Tretinoin peel: a critical view* * Study conducted at the Unit of Cosmiatry, Surgery and Oncology of the Dermatology Department of the Paulista Medical School - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.

Juliana Mayumi Sumita Gislaine Ricci Leonardi Ediléia Bagatin About the authors

Abstract

The tretinoin peel, also known as retinoic acid peel, is a superficial peeling often performed in dermatological clinics in Brazil. The first study on this was published in 2001, by Cuce et al., as a treatment option for melasma. Since then, other studies have reported its applicability with reasonable methodology, although without a consistent scientific background and consensus. Topical tretinoin is used for the treatment of various dermatoses such as acne, melasma, scars, skin aging and non-melanoma skin cancer. The identification of retinoids cellular receptors was reported in 1987, but a direct cause-effect relation has not been established. This article reviews studies evaluating the use of topical tretinoin as agent for superficial chemical peel. Most of them have shown benefits in the treatment of melasma and skin aging. A better quality methodology in the study design, considering indication and intervention is indispensable regarding concentration, vehicle and treatment regimen (interval and number of applications). Additionally, more controlled and randomized studies comparing the treatment with tretinoin cream versus its use as a peeling agent, mainly for melasma and photoaging, are necessary.

Keywords:
Chemexfoliation; Keratosis, actinic; Melanosis; Skin aging; Tretinoin

TRETINOIN OR ALL-TRANS RETINOIC ACID

The liposoluble vitamin A is essential to the human body and only available in the diet. Its molecule is an alcohol and therefore is called "retinol". It is absorbed by the small intestine, stored in the liver as retinyl esters (palmitate and ethyl propionate), or converted to active metabolites such as tretinoin, with an intermediate form called retinaldehyde. The conversion of retinol into retinyl esters and retinaldehyde is reversible, whereas the retinaldehyde to retinoic acid is irreversible.

Tretinoin or all-trans retinoic acid represents 50% of the active cellular form, with its metabolites (4-hydroxy-retinoic acid) and stereoisomers 9-cis-retinoic acid (alitretinoin) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) making up the difference.11 Duell EA, Aström A, Griffiths CE, Chambon P, Voorhees JJ. Human skin levels of retinoic acid and cytochrome P-450-derived 4-hydroxyretinoic acid after topical application of retinoic acid in vivo compared to concentrations required to stimulate retinoic acid receptor-mediated transcription in vitro. J Clin Invest. 1992;90:1269-74.

Thus, in topical application, retinol, retinol esters, and retinaldehyde have to be converted to a more active form (tretinoin), whereas isotretinoin, alitretinoin, adapalene, tazarotene and seletinoid G are already applied in their active form.

The discovery of the receptors for retinoic acid in 1987 was the first demonstration of a retinoid-responsive transcription factor.22 Giguere V, Ong ES, Segui P, Evans RM. Identification of a receptor for the morphogen retinoic acid. Nature. 1987;330:624-9.,33 Petkovich M, Brand NJ, Krust A, Chambon P. A human retinoic acid receptor which belongs to the family of nuclear receptors. Nature. 1987;330:444-50.

Tretinoin activates three nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR-alpha, RAR-beta and RAR-gamma). The retinoic acid receptors (RARs) bind to regulatory regions in DNA called retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) or target sequences, and activate many gene transcriptions. Tretinoin may exert its clinical effects, at least in part, through activation of retinoid receptors.44 Webster GF, Rawlings AV, editors. Acne and its therapy. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare USA Inc.; 2007.,55 Baldwin HE, Nighland M, Kendall C, Mays DA, Grossman R, Newburger J. 40 years of topical tretinoin use in review. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12:638-42.

The binding profile of tretinoin differs from that of synthetic retinoids, such as adapalene, which binds preferentially to RAR-beta and RAR-gamma, and tazarotene, which binds to all 3 RARs but appears to lead to an effective gene expression only by RAR-beta and RAR-gamma.66 Nagpal S, Chandraratna RA. Recent developments in receptor-selective retinoids. Curr Pharm Des. 2000;6:919-31.

Topical tretinoin application before ultraviolet irradiation has been shown to prevent matrix metalloproteinase production and collagen degradation.77 Jurzak M, Latocha M, Gojniczek K, Kapral M, Garncarczyk A, Pierzchala E. Influence of retinoids on skin fibroblasts metabolism in vitro. Acta Pol Pharm. 2008;65:85-91.

Histologically, increased collagen types I, III and VII (dermal-epidermal anchoring fibrils) production can be seen, as well as reorganization of the dermal collagen into new woven bundles.88 Woodley DT, Zelickson AS, Briggaman RA, Hamilton TA, Weiss JS, Ellis CN, et al. Treatment of photoaged skin with topical tretinoin increases epidermal-dermal anchoring fibrils: a preliminary report. JAMA. 1990;263:3057-9.

Topical tretinoin has been shown to increase production of type I collagen by 80% in photoaged skin.99 Griffiths CE, Russman AN, Majmudar G, Singer RS, Hamilton TA, Voorhees JJ. Restoration of collagen formation in photodamaged human skin by tretinoin (retinoic acid). N Engl J Med. 1993;329:530-5.

It is thought that the increased collagen content indirectly stimulates normalization of the elastic tissue organization.1010 Berardesca E, Gabba P, Farinelli N, Borroni G, Rabbiosi G. In vivo tretinoin-induced changes in skin mechanical properties. Br J Dermatol. 1990;122:525-9.

Increased smoothness of skin or wrinkle effacement from tretinoin topical treatment results from epidermal hyperplasia, compaction of the stratum corneum, thickening of the granular layer and increased epidermal and dermal glycosaminoglycan deposition.

Tretinoin therapy has also been shown to improve wound healing. Animal studies have also shown tretinoin to have an effect on cytokeratin 16, which is an important modulator of the wound healing process.1111 Vagotis FL, Brundage SR. Histologic study of dermabrasion and chemical peel in an animal model after pretreatment with Retin-A. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 1995;19:243-6.,1212 Takahashi N, Fujiu Y. Cytokeratins 16 and 10 bind to retinoic acid covalently in skin tissue of mice. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:974-9.

The retinoids show antiproliferative properties, promote cell differentiation, interfere with the tumor initiation process, reduce the regulation of proto-oncogenes, and increase the expression of p53 and pro-apoptotic caspases. It is speculated that they have antioxidative effects and thereby decrease the number of sunburn cells, which are apoptotic keratinocytes. 1313 Bagatin E, Parada MO, Miot HA, Hassun KM, Michalany N, Talarico S. A randomized and controlled trial about the use of oral isotretinoin for photoaging. Int J Dermatol. 2010;49:207-14.

14 Wright TI, Spencer JM, Flowers FP. Chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54:933-46.
-1515 Mrass P, Rendl M, Mildner M, Gruber F, Lengauer B, Ballaun C, et al. Retinoic acid increases the expression of p53 and proapoptotic caspases and sensitizes keratinocytes to apoptosis: a possible explanation for tumor preventive action of retinoids. Cancer Res. 2004;64:6542-8.

However, to date, a direct cause-and-effect relation has not been established.

Although the ability of topical tretinoin to improve clinical features of photoaging is firmly established, the mechanism by which this occurs needs further study.

Not all of the clinical features of photoaging respond equally to tretinoin. Among them, hyperpigmentation, surface roughness and fine wrinkles demonstrate the most consistent and significant improvement with tretinoin therapy. This positive response to topical tretinoin is due to improvement or repair in both the epidermal (hyperpigmentation and surface roughness) and dermal (fine wrinkles) components of photoaging.

TRETINOIN AND AGING SKIN

Skin aging is divided into intrinsic or chronological aging and extrinsic or photoaging. Extrinsic aging means overlapping environmental factors (mainly ultraviolet radiation, pollution, smoking, etc.) and lifestyle (stress) to intrinsic aging, which is enhanced through the following mechanisms: (i) telomere shortening; (ii) generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage the mitochondrial DNA and product matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the dermal extracellular matrix; (iii) mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, that is, making the tumor-inducing and promoting the development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions and (iv) reduction of growth hormone and sex steroids. 1616 Kohl E, Steinbauer J, Landthaler M, Szeimies RM. Skin ageing. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011;25:873-84.

17 Pillai S, Oresajo C, Hayward J.Ultraviolet radiation and skin aging: role of reactive oxygen species, inflammation and protease activation, and strategies for prevention of inflamed-induced matrix degradation - a review. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2005;27:17-34.
-1818 Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC. William J. Cunliffe Scientific Awards. Characteristics and pathomechanisms of endogenously aged skin. Dermatology. 2007;214: 352-60.

The changes are caused in part by cumulative endogenous damage due to the continuous formation of reactive oxygen species, which are normally generated by mitochondrial metabolism. 1919 Ivié NP. Skin aging. Acta Dermatoven. 2008;17:47-54.

Despite a strong antioxidant defense system, the damage generated by ROS's overproduction affects cellular constituents such as membranes, enzymes and DNA. 2020 Yaar M, Gilchrest BA. Aging of skin. In: Freedberg IM, Eisen AZ, Wolff K, Austen KF, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, et al. editors. Dermatology in General Medicine. New York:McGraw-Hill; 1999. p 1697- 1706.

Cellular stress accumulated over time potentially impacts cell metabolism and, consequently, tissue regeneration and function. The progressive loss of function impairs tissue physiology, as it is frequently observed in older skins. The diminished cutaneous microvasculature seen in older persons accounts for the progressive lower nutritional support in aging skin.2121 Kelly RI, Pearse R, Bull RH, Leveque JL, de Rigal J, Mortimer PS. The effects of aging on the cutaneous microvasculature. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;33:749-56. In addition, obstruction of vessels has been associated with disturbances of the normal architecture of the vascular plexus in the dermis. 2020 Yaar M, Gilchrest BA. Aging of skin. In: Freedberg IM, Eisen AZ, Wolff K, Austen KF, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, et al. editors. Dermatology in General Medicine. New York:McGraw-Hill; 1999. p 1697- 1706.

In intrinsic aging, morphologic changes in sun-protected skin include fine wrinkling and laxity; histology shows general atrophy of the extracellular matrix, including reduced elastin and elastic fiber disintegration.2222 Gilchrest SA. Skin aging and photoaging: an overview. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21:610-3.

On the other hand in photoaging, histopathologic features include increased skin pigment production, loss of cellular polarity, atypical epidermal cells, skin thinning and atrophy, mild inflammatory infiltrate, degenerative changes in elastic tissue (elastosis) and decreased collagen tissue (reduced synthesis and increased degradation).2222 Gilchrest SA. Skin aging and photoaging: an overview. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21:610-3.,2323 Helfrich YR, Sachs DL, Voorhees JJ. Overview of skin aging and photoaging. Dermatol Nurs. 2008;20:177-83.

The "hallmark" of the histopathology of photoaging is a change in dermal elastosis, which primarily consists of thickened, tangled, and granular amorphous elastic structures. These features are attributed to UV-mediated damage to dermal fibroblasts, which then produce abnormal elastin.

Actinic keratosis (AK) is a pre-neoplastic skin disease mainly caused by solar radiation in photoexposed areas. It is characterized by atypical proliferation of keratinocytes and has a high risk of transformation into squamous cell carcinoma.

The chronically sun-exposed skin has genomic damage that predispose to carcinogenesis. More than 40% of patients with a previous diagnosis of multiple AKs developed a non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) (squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma), or a malignant melanoma (MM) during a follow-up period of 5 to 11 years.2424 Dika E, Fanti PA, Misciali C, Vaccari S, Crisman G, Barisani A, et al. Risk of skin cancer development in 672 patients affected by actinic keratosis. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2016;151:628-633.

The appearance of AK configures the existence of a field of cancerization and early intervention can result in primary prevention of NMSC and MM.

A systematic review concluded that topical tretinoin improves photoaging despite causing irritation; it is considered the primary drug for the treatment of aged skin. 2525 Samuel M, Brooke RC, Hollis S, Griffiths CE. Interventions for photodamaged skin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005:CD001782.

Other retinoids at proper concentrations and formulated in an appropriate delivery vehicle might be useful. Regular use of broad-spectrum sunscreens is mandatory.

CHEMICAL PEELS AND TRETINOIN AS A PEELING AGENT

Chemical peels not only improve skin appearance but also cause histologic changes such as improvement of epidermal atrophy and atypia, as well as deposition of new subepidermal collagen. 2626 Roenigk RK, Brodland DG. A primer of facial chemical peel. Dermatol Clin. 1993;11:349-59.,2727 Nelson BR, Fader DJ, Gillard M, Majmudar G, Johnson TM. Pilot histologic and ultrastructural study of the effects of medium-depth chemical facial peels on dermal collagen in patients with actinically damaged skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;32:472-8.

Chemical face peels are generally classified according to the depth of penetration and its effect into: superficial (epidermal granular layer to the epidermal basal layer), medium (papillary dermis to upper reticular dermis), and deep (mid reticular dermis). 2828 Brody HJ. The art of chemical peeling. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1989;15:918-21.,2929 Matarasso SL, Salman SM, Glogau RG, Rogers GS. The role of chemical peeling in the treatment of photo-damaged skin. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1990;16:945-54.

Clinical improvement is proportionate to the depth of penetration. In superficial peels there is a need for sequential application to achieve the expected result. When compared to other peels, the healing process occurs faster and it is considered safer. Whereas, medium and deep peels are performed in a single application with a prolonged period for epithelization, implicating in more risks of infection.

In 2001, a case series with 15 participants investigated clinical and histologic modifications of the skin after five sessions of tretinoin peeling. The procedures were performed twice a month in concentrations of 1-5%. The study showed good clinical and histologic results applying the peel with 6 to 8 hours in contact to the skin in patients with skin types I to IV, with a quick achievement of lightening of melasma in photoaged skin over 2.5 weeks.3030 Cucé LC, Bertino MC, Scattone L, Birkenhauer MC. Tretinoin peeling. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:12-4.

One year later, these same authors (Cucé et al.) recommended the use of 5% tretinoin peel once a week, in three applications. At that time, Kligman commented this publication questioning stability and the advantage of such a high concentration. In fact, Kligman had previously stated that applying a 0.25% tretinoin in a solution of 50% ethanol and 50% polyethylene glycol every night was analogous to superficial chemical peels. This approach was named "rapid retinization" of photoaged facial skin.3131 Kligman DE. Regarding tretinoin peeling. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27608.,3232 Kligman DE, Draelos ZD. High-strengh tretinoin for rapid retinization of photoaged facial skin. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:864-6.

In a reply to Kligman's statements, Cucé and Bertino wrote that their intent was to investigte an accurate concentration of tretinoin applied as a peeling agent, not as daily use, as performed in Kligman's study.3333 Cucé LC, Bertino MC, Scattone L, Birkenhauer MC. Re: Regarding tretinoin peeling. Dermatol Surg. 2002; 28: 1097.

In 2004, one study demonstrated that 1% tretinoin peel was probably as effective in the reduction of the pigmentation in melasma in dark-skinned patients as the standard peel, using 70% glycolic acid.3434 Khunger N, Sarkar R, Jain RK. Tretinoin peels versus glycolic acid peels in the treatment of melasma in dark-skinned patients. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:756-60.

Topical retinoic acid applied daily to the skin produces modifications in the epidermis with dispersion of melanin.3535 Grimes PE. Melasma: etiologic and therapeutic considerations. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:1453-7.,3636 Tur E, Hohl D, Jetten A, Panizzon R, Frenk E. Modifications of late epidermal differentiation in photoaged skin treated with topical retinoic acid cream. Dermatology. 1995;191:124-8. It is possible that tretinoin peel, which is classified as a superficial peel, can induce the same modifications with the advantage of being faster and less cumbersome for the treatment of patients with melasma.3030 Cucé LC, Bertino MC, Scattone L, Birkenhauer MC. Tretinoin peeling. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:12-4.,3737 Rubin ME. Manual of Chemical Peels: Superficial and Medium Depth. Philadelphia: Lipincott, 1995. p.17-25.

In addition, 1% tretinoin peel provided the results in a relatively shorter period, that is, 12 weeks as opposed to the daily treatment with 0.1% tretinoin cream, which required 24 weeks to achieve the same outcomes.3838 Kimbrough-Green CK, Griffiths CE, Finkel LJ, Hamilton TA, Bulengo-Ransby SM, Ellis CN, et al. Topical retinoic acid (tretinoin) for melasma in black patients - a vehicle-controlled clinical trial. Arch Dermatol. 1994 Jun;130:727-33.,3939 Lawrence N, Cox SE, Brody HJ. Treatment of melasma with Jessner's solution versus glycolic acid: a comparison of clinical efficacy and evaluation of the predictive ability of Wood's light examination. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;36:589-93.

In comparison with 70% glycolic acid peel, the 1% tretinoin peel was less irritating and therefore better tolerated. As for effectiveness, both treatments reduced pigmentation, with no difference between the agents.3434 Khunger N, Sarkar R, Jain RK. Tretinoin peels versus glycolic acid peels in the treatment of melasma in dark-skinned patients. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:756-60.

Recently, in 2010, another study was published on the treatment of melasma by using 10% tretinoin peel. The clinical evaluation found moderate to intense improvement of this condition in all patients. This peel was suggested as an alternative modality in the treatment of melasma, considering tolerability and efficacy with no adverse events.4040 Ghersetich I, Troiano M, Brazzini B, Arunachalam M, Lotti T. Melasma: Treatment with 10% tretinoin peeling mask. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2010;9:117-21.

In 2011, it was performed a double-blind, randomized study using 5% and 10% tretinoin peels in 30 subjects aged between 25 and 59 years and phototypes III and IV. It was concluded that the treatment was effective and safe for melasma, with no difference between the concentrations.4141 Magalhães GM, Borges MFM, Queiroz ARC, Capp AA, Pedrosa SV, Diniz MS. Double-blind randomized study of 5% and 10% retinoic acid peels in the treatment of melasma: clinical evaluation and impact on the quality of life. Surg Cosmet Dermatol. 2011;3:17-22.

Despite these reports about the efficacy and safety of tretinoin peels in high concentrations, only a few studies quantify the concentration of the drug retained in the various layers of the skin in vivo. Currently an experimental study assessed in vitro penetration of tretinoin at 0.25%, 1% and 5% concentrations, in cream and solution of ethanol and propylene glycol in equal parts. Regarding the viable epidermis, there was a greater retention of the drug when it was conveyed to 5% solution.4242 Bagatin E, Bontempo E, Aguiar Jr N, Campos PM, Wagemaker T. Skin penetration of tretinoin in three concentrations as an agent for superficial chemical peeling. In: 69th Annual Meeting American Academy of Dermatology; 2011 Feb 4-8; New Orleans, LA. United States American. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64:AB 73

However there is still a debate about the advantage of highly concentrated tretinoin peel versus its continuous use at low concentrations. A study from 2015 showed that most of the tretinoin peel was retained in the stratum corneum.4444 Bagatin E, Wagemaker TAL, Aguiar Jr NR (in memoriam), Gianeti MD, Gonçalves EMB, Campos PMBGM. Tretinoin-based formulations - influence of concentration and vehicles on skin penetration. Brazilian J Pharm Sci. 2015;910:85-90. This might explain why tretinoin peels do not cause burning, stinging, pain or irritation at such high concentrations - which is commonly seen in home use of commercial formulations of the same agent at low concentrations. This very superficial retention of tretinoin peel implies that its only effect is an exfoliation of the stratum corneum, without action on the RAR of viable keratinocytes from the deeper layers of the epidermis.3131 Kligman DE. Regarding tretinoin peeling. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27608.,4343 Draelos ZD, Ertel KD, Berge CA. Facilitating facial retinization through barrier improvement. Cutis. 2006;78:275-81.,4444 Bagatin E, Wagemaker TAL, Aguiar Jr NR (in memoriam), Gianeti MD, Gonçalves EMB, Campos PMBGM. Tretinoin-based formulations - influence of concentration and vehicles on skin penetration. Brazilian J Pharm Sci. 2015;910:85-90. Therefore the sequential peels effect may not be similar to daily use of standard concentrations of tretinoin cream for melasma and photoaging.

Many reports attest efficacy of tretinoin for repairing photodamaged skin, and promoting wound healing.4545 Kligman AM, Grove GL, Hirose R, Leyden JJ. Topical tretinoin for photoaged skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;15:836-59.

46 Bhawan J, Gonzalez-Serva A, Nehal K, Labadie R, Lufrano L, Thorne EG, et al. Effects of tretinoin on photodamaged skin: a histologic study. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127:666-72.

47 Rafal ES, Griffiths CE, Ditre CM, Finkel LJ, Hamilton TA, Ellis CN, et al. Topical tretinoin treatment for liver spots associated with photo-damage. N Engl J Med. 1992;326:368-74.

48 Weinstein GD, Nigra TP, Pochi PE, Savin RC, Allan A, Benik K, et al. Topical tretinoin for treatment of photo-damaged skin. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127:659-65.
-4949 Olsen EA, Katz HI, Levine N, Shupack J, Billys MM, Prawer S, et al. Tretinoin emollient cream: a new therapy for photodamaged skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;26:215-24.

A randomized and comparative study showed that, despite being safe and effective, the use of low-dose oral isotretinoin was not superior to topical 0.05% tretinoin cream every other night, for the treatment of advanced photoaging.5050 Bagatin E, Guadanhim LR, Enokihara MM, Sanudo A, Talarico S, Miot HA, et al. Low-dose oral isotretinoin versus topical retinoic acid for photoaging: a randomized, comparative study. Int J Dermatol. 2014;53:114-22.

For patients with extensive actinic keratosis and diffuse photodamage, peel is more practical than current therapies for individual lesions.

Given the limits of tretinoin peels, one should identify their real benefits not only in the treatment of melasma, but also in photoaging, pre-neoplastic and neoplastic actinic lesions (field cancerization). Additionally it is essential to investigate the ideal concentration, vehicle and standardization of application (range and number) for a particular treatment. For this purpose it is necessary more controlled, randomized and comparative studies between the gold standard tretinoin cream treatment versus its use as a peeling agent.

  • *
    Study conducted at the Unit of Cosmiatry, Surgery and Oncology of the Dermatology Department of the Paulista Medical School - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
  • Financial support: none.

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Duell EA, Aström A, Griffiths CE, Chambon P, Voorhees JJ. Human skin levels of retinoic acid and cytochrome P-450-derived 4-hydroxyretinoic acid after topical application of retinoic acid in vivo compared to concentrations required to stimulate retinoic acid receptor-mediated transcription in vitro. J Clin Invest. 1992;90:1269-74.
  • 2
    Giguere V, Ong ES, Segui P, Evans RM. Identification of a receptor for the morphogen retinoic acid. Nature. 1987;330:624-9.
  • 3
    Petkovich M, Brand NJ, Krust A, Chambon P. A human retinoic acid receptor which belongs to the family of nuclear receptors. Nature. 1987;330:444-50.
  • 4
    Webster GF, Rawlings AV, editors. Acne and its therapy. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare USA Inc.; 2007.
  • 5
    Baldwin HE, Nighland M, Kendall C, Mays DA, Grossman R, Newburger J. 40 years of topical tretinoin use in review. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12:638-42.
  • 6
    Nagpal S, Chandraratna RA. Recent developments in receptor-selective retinoids. Curr Pharm Des. 2000;6:919-31.
  • 7
    Jurzak M, Latocha M, Gojniczek K, Kapral M, Garncarczyk A, Pierzchala E. Influence of retinoids on skin fibroblasts metabolism in vitro. Acta Pol Pharm. 2008;65:85-91.
  • 8
    Woodley DT, Zelickson AS, Briggaman RA, Hamilton TA, Weiss JS, Ellis CN, et al. Treatment of photoaged skin with topical tretinoin increases epidermal-dermal anchoring fibrils: a preliminary report. JAMA. 1990;263:3057-9.
  • 9
    Griffiths CE, Russman AN, Majmudar G, Singer RS, Hamilton TA, Voorhees JJ. Restoration of collagen formation in photodamaged human skin by tretinoin (retinoic acid). N Engl J Med. 1993;329:530-5.
  • 10
    Berardesca E, Gabba P, Farinelli N, Borroni G, Rabbiosi G. In vivo tretinoin-induced changes in skin mechanical properties. Br J Dermatol. 1990;122:525-9.
  • 11
    Vagotis FL, Brundage SR. Histologic study of dermabrasion and chemical peel in an animal model after pretreatment with Retin-A. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 1995;19:243-6.
  • 12
    Takahashi N, Fujiu Y. Cytokeratins 16 and 10 bind to retinoic acid covalently in skin tissue of mice. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:974-9.
  • 13
    Bagatin E, Parada MO, Miot HA, Hassun KM, Michalany N, Talarico S. A randomized and controlled trial about the use of oral isotretinoin for photoaging. Int J Dermatol. 2010;49:207-14.
  • 14
    Wright TI, Spencer JM, Flowers FP. Chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54:933-46.
  • 15
    Mrass P, Rendl M, Mildner M, Gruber F, Lengauer B, Ballaun C, et al. Retinoic acid increases the expression of p53 and proapoptotic caspases and sensitizes keratinocytes to apoptosis: a possible explanation for tumor preventive action of retinoids. Cancer Res. 2004;64:6542-8.
  • 16
    Kohl E, Steinbauer J, Landthaler M, Szeimies RM. Skin ageing. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011;25:873-84.
  • 17
    Pillai S, Oresajo C, Hayward J.Ultraviolet radiation and skin aging: role of reactive oxygen species, inflammation and protease activation, and strategies for prevention of inflamed-induced matrix degradation - a review. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2005;27:17-34.
  • 18
    Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC. William J. Cunliffe Scientific Awards. Characteristics and pathomechanisms of endogenously aged skin. Dermatology. 2007;214: 352-60.
  • 19
    Ivié NP. Skin aging. Acta Dermatoven. 2008;17:47-54.
  • 20
    Yaar M, Gilchrest BA. Aging of skin. In: Freedberg IM, Eisen AZ, Wolff K, Austen KF, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, et al. editors. Dermatology in General Medicine. New York:McGraw-Hill; 1999. p 1697- 1706.
  • 21
    Kelly RI, Pearse R, Bull RH, Leveque JL, de Rigal J, Mortimer PS. The effects of aging on the cutaneous microvasculature. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;33:749-56.
  • 22
    Gilchrest SA. Skin aging and photoaging: an overview. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21:610-3.
  • 23
    Helfrich YR, Sachs DL, Voorhees JJ. Overview of skin aging and photoaging. Dermatol Nurs. 2008;20:177-83.
  • 24
    Dika E, Fanti PA, Misciali C, Vaccari S, Crisman G, Barisani A, et al. Risk of skin cancer development in 672 patients affected by actinic keratosis. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2016;151:628-633.
  • 25
    Samuel M, Brooke RC, Hollis S, Griffiths CE. Interventions for photodamaged skin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005:CD001782.
  • 26
    Roenigk RK, Brodland DG. A primer of facial chemical peel. Dermatol Clin. 1993;11:349-59.
  • 27
    Nelson BR, Fader DJ, Gillard M, Majmudar G, Johnson TM. Pilot histologic and ultrastructural study of the effects of medium-depth chemical facial peels on dermal collagen in patients with actinically damaged skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;32:472-8.
  • 28
    Brody HJ. The art of chemical peeling. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1989;15:918-21.
  • 29
    Matarasso SL, Salman SM, Glogau RG, Rogers GS. The role of chemical peeling in the treatment of photo-damaged skin. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1990;16:945-54.
  • 30
    Cucé LC, Bertino MC, Scattone L, Birkenhauer MC. Tretinoin peeling. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:12-4.
  • 31
    Kligman DE. Regarding tretinoin peeling. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27608.
  • 32
    Kligman DE, Draelos ZD. High-strengh tretinoin for rapid retinization of photoaged facial skin. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:864-6.
  • 33
    Cucé LC, Bertino MC, Scattone L, Birkenhauer MC. Re: Regarding tretinoin peeling. Dermatol Surg. 2002; 28: 1097.
  • 34
    Khunger N, Sarkar R, Jain RK. Tretinoin peels versus glycolic acid peels in the treatment of melasma in dark-skinned patients. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:756-60.
  • 35
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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    May-Jun 2017

History

  • Received
    02 Nov 2015
  • Accepted
    28 Feb 2016
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