MANAGEMENT OF PANCREATICOPLEURAL FISTULAS SECONDARY TO CHRONIC PANCREATITIS

Everton CAZZO Márcio APODACA-RUEDA Martinho Antonio GESTIC Fábio Henrique Mendonça CHAIM Helena Paes de Almeida de SAITO Murillo Pimentel UTRINI Francisco CALLEJAS-NETO Elinton Adami CHAIM About the authors

ABSTRACT

Introduction:

Pancreaticopleural fistula is a rare complication of chronic pancreatitis.

Objective:

To describe pancreaticopleural fistula due to chronic pancreatitis and perform an extensive review of literature on this topic.

Methods:

Comprehensive narrative review through online research on the databases Medline and Lilacs for articles published over the last 20 years. There were 22 case reports and four case series selected.

Results:

The main indication for surgical treatment is the failure of clinical and/or endoscopic treatments. Surgery is based on internal pancreatic drainage, especially by means of pancreaticojejunostomy, and/or pancreatic resections.

Conclusion:

Pancreaticopleural fistula is a rare complication of chronic pancreatitis and the Frey procedure may be an appropriate therapeutic option in selected cases when clinical and endoscopic treatments are unsuccessful.

HEADINGS
Pancreatitis, chronic; Pancreatitis, alcoholic; Pleural effusion; Pancreaticojejunostomy; Fistula

RESUMO

Introdução:

A fístula pancreaticopleural é complicação rara da pancreatite crônica.

Objetivo:

Descrever a fístula pancreaticopleural consequente à pancreatite crônica e fazer revisão extensa da literatura sobre o tópico.

Métodos:

Revisão narrativa abrangente através de pesquisa online nas bases de dados Medline e Lilacs para artigos publicados nos últimos 20 anos.

Resultados:

Houve 22 relatos de casos e quatro séries de casos selecionadas. A principal indicação para o tratamento cirúrgico é a falha de tratamentos clínicos e/ou endoscópicos. A cirurgia é baseada na drenagem pancreática interna, especialmente por meio de pancreaticojejunostomias e/ou ressecções pancreáticas.

Conclusão:

A fístula pancreaticopleural é complicação rara da pancreatite crônica e o procedimento de Frey pode ser opção terapêutica apropriada em casos selecionados quando os tratamentos clínico e endoscópico não obtiverem êxito.

DESCRITORES
Pancreatite crônica; Pancreatite alcoólica; Derrame pleural; Pancreaticojejunostomia; Fístula

INTRODUCTION

Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive and irreversible inflammatory process characterized by the replacement of the pancreatic parenchyma by fibrotic tissue. This disease has as main clinical manifestations chronic and incapacitating abdominal pain, and loss of the exocrine and endocrine functions of the pancreas. Patients frequently require endoscopic and/or surgical procedures for the treatment of disease-related complications88 Gestic MA, Callejas-Neto F, Chaim EA et al. Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis using Frey's procedure: a Brazilian 16-year single-centre experience. HPB. 2011;13: 263-71., being pancreaticopleural fistula very rare. It is estimated to occur in 0.4% of patients with pancreatitis, mostly resulting from chronic alcoholic pancreatitis1010 Hastier P, Rouquier P, Buckley M et al. Endoscopic treatment of Wirsungo-cysto-pleural fistula. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998; 10:527-9.. It corresponds to a condition in which pancreatic secretions drain directly into the pleural cavity, resulting from a chronic inflammatory process, acute inflammation or traumatic or iatrogenic rupture of the pancreatic duct. Usually it presents as massive and relapsing pleural effusions, often on the left side and with high content of pancreatic amylase3434 Uchiyama T, Suzuki T, Adachi A et al. Pancreatic Pleural Effusion: Case Report and Review of 113 Cases in Japan. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 1992; 87(3): 387-391..

This study aims to describe pancreaticopleural fistulas caused by chronic pancreatitis and perform a review of the current literature on this topic.

METHODS

A review of the literature published over the last 20 years was conducted through an online search for the MeSH terms “pancreatitis, chronic” AND “pleural effusion” AND “fistula” in Medline (via PubMed) and “pancreatitis, chronic OR pancreatite crônica OR pancreatitis crónica” AND “pleural effusion OR “derrame pleural” AND/OR “fístula” in Lilacs (via BVS). Original studies that reported single cases or case series of this disease or correlated conditions were included. Articles that consisted of in vitro or animal studies, articles in which the participants’ characteristics did not match those mentioned above, poster session abstracts, review articles and other types of publications were excluded. Other papers were used for contextualization and discussion. At the end, cases from the involved institution were presented.

RESULTS

After extensive online research, 26 studies were included, being 22 case reports and four case series. Table 1 summarizes the main articles found and their reported outcomes. A flow diagram of the review is presented in Figure 1.

TABLE 1
Reported cases of pancreaticopleural fistulas secondary to chronic pancreatitis over the last 20 years

FIGURE 1
Flow diagram of the review of literature

Here are added, to the total amount of cases related in the literature over 20 years period, two cases of pancreaticopleural fistula attended in authors institutions, based on retrospective analysis of data collected on medical records. With this addition to total of patients in the literature with this two is 40.

The first case from the authors was related to a 46-year-old man with a history of alcoholism and long-term smoking, admitted to the emergency department due to mild dyspnea, with a diagnosis of right-sided pleural effusion. After a thoracocentesis, an amylase levelof 61,000 IU/l was found in the pleural fluid. Abdominal tomography showed pancreatic changes compatible with chronic pancreatitis. Treatment with oral fasting, total parenteral nutrition, symptomatic medications and thoracocentesis was warranted. Due to the maintenance of a pleural effusion with septa, he underwent a pleural drainage and pleuroscopy. He evolved with high output drainage, and octreotide infusion was indicated. After three weeks of treatment and maintenance of pleural effusion, the patient was referred for an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, which showed a dilated and winding main pancreatic duct, with a cranial fistulous pathway, and bleeding externalized by the duodenal papilla, which precluded the placement of a pancreatic stent. He underwent a selective arteriography of celiac trunk and a scintigraphy with marked red cells, both negative for active bleeding. It was opted for the Roux-en-Y pancreaticojejunostomy associated with partial resection of the pancreatic head (Frey procedure). He presented a satisfactory postoperative evolution, with regression of pleural effusion after five days and hospital discharge seven days after surgery. A complete remission of pleural effusion was achieved after two weeks. After 14 months of surgery, he was still was in good conditions with no pain or steatorrhea, and without evidence of endocrine dysfunction.

Another case referred is one 42-year-old male smoker and heavy drinker sought emergency care with a complaint of dyspnea and chest pain for one month. A left-sided pleural effusion was found and a thoracocentesis was performed, showing an amylase level of 250,000 IU/l. An abdominal tomography was performed, which showed changes suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed dilatation and diffuse irregularities of the pancreatic duct and two areas of strictures (head and head-to-body transition) and contrast overflow with formation of a fistulous pathway. A sphyncterotomy and dilation was performed, but the attempt to place a stent was unsuccessful. Surgical treatment was warranted, and a Frey procedure was carried out. He presented a satisfactory postoperative evolution, with regression of the pleural effusion after eight days and hospital discharge the following day. He is currently in the ninth postoperative year of follow-up, using pancreatic enzymes due to exocrine insufficiency, with no pain and no signs of endocrine insufficiency.

DISCUSSION

Pancreaticopleural fistula is an infrequent complication that may be secondary to acute or chronic pancreatitis, as well as to external or iatrogenic pancreatic trauma. However, this complication is related to chronic pancreatitis of alcoholic origin in 99% of cases1010 Hastier P, Rouquier P, Buckley M et al. Endoscopic treatment of Wirsungo-cysto-pleural fistula. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998; 10:527-9..

The pathophysiology of the pancreaticopleural fistula consists of the formation of a posterior pathway of the pancreatic duct to the pleura or, more frequently, after the formation of a pseudocyst and subsequent communication with the pleural cavity. In both cases, the fluid flows through the retroperitoneum through the plane of least resistance into the pleural cavity, usually through the esophageal hiatus. Communications with the pericardium, bronchial tree and esophagus have also been described. Transdiaphragmatic communication is the less common situation3434 Uchiyama T, Suzuki T, Adachi A et al. Pancreatic Pleural Effusion: Case Report and Review of 113 Cases in Japan. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 1992; 87(3): 387-391.,1818 Leoz MK, Garde RI, Costas JJV et al. Derrame pleural secundário a fístula pancreático-pleural pospancreatitis aguda. Gastroenterología y Hepatología. 2012; 35(2):70-73..

Regarding the clinical presentation, Uchiyama et al.3434 Uchiyama T, Suzuki T, Adachi A et al. Pancreatic Pleural Effusion: Case Report and Review of 113 Cases in Japan. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 1992; 87(3): 387-391. observed that dyspnea, abdominal pain, cough and chest pain are present in 68% of cases. Many patients undergo extensive lung investigation before the pancreas is identified as the primary site of the disease. Abdominal symptoms are infrequent. Pancreatic ascites are associated with pancreaticopleural fistula in 20% of cases, and in 4% there is an association with pericarditis55 Dhebri AR, Ferran N. Nonsurgical Management of Pancreaticopleural Fistula. J Pancreas 2005; 6 (2): 152-161..

Diagnosis is usually performed by thoracocentesis after chest radiography, with laboratory findings of elevated levels of amylase and lipase in the pleural fluid. Serum amylase has no diagnostic validity, since it is low in some cases55 Dhebri AR, Ferran N. Nonsurgical Management of Pancreaticopleural Fistula. J Pancreas 2005; 6 (2): 152-161.

6 Ferris H, Buckley M. Pancreatico pleural fistula: an unusual complication of chronic pancreatitis. Ir Med J. 2012 Jul-Aug;105(7):246-7.

7 Gestic MA, Callejas-Neto F, Chaim EA et al. [Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis with frey procedure: current situation]. Arq Bras Cir Dig. 2011; 24(4): 305-311.

8 Gestic MA, Callejas-Neto F, Chaim EA et al. Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis using Frey's procedure: a Brazilian 16-year single-centre experience. HPB. 2011;13: 263-71.
-99 Gomes CHR, Diniz GS, Ribeiro FM et al. [Pancreaticopleural fistula with intrathoracic pseudocyst: case report]. Rev. méd. Minas Gerais. 2003; 13(1): 64-66.. The differential diagnosis of pleural effusions should be made with acute pancreatitis, gynecological, pulmonary, and metastatic tumors, pneumonia, esophageal perforation, lymphoma, leukemia and pulmonary tuberculosis1313 Joseph J, Viney S, Beck P et al. A prospective study of amylase-rich pleural effusions with special reference to amylase isoenzyme analysis. Chest 1992;102: 1455-9.,1414 King JC, Reber HA, Shiraga S et al. Pancreatic-pleural fistula is best managed by early operative intervention. Surgery. 2010 Jan;147(1):154-9.,77 Gestic MA, Callejas-Neto F, Chaim EA et al. [Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis with frey procedure: current situation]. Arq Bras Cir Dig. 2011; 24(4): 305-311.,1919 Materne R, Vranckx P, Pauls C et al. Pancreaticopleural fistula: diagnosis with magnetic resonance pancreatography. Chest. 2000 Mar;117(3):912-4.,2323 Neher JR, Brady PG, Pinkas H et al. Pancreaticopleural fistula in chronic pancreatitis: resolution with endoscopic therapy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2000 Sep;52(3):416-8.,3232 Takeo C, Myojo S. Marked effect of octreotide acetate in a case of pancreatic pleural effusion. Curr Med Res Opin. 2000;16(3):171-7.,121 Akahane T, Kuriyama S, Matsumoto M, et al. Pancreatic pleural effusion with a pancreaticopleural fistula diagnosed by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and cured by somatostatin analogue treatment. Abdom Imaging. 2003 Jan-Feb;28(1):92-5.,1,1717 Lanternier F, Valcke J, Hernigou A et al. [Bilateral pleurisy and cardiac tamponade. A rare etiology: pancreatico-pleural fistula]. Rev Mal Respir. 2002 Dec;19(6):795-7.,1616 Lamme B, Boerma D, Boermeester MA et al. [Pleural fluid in chronic pancreatitis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003 Jul 26;147(30):1437-41.. The diagnosis can be confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in 80% of the cases, showing the fistulous pathway in 59%. In 70% of cases, computed tomography associated with it identifies the fistulous path. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography may demonstrate pancreatic involvement and fistula, without the need for contrast, constituting a non-invasive alternative3434 Uchiyama T, Suzuki T, Adachi A et al. Pancreatic Pleural Effusion: Case Report and Review of 113 Cases in Japan. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 1992; 87(3): 387-391.,55 Dhebri AR, Ferran N. Nonsurgical Management of Pancreaticopleural Fistula. J Pancreas 2005; 6 (2): 152-161.,2020 Meybeck A, Gouteux D, Bolard F et al. [A rare complication of chronic pancreatitis: pancreatico-pleural fistula]. Rev Pneumol Clin. 2003 Sep;59(4):205-8.,2424 Neumann S, Caca K, Mössner J. [Pancreatico-pleural fistula in chronic pancreatitis with necrosis of the pancreatic tail]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2004 Aug 20;129(34-35):1802-5.,3636 Zubiaurre L, Oyarzabal I, Beguiristain A et al. [Pancreaticopleural fistula: diagnostic tests and treatment]. Cir Esp. 2005 Jun;77(6):359-61.,1515 Koshitani T, Uehara Y, Yasu T et al. Endoscopic management of pancreaticopleural fistulas: a report of three patients. Endoscopy. 2006 Jul;38(7):749-51.,33 Cocieru A, Saldinger PF. Frey procedure for pancreaticopleural fistula. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010 May;14(5):929-30.,3535 Vyas S, Gogoi D, Sinha SK et al. Pancreaticopleural fistula: an unusual complication of pancreatitis diagnosed with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. JOP. 2009 Nov 5;10(6):671-3..

There are no randomized studies that indicate the most appropriate treatment of pancreaticopleural fistulas. At first, clinical management with parenteral nutrition and infusion of somatostatin analogs are performed for two to three weeks, with or without pleural drainage. However, resolution of the anatomical continuity of the pancreatic duct is what defines the good evolution of the condition. The efficacy of conservative treatment varies from 30-60% in some series and from 0-33% in others55 Dhebri AR, Ferran N. Nonsurgical Management of Pancreaticopleural Fistula. J Pancreas 2005; 6 (2): 152-161.. Recently, endoscopic treatment has been more widely performed, consisting of balloon dilatation and placement of intraductal prostheses, with success rates of up to 25% being reported with this treatment modality1818 Leoz MK, Garde RI, Costas JJV et al. Derrame pleural secundário a fístula pancreático-pleural pospancreatitis aguda. Gastroenterología y Hepatología. 2012; 35(2):70-73.,55 Dhebri AR, Ferran N. Nonsurgical Management of Pancreaticopleural Fistula. J Pancreas 2005; 6 (2): 152-161.,2323 Neher JR, Brady PG, Pinkas H et al. Pancreaticopleural fistula in chronic pancreatitis: resolution with endoscopic therapy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2000 Sep;52(3):416-8.,244 Cooper ST, Malick J, McGrath K et al. EUS-guided rendezvous for the treatment of pancreaticopleural fistula in a patient with chronic pancreatitis and pancreas pseudodivisum. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010 Mar;71(3):652-4.,4,3333 Thyagaraj VK, Rangappa P, Jacob I et al. Recurrent pleural effusions: an unusual presentation of chronic pancreatitis. J Assoc Physicians India. 2014 Jul;62(7):627-30.,66 Ferris H, Buckley M. Pancreatico pleural fistula: an unusual complication of chronic pancreatitis. Ir Med J. 2012 Jul-Aug;105(7):246-7.,3030 Sonoda S, Taniguchi M, Sato T et al. Bilateral pleural fluid caused by a pancreaticopleural fistula requiring surgical treatment. Intern Med. 2012;51(18):2655-61.,2828 Shah D, Desai AB, Salvi B. Pancreaticopleural fistula complicating chronic pancreatitis. BMJ Case Rep. 2012 Aug 8;2012. pii: bcr0320126038.,2626 Oh YS, Edmundowicz SA, Jonnalagadda SS et al. Pancreaticopleural fistula: report of two cases and review of the literature. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Jan;51(1):1-6.,2727 Sánchez A, Ramírez de la Piscina P, Duca IM[Right pleural effusion secondary to a pancreaticopleural fistula in a patient with asymptomatic chronic pancreatitis]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Oct;39(8):529-31..

The main indication for surgical treatment is the failure of clinical and/or endoscopic treatments3434 Uchiyama T, Suzuki T, Adachi A et al. Pancreatic Pleural Effusion: Case Report and Review of 113 Cases in Japan. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 1992; 87(3): 387-391.,1818 Leoz MK, Garde RI, Costas JJV et al. Derrame pleural secundário a fístula pancreático-pleural pospancreatitis aguda. Gastroenterología y Hepatología. 2012; 35(2):70-73.,55 Dhebri AR, Ferran N. Nonsurgical Management of Pancreaticopleural Fistula. J Pancreas 2005; 6 (2): 152-161.,2929 Soares JT, Ressurreição J, Marques I et al. Pancreatopleural fistula contributing to a large volume recurrent pleural effusion. Rev Port Pneumol (2006). 2015 May-Jun;21(3):163-4.. Surgery is based on internal pancreatic drainage, especially by means of pancreaticojejunostomy, and/or pancreatic resections, depending on the degree of involvement of the main duct and the pancreatic portion involved. A review by King et al.1414 King JC, Reber HA, Shiraga S et al. Pancreatic-pleural fistula is best managed by early operative intervention. Surgery. 2010 Jan;147(1):154-9. observed that attempts at prolonged periods of medical therapy tend to delay the resolution of the fistula compared with patients who undergo definitive operative intervention early in the course of treatment.

There is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment. Conservative management should be the first option; despite its low rates of complete resolution, there are reports of success and this modality avoids the possibility of complications arising from invasive procedures; however, it is often associated with lengthier hospital stays3232 Takeo C, Myojo S. Marked effect of octreotide acetate in a case of pancreatic pleural effusion. Curr Med Res Opin. 2000;16(3):171-7.,121 Akahane T, Kuriyama S, Matsumoto M, et al. Pancreatic pleural effusion with a pancreaticopleural fistula diagnosed by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and cured by somatostatin analogue treatment. Abdom Imaging. 2003 Jan-Feb;28(1):92-5.,1,366 Ferris H, Buckley M. Pancreatico pleural fistula: an unusual complication of chronic pancreatitis. Ir Med J. 2012 Jul-Aug;105(7):246-7.,6,2222 Mota RD, Antunes LM, Alcântara CO et al. [Pancreaticopleural fistula]. Arq Bras Cir Dig. 2011; 24(3): 251-252.,1111 Hirosawa T, Shimizu T, Isegawa T et al. Left pleural effusion caused by pancreaticopleural fistula with a pancreatic pseudocyst. BMJ Case Rep. 2016 Aug 24;2016. pii: bcr2016217175.. Endoscopic treatment should be the second-line therapy, indicated for those individuals who did not respond to clinical measures, since it presents good results and lower morbidity and mortality than surgery55 Dhebri AR, Ferran N. Nonsurgical Management of Pancreaticopleural Fistula. J Pancreas 2005; 6 (2): 152-161.,2323 Neher JR, Brady PG, Pinkas H et al. Pancreaticopleural fistula in chronic pancreatitis: resolution with endoscopic therapy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2000 Sep;52(3):416-8.,244 Cooper ST, Malick J, McGrath K et al. EUS-guided rendezvous for the treatment of pancreaticopleural fistula in a patient with chronic pancreatitis and pancreas pseudodivisum. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010 Mar;71(3):652-4.,4,2828 Shah D, Desai AB, Salvi B. Pancreaticopleural fistula complicating chronic pancreatitis. BMJ Case Rep. 2012 Aug 8;2012. pii: bcr0320126038.,2626 Oh YS, Edmundowicz SA, Jonnalagadda SS et al. Pancreaticopleural fistula: report of two cases and review of the literature. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Jan;51(1):1-6.,2727 Sánchez A, Ramírez de la Piscina P, Duca IM[Right pleural effusion secondary to a pancreaticopleural fistula in a patient with asymptomatic chronic pancreatitis]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Oct;39(8):529-31.. Hence, surgery should be warranted in the refractory cases2121 Molinuevo JL, Moitinho E, Font MC et al. [Massive pleural effusion secondary to pancreatic-pleural fistula as first manifestation of chronic pancreatitis. Report of three cases]. Med Clin (Barc). 1997 Jul 5;109(6):222-4.,1919 Materne R, Vranckx P, Pauls C et al. Pancreaticopleural fistula: diagnosis with magnetic resonance pancreatography. Chest. 2000 Mar;117(3):912-4.,1717 Lanternier F, Valcke J, Hernigou A et al. [Bilateral pleurisy and cardiac tamponade. A rare etiology: pancreatico-pleural fistula]. Rev Mal Respir. 2002 Dec;19(6):795-7.,1515 Koshitani T, Uehara Y, Yasu T et al. Endoscopic management of pancreaticopleural fistulas: a report of three patients. Endoscopy. 2006 Jul;38(7):749-51.,33 Cocieru A, Saldinger PF. Frey procedure for pancreaticopleural fistula. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010 May;14(5):929-30.,3535 Vyas S, Gogoi D, Sinha SK et al. Pancreaticopleural fistula: an unusual complication of pancreatitis diagnosed with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. JOP. 2009 Nov 5;10(6):671-3.,3333 Thyagaraj VK, Rangappa P, Jacob I et al. Recurrent pleural effusions: an unusual presentation of chronic pancreatitis. J Assoc Physicians India. 2014 Jul;62(7):627-30.,3030 Sonoda S, Taniguchi M, Sato T et al. Bilateral pleural fluid caused by a pancreaticopleural fistula requiring surgical treatment. Intern Med. 2012;51(18):2655-61.,99 Gomes CHR, Diniz GS, Ribeiro FM et al. [Pancreaticopleural fistula with intrathoracic pseudocyst: case report]. Rev. méd. Minas Gerais. 2003; 13(1): 64-66.,2929 Soares JT, Ressurreição J, Marques I et al. Pancreatopleural fistula contributing to a large volume recurrent pleural effusion. Rev Port Pneumol (2006). 2015 May-Jun;21(3):163-4.. There is no consensus in regard to the optimal technique to be adopted; it must depend on the individual characteristics of each case. Individuals with predominantly cephalic disease would benefit from Frey or Beger procedures33 Cocieru A, Saldinger PF. Frey procedure for pancreaticopleural fistula. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010 May;14(5):929-30.; those with diffuse dilatation of the duct without severe involvement of the pancreas head would be appropriately treated by means of a Puestow/Partington-Rochelle procedure 99 Gomes CHR, Diniz GS, Ribeiro FM et al. [Pancreaticopleural fistula with intrathoracic pseudocyst: case report]. Rev. méd. Minas Gerais. 2003; 13(1): 64-66.,1515 Koshitani T, Uehara Y, Yasu T et al. Endoscopic management of pancreaticopleural fistulas: a report of three patients. Endoscopy. 2006 Jul;38(7):749-51.,2222 Mota RD, Antunes LM, Alcântara CO et al. [Pancreaticopleural fistula]. Arq Bras Cir Dig. 2011; 24(3): 251-252.,2828 Shah D, Desai AB, Salvi B. Pancreaticopleural fistula complicating chronic pancreatitis. BMJ Case Rep. 2012 Aug 8;2012. pii: bcr0320126038.; those with disease restricted to the pancreas tail or distal body would benefit from distal pancreatectomies, with or without pancreaticojejunostomy, depending on the caliber of the pancreatic duct1616 Lamme B, Boerma D, Boermeester MA et al. [Pleural fluid in chronic pancreatitis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003 Jul 26;147(30):1437-41.,1515 Koshitani T, Uehara Y, Yasu T et al. Endoscopic management of pancreaticopleural fistulas: a report of three patients. Endoscopy. 2006 Jul;38(7):749-51.,3333 Thyagaraj VK, Rangappa P, Jacob I et al. Recurrent pleural effusions: an unusual presentation of chronic pancreatitis. J Assoc Physicians India. 2014 Jul;62(7):627-30.,3030 Sonoda S, Taniguchi M, Sato T et al. Bilateral pleural fluid caused by a pancreaticopleural fistula requiring surgical treatment. Intern Med. 2012;51(18):2655-61.. Since surgery is reportedly the best treatment approach to treat the abdominal symptoms, especially refractory pain88 Gestic MA, Callejas-Neto F, Chaim EA et al. Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis using Frey's procedure: a Brazilian 16-year single-centre experience. HPB. 2011;13: 263-71.,77 Gestic MA, Callejas-Neto F, Chaim EA et al. [Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis with frey procedure: current situation]. Arq Bras Cir Dig. 2011; 24(4): 305-311.,22 Callejas-Neto F, Pareja JC, Pilla VF et al. Bleeding complications of chronic pancreatitis: a surgical approach. Arq Bras Cir Dig. 1994; 9(4): 98-101.,3131 Speranzini MB, Bassi DG, Cauduro AB et al. [Treatment of the traumatic pancreatic duct stenosis by pancreaticojejunostomy]. Arq Bras Cir Dig. 2004; 17(1): 67-70.,2525 Nigro AJT, Paes-Leme LF, Tosi PS et al. Surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis: an analysis of 62 cases. Arq Bras Cir Dig. 1995; 10(3): 84-8., it should also be considered a more definitive treatment for these individuals, since it may bring a more integrative relief of both thoracic and abdominal consequences of the disease.

CONCLUSION

Pancreaticopleural fistula is a rare complication of chronic pancreatitis and the Frey procedure may be an appropriate treatment option when clinical and endoscopic treatments are unsuccessful.

REFERENCES

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    Lamme B, Boerma D, Boermeester MA et al. [Pleural fluid in chronic pancreatitis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003 Jul 26;147(30):1437-41.
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    Lanternier F, Valcke J, Hernigou A et al. [Bilateral pleurisy and cardiac tamponade. A rare etiology: pancreatico-pleural fistula]. Rev Mal Respir. 2002 Dec;19(6):795-7.
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    Leoz MK, Garde RI, Costas JJV et al. Derrame pleural secundário a fístula pancreático-pleural pospancreatitis aguda. Gastroenterología y Hepatología. 2012; 35(2):70-73.
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    Materne R, Vranckx P, Pauls C et al. Pancreaticopleural fistula: diagnosis with magnetic resonance pancreatography. Chest. 2000 Mar;117(3):912-4.
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    Meybeck A, Gouteux D, Bolard F et al. [A rare complication of chronic pancreatitis: pancreatico-pleural fistula]. Rev Pneumol Clin. 2003 Sep;59(4):205-8.
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    Molinuevo JL, Moitinho E, Font MC et al. [Massive pleural effusion secondary to pancreatic-pleural fistula as first manifestation of chronic pancreatitis. Report of three cases]. Med Clin (Barc). 1997 Jul 5;109(6):222-4.
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  • Financial source:

    none

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Jul-Sep 2017

History

  • Received
    06 Dec 2016
  • Accepted
    04 May 2017
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