Abstract in English:Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae and has been known since biblical times. It is still endemic in many regions of the world and a public health problem in Brazil. The prevalence rate in 2011 reached 1.54 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in Brazil. The mechanism of transmission of leprosy consists of prolonged close contact between susceptible and genetically predisposed individuals and untreated multibacillary patients. Transmission occurs through inhalation of bacilli present in upper airway secretion. The nasal mucosa is the main entry or exit route of M. leprae. The deeper understanding of the structural and biological characteristics of M. leprae, the sequencing of its genome, along with the advances in understanding the mechanisms of host immune response against the bacilli, dependent on genetic susceptibility, have contributed to the understanding of the pathogenesis, variations in the clinical characteristics, and progression of the disease. This article aims to update dermatologist on epidemiological, clinical, and etiopathogenic leprosy aspects.
Abstract in English:Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is the result of a chronic infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. ovis and occasionally by the Calmette-Guerin bacillus. The clinical manifestations are variable and depend on the interaction of several factors including the site of infection and the host's immunity. This article revises the current knowledge about this disease's physiopathology and immunology as well as detailing the possible clinical presentations.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Primary hyperhidrosis (PH) can lead to mood changes due to the inconveniences it causes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the existence of anxiety and depression in patients with severe primary hyperhidrosis who sought treatment at a medical office. METHODS: The questionnaire "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale" was used for 197 individuals, in addition to the chi square test and Fisher exact test, p <0.05. RESULTS: There was an increased prevalence of anxiety (49.6%) but not of depression (11.2%) among patients with PH, with no link to gender, age or amount of affected areas. Palmar and plantar primary hyperhidrosis were the most frequent but when associated with the presence of anxiety, the most frequent were the axillary (p = 0.02) and craniofacial (p = 0.02) forms. There was an association between patients with depression and anxiety (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: the involvement of Primary hyperhidrosis was responsible for a higher prevalence of anxiety than that described among the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. Depression had a low prevalence rate, while mild and moderate forms were the most common and frequently associated with anxiety. The degree of anxiety was higher in mild and moderate types than in the severe form.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE: A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS: Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. Result: In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION: Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Digital dermoscopy is the gold standard follow-up method for patients with high risk for developing cutaneous malignant melanoma. By comparing the same lesion at different moments, it allows early detection of subtle changes that could suggest the diagnosis of melanoma. Thus, it is clear that the test must be repeated after a period of time, according to time intervals determined by the evaluator. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate adherence of patients to follow-up examinations using digital dermoscopy. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of 36 patients who underwent digital dermoscopic examination and total-body photography in a private medical center between September 2010 and January 2013. Results: Only 25% of the patients returned for followup evaluations. CONCLUSIONS: Low adherence to digital dermoscopy follow-up could compromise the efficacy of this valuable method. This lack of adherence represents a challenge for the evaluator.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Pityriasis alba affects 1% of the world population and about 9.9% of the children in Brazil. However, its etiology remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. METHOD: Twenty patients with pityriasis alba and 20 patients with atopic dermatitis underwent biopsy. The dermal dendrocytes marked by factor XIIIa were counted by means of immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: The mean amount of dermal dendrocytes found in the patients with pityriasis alba was 2, whereas in the patients with atopic dermatitis it was 4, with a statistically significant difference between them. A cutoff point of 3 cells/square inch was established to differentiate pityriasis alba from atopic dermatitis, with 80% sensibility and 90% specificity. CONCLUSION: We believe that pityriasis alba and atopic dermatitis should be considered different clinical forms within the spectrum of atopic disease, in which sun radiation plays an important role by modulating the progression of the disease.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Fractional non-ablative lasers keep the epidermis intact, while fractional ablative lasers remove it, making them theoretically more effective. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical and histological alterations induced by fractional photothermolysis for treating photoaging, comparing the possible equivalence of multiple sessions of 1540nm Erbium, to one session of 2940nm Erbium. METHODS: Eighteen patients (mean age 55.9) completed the treatment with three sessions of 1540nm fractional Erbium laser on one side of the face (50 mJ/mB, 15ms, 2 passes), and one session of 2940nm on the other side (5mJ/mB, 0.25ms, 2 passes). Biopsies were performed before and 3 months after treatment. Clinical, histological and morphometric evaluations were carried out. RESULTS: All patients presented clinical improvement with no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05) between the treated sides. Histopathology revealed a new organization of collagen and elastic fibers, accompanied by edema, which was more evident with the 2940nm laser. This finding was confirmed by morphometry, which showed a decrease in collagen density for both treatments, with a statistical significance for the 2940nm laser (p > 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Three 1540nm sessions were clinically equivalent to one 2940nm session. The edema probably contributed to the positive results after three months, togheter with the new collagen and elastic fibers organization. The greater edema after the 2940nm session indicates that dermal remodeling takes longer than with 1540nm. It is possible that this histological superiority relates to a more prolonged effect, but a cohort longer than three months is needed to confirm that supposition.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: The cutaneous mycoses, mainly caused by dermatophyte fungi, are among the most common fungal infections worldwide. It is estimated that 10% to 15% of the population will be infected by a dermatophyte at some point in their lives, thus making this a group of diseases with great public health importance. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical, epidemiological, and therapeutic profile of dermatophytosis in patients enrolled at the Dermatology service of Universidade do Estado do Pará, Brazil, from July 2010 to September 2012. METHOD: A total of 145 medical records of patients diagnosed with dermatophytosis were surveyed. Data were collected and subsequently recorded according to a protocol developed by the researchers. This protocol consisted of information regarding epidemiological and clinical aspects of the disease and the therapy employed. RESULTS: The main clinical form of dermatophyte infection was onychomycosis, followed by tinea corporis, tinea pedis, and tinea capitis. Furthermore, the female population and the age group of 51 to 60 years were the most affected. Regarding therapy, there was a preference for treatments that combine topical and systemic drugs, and the most widely used drugs were fluconazole (systemic) and ciclopirox olamine (topical). CONCLUSION: This study showed the importance of recurrent analysis of the epidemiological profile of dermatophytosis to enable correct therapeutic and preventive management of these conditions, which have significant clinical consequences, with chronic, difficult-totreat lesions that can decrease patient quality of life and cause disfigurement.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Leprosy can have its course interrupted by type 1 and 2 reactional episodes, the last named of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Thalidomide has been the medication of choice for the control of ENL episodes since 1965. OBJECTIVES: These episodes can repeat and cause damages to the patient. In order to prevent these episodes, an extra dose of 100 mg/day thalidomide was used during six months, followed by a follow-up period of six more months after thalidomide discontinuation. METHODS: We included 42 patients with multibacillary (MB) leprosy who had episodes of ENL. They were male and female patients aged between 18 and 84 years. RESULTS: Of the 42 patients, 39 (92.85%) had the lepromatous form and three (7.15%) had the borderline form. We found that 100% of patients had no reactional episode during the use of the drug. During the follow-up period after thalidomide discontinuation, 33 (78.57%) patients had no reactional episode and nine (21.43%), all of them with the lepromatous form, had mild episodes, which were controlled using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory. There were no thalidomide-related side effects. CONCLUSION: A maintenance dose of 100 mg/day of thalidomide showed to be effective to prevent repeated type 2 reactional episodes of ENL.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: aAlthough rare, bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune blistering disease. Recent studies have shown that patients with bullous pemphigoid are more likely to have neurological and psychiatric diseases, particularly prior to the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid. OBJECTIVE: The aims were: (i) to evaluate the demographic and clinical features of bullous pemphigoid from a database of patients at a Portuguese university hospital and (ii) to compare the prevalence of comorbid conditions before the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid with a control group. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with bullous pemphigoid were enrolled in the study. They were compared with 176 age- and gender-matched controls, which also had the same inpatient to outpatient ratio, but no history of bullous or cutaneous malignant disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to calculate odds ratios for specific comorbid diseases. RESULTS: At least one neurologic diagnosis was present in 55.8% of BP patients compared with 20.5% controls (p<0.001). Comparing cases to controls, stroke was seen in 35.1 vs. 6.8%, OR 8.10 (3.80-17.25); dementia in 37.7 vs. 11.9%, OR 5.25 (2.71-10.16); and Parkinson's disease in 5.2 vs. 1.1%, OR 4.91 (0.88-27.44). Using multivariate analysis, all diseases except Parkinson's retained their association with BP. Patients under systemic treatment were eight times more likely to have complications than those treated with topical steroids (p< 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study substantiate the association between BP and neurological diseases. In addition, they highlight the potential complications associated with the treatment of BP.
Abstract in English:The present paper aims to provide basic guidelines to present epidemiological data using tables and graphs in Dermatology. Although simple, the preparation of tables and graphs should follow basic recommendations, which make it much easier to understand the data under analysis and to promote accurate communication in science. Additionally, this paper deals with other basic concepts in epidemiology, such as variable, observation, and data, which are useful both in the exchange of information between researchers and in the planning and conception of a research project.
Abstract in English:Preclinical and clinical research have shown that stem cell therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for many diseases in which current medical treatments do not achieve satisfying results or cure. This article describes stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications in dermatology today.
Abstract in English:Impetigo is a common cutaneous infection that is especially prevalent in children. Historically, impetigo is caused by either group A β-hemolytic streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus. Currently, the most frequently isolated pathogen is S. aureus. This article discusses the microbiologic and virulence factors of group A β-hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, clinical characteristics, complications, as well as the approach to diagnosis and management of impetigo. Topical agents for impetigo therapy are reviewed.
Abstract in English:Cutaneous melanoma is a challenge to treat. Over the last 30 years, no drug or combination of drugs demonstrated significant impact to improve patient survival. From 1995 to 2000, the use of cytokines such as interferon and interleukin become treatment options. In 2011, new drugs were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, including peginterferon alfa-2b for patients with stage III disease, vemurafenib for patients with metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody directed to the CTLA-4 T lymphocyte receptor, to combat metastatic melanoma in patients who do not have the BRAF V600E mutation. Both ipilimumab and vemurafenib showed results in terms of overall survival. Other trials with inhibitors of other genes, such as the KIT gene and MEK, are underway in the search for new discoveries. The discovery of new treatments for advanced or metastatic disease aims to relieve symptoms and improve patient quality of life.
Abstract in English:Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options.
Abstract in English:Psoriasiform Keratosis is a rare clinic entity. The etiopathogenesis remains unknown and the disease is characterized by a solitary, scaly or keratotic papule, or plaque mainly located on the extremities. Histopathological features closely resemble those of psoriasis. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman presenting a solitary and asymptomatic keratotic plaque, located on the back of the left leg, unresponsive to topical corticosteroids. We performed an excisional biopsy and histopathology was consistent with psoriasiform keratosis.
Abstract in English:Alopecia areata is a non-scarring form of alopecia that can be localized or widespread. Its etiology is unknown, but immunological factors are implicated in its pathogenesis. With the more frequent use of anti TNFα biologic drugs, some alopecia areata cases during their use have been described. We report a case of universal alopecia in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis while using adalimumab and leflunomide.
Abstract in English:Leprosy is clinically characterized by involvement of peripheral nerves and skin. The immunological profile of the individual defines the diversity of clinical manifestations, from skin disorders to systemic manifestations, especially the articulation ones, common in multibacillary forms, which may mimic collagen diseases and often posing diagnostic difficulties in endemic areas. This is a case report of asymmetric polyarthritis of small and large articulations associated with skin lesions which had been treated by a rheumatologist for 2 years with initial clinical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, and later, with the appearance of skin lesions, of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Abstract in English:Cutis verticis gyrata is characterized by excessive formation of scalp skin. It may be primary (essential and nonessential) or secondary. In the primary essential form it presents only folding skin formation on the scalp, mimicking cerebral gyri, without associated comorbidities. We report a rare case of a 28 year-old male patient with primary essential cutis verticis gyrata.
Abstract in English:Kissing nevus is a curious type of nevus that was first described on the eyelids and rarely described on the penis. We report two cases of kissing nevus of the penis and review previously reported cases. The lesions of the kissing nevus of the penis showed characteristic mirror-image symmetry relative to the coronal sulcus. On histopathology, the lesion showed a compound nevus.
Abstract in English:Cutaneous larva migrans is a pruritic dermatitis due to the inoculation of helminths larvae in the skin, and it often occurs in children in tropical and subtropical areas. The authors describe an atypical case of cutaneous larva migrans in a 11 year-old child with scalp involvement, an unusual topography for this lesion.
Abstract in English:Tinea nigra is a rare superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. This infection presents as asymptomatic brown to black maculae mostly in palmo-plantar regions. We performed scanning electron microscopy of a superficial shaving of a tinea nigra lesion. The examination of the outer surface of the sample showed the epidermis with corneocytes and hyphae and elimination of fungal filaments. The inner surface of the sample showed important aggregation of hyphae among keratinocytes, which formed small fungal colonies. The ultrastructural findings correlated with those of dermoscopic examination - the small fungal aggregations may be the dark spicules seen on dermoscopy - and also allowed to document the mode of dissemination of tinea nigra, showing how hyphae are eliminated on the surface of the lesion.
Abstract in English:Follicular mucinosis, also known as alopecia mucinosa, is a cutaneous mucinosis histologically characterized by accumulation of dermal type mucin in the pilosebaceous follicle and sebaceous glands. It presents in two forms, a primary or idiopathic form and a secondary form associated with various benign or malignant processes. Among the malignant processes, the main association is with mycosis fungoides. The frequent overlap of clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular biology characteristics makes the correct classification of these conditions difficult, therefore a long follow-up of all cases is recommended. We report the case of an adolescent with disseminated lesions and discuss the difficulty of early identification of secondary follicular mucinosis associated with cutaneous lymphoma.
Abstract in English:Over the last few centuries, the expansion of urbanization brought bats closer to urbanized areas, increasing the risk of accidents by bat bites. The morphology of bat bites can be varied, usually having an elliptical shape, about 0.5 cm along its greatest length, and the characteristic corkscrew bite pattern. The authors present the case of a patient who was repeatedly bitten by vampire bats for two months. A polymerase chain reaction was performed in the cutaneous nerves at the base of the hair follicles which showed negativity towards the rabies virus. The authors highlight the public health importance of this case, and discuss the morphological characteristics of these hematophagous bat bites.
Abstract in English:We describe a case of melanoma with the presence of comedo-like openings at dermoscopy. These structures, typical of seborrheic keratosis, represent an uncommon finding in melanoma. We emphasize the importance of searching for specific dermoscopic criteria for melanocytic lesions during the examination of a pigmented lesion, despite possible observations of characteristic structures of non-melanocytic lesions, in order to increase the accuracy in the diagnosis of melanoma.
Abstract in English:The purpose of this study is to compare scanning electron microscopy findings of the blister roof in three distinct bullous diseases: one intraepidermal acantholytic (pemphigus foliaceus); one due to hemidesmosomal dysfunction (bullous pemphigoid); and one secondary to anchoring fibril dysfunction - type VII collagen (dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa). In pemphigus foliaceus, acantholytic phenomena were readily demonstrated. In bullous pemphigoid, the epidermis had a solid aspect. In dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa a net was seen in the blister roof.
Abstract in English:Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycotic infection caused by dematiaceous saprophytic moulds. The most frequently isolated agent is Fonsecae pedrosoi. This article reports a case of a man from the Amazon region in Northern Brazil who presented with a lesion of 12 months' duration, which gradually increased in size until covering the majority of his right leg. A successful treatment with itraconazole was performed.
Abstract in English:A 6 year-old patient began to experience localized hairloss in the right temporal region three years ago. During the first appointment, diagnoses of alopecia areata and congenital triangular alopecia were made. After one year, there was no change. Upon dermatological examination, non-scarring alopecia was noted in the right temporal region, revealing extremely fine and fair hair follicles. A dermoscopy revealed only thin vellus-type hairs. Congenital triangular alopecia is a condition commonly confused with alopecia areata and is thus underdiagnosed. However, well-established clinical parameters and dermoscopic criteria can be used to distinguish skin diseases that affect hair and define the diagnosis.
Abstract in English:Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a fibrohistiocytic tumor of intermediate malignancy with aggressive localized growth, high recurrence rate, but low metastatic potential. It appears as a hardened plaque, with slow growth, upon which the development of nodules occurs. It predominates in the trunk and is unusual in acral locations. Histopathology reveals spindle cells with storiform pattern and cartwheel-like or whirlwind-like aspect. Immunohistochemistry shows positivity for CD34. The treatment is surgical. We report a case of long evolution, with an unusual location, that relapsed after surgery, to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and proper treatment, avoiding aggressive resections with increased morbidity.
Abstract in English:Pachydermodactyly is a rare and benign form of acquired digital fibromatosis characterized by the expansion of soft tissue around proximal phalanges and interphalangeal joints. The etiology remains unknown, although it is suggested that repetitive mechanic trauma like the interlacing or rubbing of the fingers can lead to skin thickening. We report a case of a young man with skin thickening around interphalangeal joints and compulsive finger manipulation habit. The histopathology disclosed hyperkeratosis, discrete papillomatosis, mild increase of fibroblasts and dermal mucinosis. The lesions regressed partially, after finger manipulation was stopped.
Abstract in English:Multiple autoimmune syndrome is a rare condition, described by Humbert and Dupond in 1988. It is defined by the association of at least 3 autoimmune diseases in the same patient. Vitiligo is the most common skin condition in this syndrome. This article presents the case of a 31-year-old male with vitiligo, alopecia areata, Crohn's disease, psoriasis vulgaris and oral lichen planus. The rarity of this case is highlighted by the coexistence of four autoimmune skin diseases in association with Crohn's disease, never described in the literature.
Abstract in English:Hay-Wells syndrome or AEC (Ankyloblepharon, Ectodermal dysplasia and Cleft lip and palate syndrome) is a rare ectodermal disorder. The treatment is aimed to prevent clinical complications. We describe the case of a four-month old male patient with erosions on the scalp, trunk and arms, trachyonychia, deformity of the ears, micropenis, cleft palate, decreased eyebrow and eyelash hairs, in addition to antecedents of surgical correction of ankyloblepharon. The importance of the correct diagnosis is emphasized, besides the investigation of the associated diseases, treatment of complications and genetic counseling of the parents.
Abstract in English:Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease that results from the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Over the last few decades, scientific evidence has redirected the focus of therapeutic studies to the immunologic pathways underlying its pathogenesis. This led to the biologic boom that we are currently experiencing, with the development and approval of targeted progressively more selective biological therapies and ongoing clinical trials of increasingly specific drugs, given their important implications for long-term efficacy and safety. Nevertheless, the search for the optimal biologic is still ongoing, and the best target has yet to be found.
Abstract in English:Skin cancer is the most common neoplasm in Brazil. Melanoma accounts for 4% of these neoplasms. Although childhood melanoma is rare, there is evidence that its incidence is increasing, placing it among the most important public health problems for the future. This work sought to conduct a retrospective review of cases of suspected melanocytic skin lesions in children, their diagnosis and management, and evaluate the sentinel lymph node biopsy method in some cases of cutaneous melanoma.
Abstract in English:Although cases of cutaneous Leishmaniasis have been reported in Brasilia - DF, its mode of transmission is still unknown. Center of Disease Control traps (CDC trap) placed around Sobradinho, a periurban area in the Brazilian Federal District, were able to capture a sample of phlebotomines composed of 89% Lutzomyia whitmani, 7% Lu. bacula, and 3% Lu. davisi specimens. Being of 77% of these specimens were captured in peridomiciliary. PCR analyses showed that the specimens were negative for Leishmania DNA. However, the high prevalence of Lu. Whitmani in the studied region suggests that it may be the main vector for the transmission of Leishmaniasis in peridomiciliary areas in the studied region.
Abstract in English:Thimerosal is an organic mercury derivative found in ophthalmic solutions and certain vaccines in Brazil. Although most studies suggest the prevalence of thimerosal sensitivity to be quite high, this condition does not currently have any clinical relevance. The present article surveyed 184 Brazilian products (151 topical medications and 33 vaccines) and found that thimerosal was only present in 3 ophthalmic solutions and 5 vaccines.