Case for diagnosis* * Study conducted at the School of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP) - São José do Rio Preto (SP), Brazil.

João Roberto Antonio Larissa Cannizza Pacheco de Lucca Mariana Perez Borim Natália Cristina Pires Rossi Guilherme Bueno de Oliveira About the authors

Abstract

Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur Syndrome is a rare form of Lichen Planus, characterized by the presence of the triad: non-scarring hair loss in the inguinal and axillary regions and follicular spinous or disseminated acuminate papules; typical, cutaneous or mucous LP; and scarring alopecia of the scalp with or without atrophy. These features do not have to be present simultaneously.

Alopecia; Dermatitis; Lichen planus


CASE REPORT

A 60-year-old woman reports a 5-year history of violaceous and intensely pruritic lesions on the dorsum and scalp, associated with a 2-year history of hair loss. She also reports decreased hair growth in the axillary and inguinal regions in the same period.

Dermatological examination shows small, scaly, erythematous-violaceous, flat papules on the dorsal region; multifocal scarring alopecia areas, with smooth, bright and atrophic surface; discrete hair rarefaction in the axillary and inguinal regions; presence of longitudinal grooves and some depressions on the surface of the nail plate; no oral lesions (Figures 1 and 2). The histopathology of the dorsal lesion is shown in figure 3A and that of the scalp is shown in figure 3B.

FIGURE 1
Cutaneous, erythematouspurpuric lesions on the dorsal region
FIGURE 2
Perifollicular erythema with desquamation at the vertex of the scalp; cicatricial alopecia and smooth, bright and atrophic surface
FIGURE 3
A. HE 200x. Interface dermatitis with lichenoid pattern associated with dermo-epidermic detachment and lymphocytic infiltrate in band-like pattern in the upper dermis. B. HE 200x. Detail of partially destroyed follicle, with perifollicular fibrosis and perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate

The treatment was performed using highpotency corticoids and resulted, after three months, in an improvement of pruritus and a slight lightening of the lesions.

DISCUSSION

Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur (GLPL) syndrome is a rare form of Lichen Planus (LP), characterized by the triad: non-scarring hair loss in the inguinal and axillary regions, and follicular spinous or disseminated acuminate papules; typical, cutaneous or mucous LP; and scarring alopecia of the scalp with or without atrophy. These features do not have to be present simultaneously.1Zegarska B, Kallas D, Schwartz RA, Czajkowski R, Uchanska G, Placek W. Graham-Little Syndrome. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Panonica Adriat. 2010;19:39-42.

Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP. Dermatotologia. In: Shiohara T, Kano Y, editores. Líquen plano e dermatoses liquenóides. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier Mosby; 2011. p. 159-180.
-3Romiti N, Dinato SLM, Almeida JRP, Sementilli A, Moraes JM, Ribeiro MCM. Síndrome de Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur. Manifestação cutânea incomum associada a doença renal crônica. Diagn Tratamento. 2005;10:188-90.

Its etiopathogenesis is attributed to emotional factors, endocrine disorders, infections, neurological disorders, enzymatic changes, drug use and immune changes. However, its etiology remains unknown.4Berker DAR, Messenger AG, Sinclair RD. Disorders of Hair. In: Burns T, Cox N, Griffiths C, editors. Rook's Textbook of Dermatology. 7th ed. Turin: Black well Publishing; 2004. p.50-1.,5Ghislain PD, Van Eeckhout P, Ghislain E. Lassueur-Graham Little-Piccardi syndrome: a 20-year followup. Dermatology. 2003;206:391-2. There is a growing body of evidence that the dermatosis represents an autoimmune damage mediated by T cells against basal keratinocytes expressing autoantigens altered on their surface.1Zegarska B, Kallas D, Schwartz RA, Czajkowski R, Uchanska G, Placek W. Graham-Little Syndrome. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Panonica Adriat. 2010;19:39-42.,4Berker DAR, Messenger AG, Sinclair RD. Disorders of Hair. In: Burns T, Cox N, Griffiths C, editors. Rook's Textbook of Dermatology. 7th ed. Turin: Black well Publishing; 2004. p.50-1. Particularly in the case of GLPL, studies have shown the role of inner centromere proteins (INCENP) functioning as autoimmunity stimulating antigens; and Antigenic Mimicry or scattering of epitopes to stimulate a transition from LP to an ulcerative, exanthematous or other rare forms of the disease.6Rodríguez-Bayona B, Ruchaud S, Rodríguez C, Linares M, Astola A, Ortiz M, et al. Auto antibodies against the chromosomal passenger protein INCENP found in a patient with Graham Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome. J Autoimmune Dis. 2007;4:1.

Tchernev G, Nenoff P. Antigen mimicry followed by epitope spreading: a pathogenetic trigger for the clinical morphology of lichen planus and its transition to Graham Lassueur Piccardi Little Syndrome and keratosis lichenoides chronica - Medical hypotheses or reality? An Bras Dermatol. 2009;84:682-8.

Bianchi L, Paro Vidolin A, Piemonte P, Carboni I, Chimenti S. Graham Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome: effective treatment with cyclosporin A. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001;26:518-20.
-9Steglich RB, Tonoli RE, Pinto GM, Müller FM, Guarenti IM, Duvelius ES. Graham-Little Piccardi Lassueur syndrome: case report. An Bras Dermatol. 2012;87:775-7.

Diagnosis is clinical and histopathological. Histological findings, however, are not always specific and conclusive. The most characteristic consists of interface dermatitis with vacuolar degeneration of the basal cell layer and perivascular lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the middle dermis. The striking pigmentary incontinence favors the diagnosis of LP. In the LP of the hair, from the early stages, an inflammatory infiltrate appears around the hair follicles, especially in their upper half; and the follicular destruction occurs at a late stage.2Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP. Dermatotologia. In: Shiohara T, Kano Y, editores. Líquen plano e dermatoses liquenóides. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier Mosby; 2011. p. 159-180.,4Berker DAR, Messenger AG, Sinclair RD. Disorders of Hair. In: Burns T, Cox N, Griffiths C, editors. Rook's Textbook of Dermatology. 7th ed. Turin: Black well Publishing; 2004. p.50-1.,9Steglich RB, Tonoli RE, Pinto GM, Müller FM, Guarenti IM, Duvelius ES. Graham-Little Piccardi Lassueur syndrome: case report. An Bras Dermatol. 2012;87:775-7.

Differential diagnosis should be made with other causes of acquired scarring alopecia, such as pseudopelade of Brocq, discoid lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, follicular mucinosis, folliculitis decalvans, atrophic keratosis pilaris, graft-versus-host disease, eosinophilic cellulitis, dermatomyositis, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, scleroderma, mastocytosis, pyoderma gangrenosum, necrobiosis lipoidica and cicatricial pemphigoid.3Romiti N, Dinato SLM, Almeida JRP, Sementilli A, Moraes JM, Ribeiro MCM. Síndrome de Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur. Manifestação cutânea incomum associada a doença renal crônica. Diagn Tratamento. 2005;10:188-90.,5Ghislain PD, Van Eeckhout P, Ghislain E. Lassueur-Graham Little-Piccardi syndrome: a 20-year followup. Dermatology. 2003;206:391-2.

The classic treatment is done with the use of systemic and topical corticosteroids, retinoids, phototherapy, tacrolimus, hydroxychloroquine and cyclosporine, with partial and temporary results.3Romiti N, Dinato SLM, Almeida JRP, Sementilli A, Moraes JM, Ribeiro MCM. Síndrome de Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur. Manifestação cutânea incomum associada a doença renal crônica. Diagn Tratamento. 2005;10:188-90.,8Bianchi L, Paro Vidolin A, Piemonte P, Carboni I, Chimenti S. Graham Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome: effective treatment with cyclosporin A. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001;26:518-20.

References

  • 1
    Zegarska B, Kallas D, Schwartz RA, Czajkowski R, Uchanska G, Placek W. Graham-Little Syndrome. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Panonica Adriat. 2010;19:39-42.
  • 2
    Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP. Dermatotologia. In: Shiohara T, Kano Y, editores. Líquen plano e dermatoses liquenóides. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier Mosby; 2011. p. 159-180.
  • 3
    Romiti N, Dinato SLM, Almeida JRP, Sementilli A, Moraes JM, Ribeiro MCM. Síndrome de Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur. Manifestação cutânea incomum associada a doença renal crônica. Diagn Tratamento. 2005;10:188-90.
  • 4
    Berker DAR, Messenger AG, Sinclair RD. Disorders of Hair. In: Burns T, Cox N, Griffiths C, editors. Rook's Textbook of Dermatology. 7th ed. Turin: Black well Publishing; 2004. p.50-1.
  • 5
    Ghislain PD, Van Eeckhout P, Ghislain E. Lassueur-Graham Little-Piccardi syndrome: a 20-year followup. Dermatology. 2003;206:391-2.
  • 6
    Rodríguez-Bayona B, Ruchaud S, Rodríguez C, Linares M, Astola A, Ortiz M, et al. Auto antibodies against the chromosomal passenger protein INCENP found in a patient with Graham Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome. J Autoimmune Dis. 2007;4:1.
  • 7
    Tchernev G, Nenoff P. Antigen mimicry followed by epitope spreading: a pathogenetic trigger for the clinical morphology of lichen planus and its transition to Graham Lassueur Piccardi Little Syndrome and keratosis lichenoides chronica - Medical hypotheses or reality? An Bras Dermatol. 2009;84:682-8.
  • 8
    Bianchi L, Paro Vidolin A, Piemonte P, Carboni I, Chimenti S. Graham Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome: effective treatment with cyclosporin A. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001;26:518-20.
  • 9
    Steglich RB, Tonoli RE, Pinto GM, Müller FM, Guarenti IM, Duvelius ES. Graham-Little Piccardi Lassueur syndrome: case report. An Bras Dermatol. 2012;87:775-7.

  • Financial funding: None
  • How to cite this article: Antonio JR, Lucca LCP, Borim MP, Rossi NCP, Oliveira GB. Case for diagnosis. GrahamLittle-Piccardi-Lassueur Syndrome. An Bras Dermatol. 2014;89(6):1003-4.
  • *
    Study conducted at the School of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP) - São José do Rio Preto (SP), Brazil.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Nov-Dec 2014

History

  • Received
    19 Sept 2013
  • Accepted
    04 Dec 2013
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