medication for a prolonged period was recommended.
Abstract in English:We present a case of aneurysmal dilation of the aortic residual segment, involving abdominal vessels in corrective surgeries for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, through the identification of risk groups for recurrent dilation, aiming at using a specific operative technique with a branched graft, to prevent aneurysm relapse.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To verify the association of serum markers of myocardial injury, such as troponin I, creatinine kinase, and creatinine kinase isoenzyme MB, and inflammatory markers, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the perioperative period of cardiac surgery, with the occurrence of possible postpericardiotomy syndrome. METHODS: This was a cohort study with 96 patients undergoing cardiac surgery assessed at the following 4 different time periods: the day before surgery (D0); the 3rd postoperative day (D3); between the 7th and 10th postoperative days (D7-10); and the 30th postoperative day (D30). During each period, we evaluated demographic variables (sex and age), surgical variables (type and duration , extracorporeal circulation), and serum dosages of the markers of myocardial injury and inflammatory response. RESULTS: Of all patients, 12 (12.5%) met the clinical criteria for a diagnosis of postpericardiotomy syndrome, and their mean age was 10.3 years lower than the age of the others (P=0.02). The results of the serum markers for tissue injury and inflammatory response were not significantly different between the 2 assessed groups. No significant difference existed regarding either surgery duration or extracorporeal circulation. CONCLUSION: The patients who met the clinical criteria for postpericardiotomy syndrome were significantly younger than the others were. Serum markers for tissue injury and inflammatory response were not different in the clinically affected group, and did not correlate with the different types and duration of surgery or with extracorporeal circulation.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors in the rural community of Cavunge, in the Brazilian state of Bahia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 160 individuals (age > 19 years) randomly drawn from those listed in the population census of the Cavunge Project. The following parameters were studied: arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, smoking, waist-hip ratio (WHR), physical activity, and overall cardiovascular risk classified according to the Framingham score. The assessing parameters used were those established by the III Brazilian Consensus on Hypertension and the II Brazilian Consensus on Dyslipidemia. RESULTS: Of the randomly drawn individuals, 126 with a mean age of 46.6 + 19.7 years were included in the study, 43.7% of whom were males. The frequency of arterial hypertension was 36.5%; 20.4% of the individuals had cholesterol levels >240 mg/dL; 31.1% of the individuals had LDL-C levels > 130 mg/dL; 4% were diabetic; and 39.7% had a high-risk Framingham score. Abdominal obesity was observed in 41.3% of the population and in 57.7% of the females. High caloric-expenditure (HCE) physical activities were performed by 56.5% of the individuals. The HCE group had a greater frequency of normal triglyceride levels (63% vs 44%; P=0.05), no diabetes, and WHR tending towards normal (46% vs 27%, P=0.08) as compared with those in the low caloric-expenditure group. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are frequently found in rural communities. The greatest frequency of normal triglyceride levels and normal WHR in the HCE group reinforces the association between greater caloric expenditure and a better risk profile.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To obtain information about the profile and behavior of a population with ischemic heart disease undergoing cine coronary angiography and to determine disease severity. METHODS: Retrospective study assessing patients hospitalized at InCor from 1986 to 1995, in which the variables age, sex, and number of major coronary arteries with obstruction degree > 40% were analyzed. RESULTS: We studied 18,221 patients and observed a significant increase in the number of females (22.8% to 25.2%, P=0.001) and an increase in age (57.1±29.3 to 60.4±10.7 years, P=0.0001). A significant increase in the incidence of multivessel disease was observed, which was more frequent among males (69.2% and 64.5%) and among the older patients (59.8±9.8 and 56.8±10.7 years, P=0.0001). A reduction in the incidence of single-vessel disease was also observed (66.2% vs 69.2% and 33.8% vs 30.5%, respectively, P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: A change in the profile of the population studied was observed as follows: patients undergoing cine coronary angiography at InCor were older, had a greater number of impaired major coronary arteries, and the number of females affected increased, leading to indices suggestive of a poorer prognosis.
Abstract in English:In children, chylothorax occurs mainly after cardiac and thoracic surgeries. One of the recommended postsurgery treatments is ligation of the thoracic tract, when all other conservative treatments have failed. We report 4 cases of chylothorax in patients who were successfully treated with this approach, which resulted in a decrease in pleural drainage without recurrent chylothorax.