Abstract in English:Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis
Abstract in English:Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare genodermatosis in which the skin involvement occurs in all patients. Additionally, other ectodermal tissues may be affected, such as the central nervous system, eyes, hair, nails and teeth. The disease has a X-linked dominant inheritance pattern and is usually lethal to male fetuses. The dermatological findings occur in four successive phases, following the lines of Blaschko: First phase - vesicles on an erythematous base; second phase - verrucous hyperkeratotic lesions; third phase - hyperchromic spots and fourth phase - hypochromic atrophic lesions.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is the most common malignancy and can be treated in various ways. One treatment modality is Mohs micrographic surgery. Due to the increasing incidence of skin cancer in the last decades, there is a need for improvement of the Mohs technique to optimize its effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dermoscopy to guide demarcation of Mohs micrographic surgery margins and ascertain whether this method can reduce operative time and, therefore, reduce surgical morbidity and cost. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The sample comprised 44 patients who underwent Mohs micrographic surgery, allocated into two groups: the control group and the intervention group. In the latter, surgical margins were guided by dermoscopy. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups by chi-square analysis (p = 0.399). CONCLUSION: Although outcomes were similar in the two groups, demonstrating that dermoscopy does not help in the demarcation of surgical margins for Mohs micrographic surgery, the study provides a practical proposal for improvement of the Mohs technique.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Chilblains are rather common in winter months in our country. OBJECTIVES: Determination of demographical and clinical characteristics of patients presenting with chilblains in Diyarbakir, Turkey. Evaluation of body mass index (BMI) as risk factor for development of chilblains. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients who were diagnosed as chilblains at our outpatient clinics were included in this study. No exclusion criteria were sought. Demographical data including height and weight and answers to questions related to personal history were recorded. A control group consisting of 108 controls were chosen from among patients presenting with complaints of hair loss. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 17.0. RESULTS: Of the 69 patients with chilblains, 45 (65.2%) were females and 24 (34.8%) were males. Mean age (±SD) of the patients was 21±9. 71.2% of the patients complained of itching, 51.6% of pain, 31.3% of burning in the lesions. 61.3% of the patients reported recurrence of the lesions every winter season. Mean BMI of the patients was 20.5±2.9. Mean BMI of the controls was 22.4±3.7 and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Low BMI may be a risk factor contributing to development of chilblains in persons exposed to cold weather conditions. Apart from external factors, there seems to be a personal tendency to develop lesions, as many patients report recurrences every year. Diagnosis of chilblains requires wariness, as history of cold exposure may not be evident.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: American tegumentary leishmaniasis has an annual incidence of 1 to 1.5 million cases. In some cases, the patient's immune response can eliminate the parasite, and the lesion spontaneously resolves. However, when this does not occur, patients develop the disseminated form of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. METHODS: A retrospective study of the medical records of 47 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data were collected, and semi-quantitative histopathological analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (p <0.05). RESULTS: Mean patient age was 40.5 years. A total of 29.7% individuals were female and 70.2% were male, and 40.4% of the patients were farmers. The ulcerative form was found in 53.2% of patients, of whom 59.6% had lesions in the limbs. The average time to diagnosis was 22.3 months. The following positive correlations were significant: age and duration of the disease, Montenegro reaction, degree of granulomatous transformation and epithelioid cell count; duration of disease, Montenegro reaction and number of lymphocytes; epithelial hyperplasia and edema, hemorrhaging, and epithelial aggression; number of plasmocytes and number of parasites. The main negative correlations found were as follows: age and serology; time and parasite load; epithelial hyperplasia and degree of granulomatous transformation. CONCLUSION: The long duration of the disease could be explained by the fact that lesions were relatively asymptomatic, and therefore ignored by patients with low literacy levels. Individuals may have simply waited for spontaneous healing, which proved to be dependent on the activation of hypersensitivity mechanisms.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Mastocytosis is a clonal disorder characterized by the accumulation of abnormal mast cells in the skin and/or in extracutaneous organs. OBJECTIVES: To present all cases of mastocytosis seen in the Porto Hospital Center and evaluate the performance of World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for systemic disease. METHODS: The cases of twenty-four adult patients with mastocytosis were reviewed. Their clinical and laboratorial characteristics were assessed, and the properties of the criteria used to diagnose systemic mastocytosis were evaluated. RESULTS: The age of disease onset ranged from 2 to 75 years. Twenty-three patients had cutaneous involvement and 75% were referred by dermatologists. Urticaria pigmentosa was the most common manifestation of the disease. One patient with severe systemic mast cell mediator-related symptoms showed the activating V560G KIT mutation. The bone marrow was examined in 79% of patients, and mast cell immunophenotyping was performed in 67% of the participants. Systemic disease was detected in 84% of cases, and 81% of the sample had elevated serum tryptase levels. All the diagnostic criteria for systemic mastocytosis had high specificity and positive predictive value. Bone marrow biopsy had the lowest sensitivity, negative predictive value and efficiency, while the highest such values were observed for mast cell immunophenotyping. Patients were treated with regimens including antihistamines, sodium cromoglycate, alpha-interferon, hydroxyurea and phototherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous involvement is often seen in adult mastocytosis patients, with most individuals presenting with indolent systemic disease. Although serum tryptase levels are a good indicator of mast cell burden, bone marrow biopsy should also be performed in patients with normal serum tryptase, with flow cytometry being the most adequate method to diagnose systemic disease.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Superficial mycoses are fungal infections limited to the outermost layers of the skin. Dermatophytic filamentous fungi and yeasts are the major causative agents of these mycoses. Dermatophytosis is one of the clinical conditions caused by fungal infections most commonly found in dermatological practice. Thus, knowledge of the ecology of dermatophytes provides a better understanding of the natural history of dermatophytosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate epidemiological and mycological features of superficial mycoses diagnosed from 2005 to 2011 in the Dermatology Clinic of the Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: This retrospective study was conducted in the Laboratory of Medical Mycology at the Dermatology Clinic of the Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo. Mycological examinations of 9042 patients with clinical suspicion of superficial mycoses performed between 2005 and 2011 were reviewed. RESULTS: Of 9042 direct microscopic examinations, 2626 (29%) were positive for dermatophytes, 205 (2.3%) were positive for Malassezia, 191 (2.1%) were positive for other types of yeast, 48 (0.5%) were positive for bacteria, and 5972 (66%) were negative. Mean age of patients was 48 years, 6920 (77%) patients were female and 2112 (23%) were male. CONCLUSION: The biota consisted of six dermatophyte species: T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, M. gypseum, T. tonsurans, E. floccosum, and M. canis. The most common site of involvement was the nail and foot in adults and scalp in children, with a female predominance. Both Candida and Malassezia were more prevalent in adult women, the former most commonly affecting the interdigital region and nails and the latter the chest and neck.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Chronic leg ulcer may have an impact on patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the impact of leg ulcers on patient's quality of life using the Dermatology Life Quality Index and to define the main factors correlated with this perception. METHOD: Cross-sectional, non-probabilistic sampling study. We included patients with chronic leg ulcers being treated for at least 3 months. A sociodemographic and clinical survey was conducted to assess the profile of the ulcers. We administered a screening for depressive symptoms and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. We performed a descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square test and Mann-Whitney test for categorical data, Pearson for numeric variables, and multiple regression for categorical data. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were assessed. Their mean age was 61.78 years. Venous ulcers (48.8%) were the most prevalent. Seventy-three percent of the sample perceived no impact/low impact on quality of life in the past week, and 26.8% perceived moderate/high impact. A multiple regression analysis identified the causes of lesion, pain related to the ulcers, time of onset, and severity of the depressive symptoms as the variables that had an influence on quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the sample perceived low or no impact of the condition on the quality of the life. The variables etiology of the lesion (p<0.001), pain related to the ulcers (p=0.001), time of onset (p=0.006), and severity of the depressive symptoms (p<0.001) had an influence on the quality of life, suggesting the need for further studies with more robust designs to confirm the causal relationship between these characteristics and quality of life.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: many studies about the psychosocial impact of acne have been reported in international medical literature describing quality of life as a relevant clinical outcome. It is well known that the patient's perception about the disease may be different from the physician's evaluation. Therefore, it is important to use validated instruments that turn the patient's subjective opinion into objective information. OBJECTIVES: to translate into Brazilian-Portuguese language and to culturally adapt a quality of life questionnaire, the Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (Acne-QoL), as well as to evaluate its reliability and validity. METHODS: measurement properties were assessed: 1) validity: comparison between severity and Acne-QoL domain scores, correlations between acne duration and Acne-QoL domain scores, and correlation between Acne-QoL domain scores and SF-36 components; 2) internal consistency: Cronbach's α coefficient; 3) test-retest reproducibility: intraclass correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: Eighty subjects with a mean age of 20.5 ± 4.8 years presenting mild (33.8%), moderate (36.2%) and severe (30%) facial acne were enrolled. Acne-QoL domain scores were similar among the different acne severity groups except for role-social domain. Subjects with shorter acne duration presented significant higher scores. Acne-QoL domains showed significant correlations, both between themselves and with SF-36 role-social and mental health components. Internal consistency (0.925-0.952) and test-retest reproducibility were considered acceptable (0.768-0.836). CONCLUSIONS: the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Acne-QoL is a reliable and valid satisfactory outcome measure to be used in facial acne studies.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris has an important genetic predisposition, as well as keratosis pilaris. Clinical observations suggest that patients with keratosis pilaris have less frequent or less severe acne breakouts; however, we found no studies on this regard OBJECTIVE: To determine if the presence of keratosis pilaris is associated with lower prevalence and severity of acne. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with dermatology outpatients aged between 14 and 35 years. We evaluated history and clinical grade of acne, demographic variables, history of atopy, smoking, and use of hormonal contraceptives. Two groups were defined by the presence or absence of moderate to severe keratosis pilaris on the arms and were compared by bivariate analysis and by conditional multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We included 158 patients (66% women), with a median age of 23±11 years. Twenty-six percent of them had keratosis pilaris, which was associated with a history of atopy (odds ratio [OR]=2.80 [1.36 to 5.75]; p<0.01). Acne was present in 66% of subjects, and was related to family history of acne (OR=5.75 [2.47 to 13.37]; p<0.01). In bivariate and multivariate analysis, the group with keratosis pilaris had a less frequent history of acne (OR=0.32 [0.14 to 0.70]; p<0.01). CONCLUSION: The presence of moderate to severe keratosis pilaris on the arms was associated with lower prevalence of acne vulgaris and lower severity of facial lesions in adolescents and young adults.
Abstract in English:The pemphigus group comprises the autoimmune intraepidermal blistering diseases classically divided into two major types: pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceous. Pemphigus herpetiformis, IgA pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus and IgG/IgA pemphigus are rarer forms that present some clinical, histological and immunopathological characteristics that are different from the classical types. These are reviewed in this article. Future research may help definitively to locate the position of these forms in the pemphigus group, especially with regard to pemphigus herpetiformis and the IgG/ IgA pemphigus.
Abstract in English:Mycobacterium leprae was first described as the bacillus that causes leprosy, a chronic granulomatous infectious disease, in 1873 by Amauer Hansen. Leprosy is part of a group of 10 neglected diseases and Bahia has endemic levels of this illness, varying between high and very high. The detection of 52 new cases of leprosy in children under 15 years old in Salvador in 2006 is alarming, and suggests an early contact with the disease. The aim of this review is to analyze the epidemiological situation, the detection rate and evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of leprosy in Salvador, in the period 2001-2009. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using secondary data collected at Notifiable Diseases Information System Database (SINAN) through the notification of patients with leprosy. Over these nine years 3,226 patients were reported, with a predominance of: females (51.5%), and clinical multibacillary forms in the general population (51.7%), but when we analyze those under 15 years old, paucibacillary forms (tuberculoid + indeterminate) prevailed. The tuberculoid form was the most diagnosed type of presentation. The annual detection rate in Salvador remained at a very high level of endemicity during the studied period and for those under 15 years old it ranged between high and very high. Grade 2 disabilities both at the time of diagnosis and at discharge after cure, varied between low and medium. Based on these data we conclude that the high levels of leprosy detection rates in the general population, plus the variation between high and very high levels in those under 15 years old, associated with the medium level of grade 2 disabilities at the time of diagnosis and discharge, demonstrate the need for improvement on the existing services, investment in active case finding and training of the healthcare professionals in Salvador.
Abstract in English:Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory disease with multifactorial etiology. Although clinical manifestations are varied, the skin is an important target-organ, which contributes to the inclusion of skin lesions in 4 out of the 17 new criteria for the diagnosis of the disease, according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics. The cutaneous manifestations of lupus are pleomorphic. Depending on their clinical characteristics, they can be classified into Acute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus, Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus, Chronic Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus and Intermittent Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus. Treatment is based on preventive measures, reversal of inflammation, prevention of damage to target organs and relief of adverse events due to pharmacological therapy. The most commonly used treatment options are topical, systemic and surgical treatment, as well as phototherapy. The correct handling of the cases depends on a careful evaluation of the morphology of the lesions and the patient's general status, always taking into consideration not only the benefits but also the side effects of each therapeutic proposal.
Abstract in English:The scientific community and general public have been exposed to a series of achievements attributed to a new area of knowledge: Nanotechnology. Both abroad and in Brazil, funding agencies have launched programs aimed at encouraging this type of research. Indeed, for many who come into contact with this subject it will be clear the key role that chemical knowledge will play in the evolution of this subject. And even more, will see that it is a science in which the basic structure is formed by distilling different areas of inter-and multidisciplinary knowledge along the lines of new paradigms. In this article, we attempt to clarify the foundations of nanotechnology, and demonstrate their contribution to new advances in dermatology as well as medicine in general. Nanotechnology is clearly the future.
Abstract in English:Genital warts can be diagnosed through physical examination and confirmed by histopathology. Noninvasive methods are useful for ruling out other diagnoses with no harm to the patient. In this study the clinical findings were compared to dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), and to histopathology findings, in order to determine possible patterns that can aid diagnosis of the lesion. It was possible to identify structural changes on reflectance confocal microscopy that are already known by dermoscopy, in addition to cellular changes previously seen only by histopathological examination. This study shows the use of reflectance confocal microscopy in cases of genital warts, providing important information that can be used in further studies.
Abstract in English:Fabry disease is an X-linked, lysosomal storage disease caused by the inherited deficiency of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. The diagnosis is usually late, with renal, cardiovascular and/or cerebral complications that reduce life expectancy. Angiokeratomas are asymptomatic lesions present as the initial manifestation and usually less appreciated. Their detection is important for early diagnosis and institution of treatment with enzyme replacement therapy, which prevents late complications reducing morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a male teenager with acroparestesias and angiokeratomas. Family medical research discovered that his mother and brother had similar signs and symptoms and that the three patients had the same mutation in the gene encoding the enzyme, confirming the diagnosis.
Abstract in English:A 24-year-old male patient, who underwent kidney transplant six years ago due to Lupus nephritis, for the last two years presented asymptomatic erythematous scaly plaques on the abdomen and areas exposed to light. Post-transplantation immunosuppressive medications included prednisone, mycophenolate sodium and sirolimus. The histopathologic features were typical for epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis with increased susceptibility to specific strains of cutaneous human papilloma virus. The term ''acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis'' was recently introduced to the literature and describes epidermodysplasia verruciformis occurring in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. We report an additional case associated to immunosuppression after kidney transplantation.
Abstract in English:Superficial Acral Fibromyxoma is a rare tumor of soft tissues. It is a relatively new entity described in 2001 by Fetsch et al. It probably represents a fibrohistiocytic tumor with less than 170 described cases. We bring a new case of SAF on the 5th toe of the right foot, in a 43-year-old woman. After surgical excision with safety margins which included the nail apparatus, it has not recurred (22 months of follow up). We carried out a review of the location of all SAF published up to the present day.
Abstract in English:We present a patient with Paracoccidioidomycosis/HIV coinfection which has been investigated because of chronic monoarthritis and mucocutaneous lesions. A biopsy of the synovial membrane and skin revealed structures consistent with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. At diagnosis, the count of CD4 + T cells was 44 cells/mm3. We emphasize the importance of clinical suspicion of Paracoccidioidomycosis in patients with HIV/AIDS who live in or are from risk areas.
Abstract in English:The tumor necrosis factor alpha is a cytokine related to immune and inflammatory processes by acting on different parts of the body. It is secreted by several cell types including macrophages, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, dendritic cells, among others. Infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to soluble and transmembrane tumor necrosis factor alpha form blocking its action. In rheumatoid arthritis it is used because the cytokines that cause inflammation in this disease are regulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient with rheumatoid arthritis who developed segmental vitiligo after two months using infliximab. The event aims to alert to the existence of this adverse effect that can be induced with the use of this medication.
Abstract in English:We describe a case of plantar interdigital cutaneous melanoma in a 22-year-old woman who reported changes in a pigmented lesion during pregnancy. Diagnosis was late and evolution unfavourable. The purpose of this report is to draw the attention of dermatologists to the need for careful regular examination of melanocytic lesions in pregnant women, not ignoring possible changes as always physiological.
Abstract in English:Seborrheic keratosis is a common skin lesion which may coincidentally be associated melanocytic nevi. The authors describe a case of dysplastic nevus associated with seborrheic keratosis and discuss the clinical, dermoscopic, and histological findings of this association. They also discuss the association between seborrheic keratosis and other benign and malignant tumours.
Abstract in English:We describe the case of a 32-year-old male patient that sought medical treatment complaining of severe pain in his second and third right-hand fingers. The symptoms had started two hours before. The hypotheses of spider bite, scorpion or insect sting and injury caused by a foreign body were considered in the differential diagnoses. On dermoscopy, two foreign bodies were identified on his skin. After extraction, we concluded that they were wasp stingers.
Abstract in English:We report a case of Tinea nigra in an adolescent living in Itapema, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who presented a hyperchromic macule on the palm of the left hand, close to another erythematous macule caused by a rabbit bite. The patient received guidance on accidents and animal bites and evolved well treated with topical butenafine for the dermatomycosis. The authors also highlight the efficacy of the dermoscopic exam in diagnosing Tinea nigra with animal bite lesions and other traumas.
Abstract in English:Pemphigoid gestationis is a rare, autoimmune blistering dermatosis of pregnancy. No increase in fetal or maternal mortality has been demonstrated, but a greater prevalence of premature and small-for-gestationalage babies has been reported. Topical and systemic corticosteroids and antihistamines are the manstay of treatment. The authors report a case of a 27-year-old woman at 28-weeks gestation with sudden onset of pruriginous vesicles and blisters in the abdomen and limbs. Systemic corticosteroids were introduced and maintained throughout gestation to prevent flares and tapered after the birth of a healthy child.
Abstract in English:Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is an infection caused by dematiaceous fungi which mainly affects immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis on the back of the left hand in a kidney transplant patient who had been taking prednisone, tacrolimus, and azathioprine daily for 3 years.
Abstract in English:Cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare, lymphoproliferative disease. It is benign and self-limited, only involves skin and subcutaneous tissue and typically occurs as histiocyte-rich inflammatory infiltrates, manifesting as erythematous to brown papules, plaques, or nodules, without predilection for site. The authors describe a case of cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease in a 72-year-old man who presented erythematous and scaled plaque on the right neck for three months without systemic symptoms. Owing to local involvement, the patient received a surgery to exsect the lesion completely and remained asymptomatic with no signs of recurrence at the 9-month follow up.
Abstract in English:Cutaneous involvement associated to multiple myeloma varies from 5 to 10% of cases and is infrequently recognized. Cutaneous metastatic plasmacitomas are rare. We present the case of a 72-year-old man with multiple myeloma in complete remission since 2 years ago with cutaneous tumors on the trunk and face. A cutaneous biopsy was consistent with plasmacytoma. The patient was treated with melphalan, prednisolone and radiotherapy. Despite optimal therapeutic response of the lesions, the disease progressed, with the appearance of new extra-cutaneous plasmocytomas. The cutaneous metastatic plasmocytomas were the first sign of progression of the disease.
Abstract in English:Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable penetrance and expression. It is characterized by a genetic predisposition to develop multiple adnexal neoplasias: cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas, and trichoblastomas. We describe a 54-year-old male patient with cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas, and trichoblastoma.
Abstract in English:The authors present a male 40-year-old patient with established diagnosis of Behçet's disease which had evolved to recurrent bilateral auricular polychondritis crises. MAGIC syndrome (mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage) is rare and groups together patients with this clinical picture without necessarily fulfilling the clinical criteria for Behçet's disease or relapsing polychondritis, demonstrating an independent disorder.
Abstract in English:The association of microphthalmia and linear skin defects was named microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) or MIDAS syndrome (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea), an X-chromosomal disorder manifesting mainly in females. We examined a female newborn with facial linear skin defects following the Blaschko lines. Computer tomography and ophthalmological examination confirmed bilateral microphthalmia. An interstitial microdeletion at Xp22.2, encompassing the entire HCCS gene, was identified. Dermatoscopic examination showed erythematous linear areas with telangectasias and absence of sebaceous glands, which appear as brilliant white dots. Vellus hairs were also absent in the red areas. Dermatoscopy could help to establish the diagnosis of MLS/MIDAS syndrome by confirming the aplastic nature of the lesions.
Abstract in English:The history of women in medicine has been marked by many challenges and achievements. Although the role of women in the "art of healing" can be traced back many centuries, only males are traditionally highlighted in history. Across antiquity, access to medical education was denied to females. Dermatology is a medical specialty in which women displayed particular skill and proficiency. Gradually, determination and competence allowed women to lay claim in an essentially male-dominated world. This article presents a brief review of the performance, progress and achievements of women in the history of medicine and dermatology.
Abstract in English:The study showed the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue to treat severe distal and lateral subungual toenail onychomycosis. 22 patients were divided into two groups: group A consisting of 11 patients with severe toenail onychomycosis and group B consisting of 11 patients with mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis. All patients had onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patients were treated with sessions of 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated with light emission diode device with 630 nm and 36 J/cm2 biweekly for six months. The clinical response was significantly better in patients with mild-to-moderate (100%) onychomycosis compared with patients with severe onychomycosis (63.6%).
Abstract in English:Z-Plasty is a procedure involving the transposition of two interdigitating triangular flaps. This technique is useful in a number of dermatological procedures. It can be used to correct defects resulting from surgical complications. This paper highlights several examples where Z-Plasty is of benefit in dermatosurgery, including the correction of: ectropion, lip misalignment and bifid earlobe. A valuable technique that every dermatologist should be able to perform.