Accessibility / Report Error

Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis - a peculiar entity* * Work performed at the Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra – Coimbra, Portugal.

Abstract

Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis is a rare, non-follicular dermatosis, with fewer than 30 cases described worldwide. It can be either acquired or inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. We describe the case of an 83-year old patient with life-long, multiple, digitate, milimetric lesions, and a positive family history for the same dermatosis.

Keywords:
Dermatology; Genes, dominant; Keratosis

INTRODUCTION

Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis (MMDH) is a rare, non-follicular, keratinization dermatosis of unknown etiology that can be either inherited (in what appears to be an autosomal dominant pattern) or acquired.1Goldstein N. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratoses. Arch Dermatol. 1967;96:692-3.There are fewer than 30 cases described in international literature.2Caccetta TP, Dessauvagie B, McCallum D, Kumarasinghe SP. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis: a proposed algorithm for the digitate keratoses. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67:e49-55.

We herein report the case of a female patient presenting with a life-long history of a spiny dermatosis.

CASE REPORT

An 83-year-old woman presented with multiple, asymptomatic, non-follicular, skin-colored finger-like projections sparing the face, palms and soles (Figure 1). In the anterior thoracic wall, the lesions were flattened, with a yellow hue, forming 1-3mm crateriform papules (Figure 2).

FIGURE 1
Multiple digitate filliform skin-colored hyperkeratosis occupying the inner aspect of the left thigh
FIGURE 2
Multiple, 2-3 mm, honey-colored, crateriform papules distributed over the right mammary region. These lesions were present bilaterally on the anterior thoracic wall

They had developed over a period of 50 years; she had no other complaints and her physical exam was otherwise unremarkable. Apart from hypertension, she had no other comorbidites. These lesions had also affected her father, sister and daughter, since adulthood.

Biopsy of one of the crateriform papules showed ortho- and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis overlying a slightly acanthotic epidermis with a preserved granular layer and a very mild perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate in the upper dermis (Figures 3and4). Ancillary tests, including complete blood count, kidney and liver function, serum protein electrophoresis and chest x-ray, were normal; furthermore, she was up-to-date with her age-appropriate cancer screening exams.

FIGURE 3
Biopsy of a crateriform papule, stained with HXE, displaying acanthosis, hyperkeratosis and a mild lymphocytic infiltrate in the upper dermis
FIGURE 4
Detail of the crateriform papule’s biopsy. Note the parakeratotic hyperkeratosis overlying a tented epidermis with acanthosis and a preserved granular layer

She was diagnosed with MMDH and began treatment with salicilic acid 8% in petrolatum ointment, resulting in transient improvement.

DISCUSSION

Since Goldstein's first description of MMDH, in 1967, at least 29 cases have been reported under different names, all comprising non-follicular digitate keratosis.1Goldstein N. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratoses. Arch Dermatol. 1967;96:692-3.,2Caccetta TP, Dessauvagie B, McCallum D, Kumarasinghe SP. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis: a proposed algorithm for the digitate keratoses. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67:e49-55.

In a recent review, Caccetta et al. categorized digitate keratosis, proposing MMDH as a more accurate term to classify familial disseminated filiform hyperkatosis, disseminated spiked keratosis, minute aggregate keratosis, parakeratotic horns, transient postinflammatory digitate keratosis and digitate keratosis, which they considered to be synonyms for the same keratinizing disorder.2Caccetta TP, Dessauvagie B, McCallum D, Kumarasinghe SP. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis: a proposed algorithm for the digitate keratoses. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67:e49-55.

Typical MMDH lesions include white, yellow, brown or skin-colored, milimetric spicules and flat-topped, dome-shaped or crateriform papules, affecting mainly the trunk and limbs, sparing the facial and palmoplantar region.2Caccetta TP, Dessauvagie B, McCallum D, Kumarasinghe SP. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis: a proposed algorithm for the digitate keratoses. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67:e49-55.

Histopathology presents focal orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis arising from a tented epidermis, and a stratum granulosum of variable thickness. Parakeratosis and epidermal invagination, as well as a superficial dermal lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate, have also been described, although more rarely.2Caccetta TP, Dessauvagie B, McCallum D, Kumarasinghe SP. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis: a proposed algorithm for the digitate keratoses. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67:e49-55.A constant feature that is a common denominator throughout the reported cases, is the lack of follicular involvement.

Electron microscopy shows reduced keratohyaline granules with a variable number of Odland bodies.

MMDH can present as an inherited trait in the early twenties or thirties, or appear later in life in a sporadic acquired form.2Caccetta TP, Dessauvagie B, McCallum D, Kumarasinghe SP. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis: a proposed algorithm for the digitate keratoses. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67:e49-55.

Balus L, Donati P, Amantea A, Breathnach AS. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:431-6.

Pimentel CL, Puig L, García-Muret MP, Fernandez-Figueras MT, Alomar A. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2002;16:422-4.
-5Rubegni P, De Aloe G, Pianigiani E, Cherubini-Di Simplicio F, Fimiani M. Two sporadic cases of idiopathic multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001;26:53-5.The latter has been reported as a paraneoplastic syndrome, resolving after successful treatment of the accompanying laryngeal carcinoma.6Ferrandiz C, Savall R, Baumann E. Hiperqueratosis múltiple minuta y digitata: Un sintoma paraneoplásico? Med Cut ILA. 1978;6:279-84.The former is most likely an autossomal dominant dermatosis, even though its genetic basis and pathophysiology remain unknown.

Other keratinization disorders can be entertained in the differential diagnosis of digitate keratosis, including: Kyrle's hyperkeratosis follicularis et parafollicularis, Flegel's hyperkeratosis lenticularis perstans, lichen spinulosus, phrynoderma, spiny keratoderma, arsenical keratosis, hyperkeratotic spicules and trichodysplasia spinulosa.

The first two entities can be separated from MMDH based on their distribution (predominantly acral), as well as their different histopathology.3Balus L, Donati P, Amantea A, Breathnach AS. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:431-6.

Lichen spinulosus occurs mostly in children and lesions tend to form plaques of follicular spines. Phrynoderma, due to vitamin A deficiency, also leads to generalized follicular spines, as well as xerosis.7Torres G, Behshad R, Han A, Castrovinci AJ, Gilliam AC. "I forgot to shave my hands": a case of spiny keratoderma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58:344-8.This follicular accentuation facilitates distinction from MMDH. Spiny keratoderma, either inherited or acquired, occurs only on the palms and soles, just like arsenic keratosis that also demonstrates a predilection for acral sites in the presence of arsenic exposure.8Girard C, Dereure O, Blatière V, Guillot B, Bessis D. Vitamin A Deficiency Phrynoderma Associated with Chronic Giardiasis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2006;23:346-9.This location is typically spared in MMDH.

Hyperkeratotic spicules are harder to separate from MMDH, since they can be follicular or non-follicular, and affect the entire integument, but these paraneoplastic keratoses contain keratin and paraprotein that appear as eosinophillic globules on histopathology.

In trichodysplasia spinulosa, which has recently been associated with polyomavirus in immunossupressed individuals, follicular spines occupy the central face, allowing for distinction from MMDH.9Elaba Z, Hughey L, Isayeva T, Weeks B, Solovan C, Solovastru L, et al. Ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the trichodysplasia spinulosaassociated polyomavirus in biopsies of patients with trichodysplasia spinulosa. J Cutan Pathol. 2012;39:1004-9.

Systemic or topical retinoids and other topical keratolytic agents have reportedly led to temporary improvement but lesions inexorably return upon cessation of therapy.1Goldstein N. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratoses. Arch Dermatol. 1967;96:692-3.

Caccetta TP, Dessauvagie B, McCallum D, Kumarasinghe SP. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis: a proposed algorithm for the digitate keratoses. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67:e49-55.

Balus L, Donati P, Amantea A, Breathnach AS. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:431-6.

Pimentel CL, Puig L, García-Muret MP, Fernandez-Figueras MT, Alomar A. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2002;16:422-4.
-5Rubegni P, De Aloe G, Pianigiani E, Cherubini-Di Simplicio F, Fimiani M. Two sporadic cases of idiopathic multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001;26:53-5.

Our case outlines not only the characteristic non-follicular, finger-like keratosis but also honey-colored crateriform papules that have seldom been described. This perhaps corresponds to the multiple aggregate keratosis that Shuttleworth differentiated from MMDH, based only on the semiology of the lesions. Our patient, however, exhibits both clinical features while maintaining typical histopathologic findings, thus strenghtening the argument that MMDH and multiple aggregate keratosis are, in fact, the same entity.1010 Shuttleworth D, Graham-Brown RA, Hutchinson PE. Minute aggregate keratoses -a report of three cases. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1985;10:566-71.

  • Financial Support: None.
  • How to cite this article: Coutinho I, Gameiro AR, Gouveia MP, Cardoso JC, Figueiredo A. Multiple Minute Digitate Hyperkeratosis - uma entidade singular. An Bras Dermatol. 2015;90 (3 Suppl 1):S153-5
  • *
    Work performed at the Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra – Coimbra, Portugal.

References

  • 1
    Goldstein N. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratoses. Arch Dermatol. 1967;96:692-3.
  • 2
    Caccetta TP, Dessauvagie B, McCallum D, Kumarasinghe SP. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis: a proposed algorithm for the digitate keratoses. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67:e49-55.
  • 3
    Balus L, Donati P, Amantea A, Breathnach AS. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:431-6.
  • 4
    Pimentel CL, Puig L, García-Muret MP, Fernandez-Figueras MT, Alomar A. Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2002;16:422-4.
  • 5
    Rubegni P, De Aloe G, Pianigiani E, Cherubini-Di Simplicio F, Fimiani M. Two sporadic cases of idiopathic multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001;26:53-5.
  • 6
    Ferrandiz C, Savall R, Baumann E. Hiperqueratosis múltiple minuta y digitata: Un sintoma paraneoplásico? Med Cut ILA. 1978;6:279-84.
  • 7
    Torres G, Behshad R, Han A, Castrovinci AJ, Gilliam AC. "I forgot to shave my hands": a case of spiny keratoderma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58:344-8.
  • 8
    Girard C, Dereure O, Blatière V, Guillot B, Bessis D. Vitamin A Deficiency Phrynoderma Associated with Chronic Giardiasis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2006;23:346-9.
  • 9
    Elaba Z, Hughey L, Isayeva T, Weeks B, Solovan C, Solovastru L, et al. Ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the trichodysplasia spinulosaassociated polyomavirus in biopsies of patients with trichodysplasia spinulosa. J Cutan Pathol. 2012;39:1004-9.
  • 10
    Shuttleworth D, Graham-Brown RA, Hutchinson PE. Minute aggregate keratoses -a report of three cases. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1985;10:566-71.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    June 2015

History

  • Received
    09 Feb 2014
  • Accepted
    10 Mar 2014
Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia Av. Rio Branco, 39 18. and., 20090-003 Rio de Janeiro RJ, Tel./Fax: +55 21 2253-6747 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
E-mail: revista@sbd.org.br