Abstract in English:Today, obesity is considered an epidemic all over the world and it is recognized as one of the major public health problems. Bariatric surgery is considered an appropriate therapeutic option for obesity with progressively increasing demands. The changes resulting from massive weight loss after bariatric surgery are related to numerous complications. This article will present the dermatological alterations that can be found after bariatric surgery. They will be subdivided into dermatoses that are secondary to metabolic and nutritional disorders, those derived from cutaneous structural modifications after major weight loss and the influence the latter may have in improving of certain dermatoses.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Leprosy is the main infectious cause of disability. It is said to be eradicated in São Paulo since 2005, but diagnosis is still late. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the social, clinical and laboratorial profile of leprosy patients diagnosed between 01/2007 and 12/2011, in a reference center in São Paulo. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study. Data of all new leprosy cases diagnosed between 01/2007 and 12/2011 were raised in São Paulo. RESULTS: 103 men and 71 women were diagnosed, most of them were multibacillary. Mean age at diagnosis was 49 yrs; 2,2% were children; 70% had incomplete primary education; 50% were referred without diagnostic suspicion of leprosy. Mean time since first symptoms/signs and diagnosis was 2 years; 64% of patients had some degree of disability, and 26% had grade 2. 23 cases were diagnosed only after being summoned, and 80% of these had no disability. Agreement between the Ridley and Jopling and the WHO classification was 75% (kappa index = 0.44). Serology for IgM anti-PGL1 (87 patients) showed a mean value of 0.25, and an association between MB classification and test positivity (p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Leprosy diagnosis in São Paulo is late. The disease mainly affected the socially disadvantaged and economically active population. Failure to detect the disease (41% in the last 10 years) could be due to the lack of suspicion and to decentralization. For the classification of patients with advanced leprosy, both the WHO and R&J classifications proved to be helpful tools.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: The dermoscopic features of vulvar melanosis lesions are well known. To our knowledge, there are only a few case reports about dermoscopic features of pigmented genital lesions in male patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dermoscopic and clinical characteristics of benign lesions of the genital area in both males and females, and to assess the distinguishing dermoscopic criteria of vulvar melanosis and atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type. METHODS: 68 patients with pigmented genital lesions were included in this observational study (28 male and 40 female). A punch biopsy was taken from all pigmented lesions and histopathological examination was performed on all specimens. RESULTS: We histopathologically diagnosed: genital melanosis in 40 lesions, atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type in 15 lesions, melanocytic nevi in 9 lesions, seborrheic keratosis in 4 lesions. The most frequent locations were the glans penis (19 patients, 67.9%) in males and the labia minora (19 patients, 47.5%) in females. The mean age of patients with atypical nevi (28,6 ± 11,36) was significantly lower than the mean age of patients with genital melanosis (47,07 ± 15,33). CONCLUSIONS: Parallel pattern is prominent in genital melanosis, ring-like pattern is only observed in genital melanosis. Most pigmented lesions on the genital area are solitary. Blue-white veil and irregular dots are only observed in AMNGT. According to these results, we propose that histopathological examination is performed, especially if blue-white veil and irregular dots are found by dermoscopy.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Cutaneous melanoma is a highly aggressive malignancy with increasing incidence worldwide. The southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina has one of the highest incidence rates of melanoma in the country. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological profile of melanoma patients in a southern city of Brazil. METHODS: a cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted, aiming to detect the clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous melanoma diagnosed in the city of Brusque - SC, between 1999 and 2013. RESULTS: A total of 213 cases in 212 individuals were studied. More than 50% of the patients were females (p< 0.05). The trunk was the most commonly affected site (p< 0.05), followed by the upper limbs. Nodular and superficial spreading melanomas were the most commonly detected in histological analyses. They did not differ statistically in frequency, but were more prevalent than other histopathological subtypes (p< 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between invasive and noninvasive melanomas (p= 0.2441). Among the invasive melanomas, those with Breslow thicknesses < 1 mm and between 1-2mm were more prevalent (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found a higher frequency of melanomas in female patients and patients aged over 51. The trunk was the most commonly affected site. Nodular and superficial spreading melanomas prevailed. Among invasive melanomas, those with Breslow thicknesses < 2 mm were the most frequent. This paper highlights the epidemiological profile of melanoma patients in the city and may help to identify and aid in the follow-up of those who are most likely to present the disease.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Autoimmune bullous dermatoses are complex diseases triggered by autoantibodies action against epidermal antigens or the dermoepidermal junction. Blisters and vesicles that evolve with erosion areas characterize them. Although rare, they present high morbidity, affecting the quality of life of patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the magnitude of autoimmune bullous dermatoses on life quality of patients treated in a public university service in countryside of Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on an inquiry with autoimmune bullous dermatoses patients assisted at outpatient university referral service. Elements related to quality of life were evaluated by the Dermatology Life Quality Index, as well as clinical and demographic data. RESULTS: The study evaluated 43 patients with pemphigus foliaceus, 32 with pemphigus vulgaris, 6 with bullous pemphigoid and 3 with dermatitis herpetiformis. The average age was 48 ± 16 years and 34 (40%) were female. The median score (p25-p75) of the Dermatology Life Quality Index was 16 (9-19), classified as "severe impairment" of life quality, in which the greater impact was related to symptoms and feelings, daily and leisure activities. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmune bullous dermatoses inflict severe impairment of quality of life for patients followed by a public outpatient clinic in the countryside of Brazil.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Melasma is a chronic, acquired hyperpigmentation disease on sun-exposed areas of the skin, which affects patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on the quality of life of women living in Florianópolis, Brazil, through questionnaire (MelasQol), and investigate the clinical aspects and risk factors for melasma, correlating them with the MelasQol scores. METHODS: This study was performed on 51 melasma patients cared for at the University Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. The variables included were: age, gender, age of onset of melasma, Fitzpatrick phototype (I-VI), duration and family history of melasma, onset of melasma during pregnancy, use of hormonal contraceptive, thyroid disorder and distribution of melasma. The MelasQoL questionnaire, validated for Brazilian Portuguese (MelasQoL-BP), was applied. RESULTS: The mean age was 38.43±6.75 years. All patients were women. The most common Fitzpatrick skin phototypes were III (49.02%) and IV (33.33%). Melasma had a mean age of onset of 29.18±7.05 years and a mean duration of 9.25±6.18 years. The majority of patients did not have familial history of melasma (50.98%). Melasma onset was associated with pregnancy (45.10%). The MelasQoL-BP analysis revealed significant emotional impact on patients, such as feeling bothered (94.11%), frustrated and embarrassed (64.71%), and depressed (52.94%) about their skin appearance, as well as unattractive (78.43%). No social impact was observed (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Melasma has a strong emotional impact on quality of life, resulting especially from feelings about skin appearance.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Telemedicine refers to the use of technology as improvement of healthcare delivery to places where distance becomes an obstacle. Its use represents a great potential for dermatology, a specialty whose visual analysis phase is essential in diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the compatibility index of skin cancer diagnoses between primary care and teledermatology, and to validate a protocol for standardization of digital imaging to obtain the reports in teledermatology. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study developed through the census of 333 examination requests, received between January/2012 and July/2012, in the Center for Telemedicine and Telehealth of SES-SC. We used a protocol for photographic lesion standardization, consisting of three steps (panoramic photo, close-up with ruler and dermoscopy). After collection, the data were sent to a virtual site on the Internet, and recorded with the use of an electronic health record containing the images, the skin phototype and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The level of compatibility between the diagnosis of skin cancer in Santa Catarina's primary care and the diagnosis proposed by teledermatology was 19.02%. Proportionally, it was 21.21% for BCC, 44.44% for SCC and 6.98% for MM. The protocol was statistically significant (p <0.05), with an OR of 38.77. CONCLUSION: The rate of diagnostic compatibility of skin cancer was low and the use of the protocol optimized the chance of validating requests for examination.
Abstract in English:The study aimed to verify the therapeutic action of isotretinoin in the treatment of sebaceous hyperplasia. During two months, 20 patients with sebaceous hyperplasia took isotretinoin at a dosage of 1mg/kg per day. Their skin lesions were counted and photographed before and after treatment and re-evaluated two years later. The average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions before treatment was 24 per patient. At the end of two months of therapy, the number of lesions decreased to 2 per patient. The statistically analyzed data showed a reduction in the number of lesions following isotretinoin use (p < 0.05). Two years after the end of the treatment, the average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions was 4 per patient. There were no severe side effects. Thus, the data analysis suggests that isotretinoin is a safe and effective drug for treating the disease under study.
Abstract in English:Epidermolysis Bullosa is a genetic disorder that affects mainly the skin, however, all others systems are influenced. The nutritional care of children and adolescents with Epidermolysis Bullosa is a key treatment strategy, since the energy needs are increased due to the disease's metabolism, burdening the immune system and cicatrization process, symptoms caused by the disease hinder the intake and adequate absorption of nutrients, which may result in inadequate growth and development. Because this is a rare disease, there are few professionals who know the characteristics of both the clinical evolution and nutritional and dietary treatments. This literature review discusses the latest knowledge on energy and specific nutrient requirements to the dietary treatment and monitoring of children and adolescents with Epidermolysis Bullosa.
Abstract in English:Paget's disease, described by Sir James Paget in 1874, is classified as mammary and extramammary. The mammary type is rare and often associated with intraductal cancer (93-100% of cases). It is more prevalent in postmenopausal women and it appears as an eczematoid, erythematous, moist or crusted lesion, with or without fine scaling, infiltration and inversion of the nipple. It must be distinguished from erosive adenomatosis of the nipple, cutaneous extension of breast carcinoma, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, chronic eczema, lactiferous ducts ectasia, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma and intraductal papilloma. Diagnosis is histological and prognosis and treatment depend on the type of underlying breast cancer. Extramammary Paget's disease is considered an adenocarcinoma originating from the skin or skin appendages in areas with apocrine glands. The primary location is the vulvar area, followed by the perianal region, scrotum, penis and axillae. It starts as an erythematous plaque of indolent growth, with well-defined edges, fine scaling, excoriations, exulcerations and lichenification. In most cases it is not associated with cancer, although there are publications linking it to tumors of the vulva, vagina, cervix and corpus uteri, bladder, ovary, gallbladder, liver, breast, colon and rectum. Differential diagnoses are candidiasis, psoriasis and chronic lichen simplex. Histopathology confirms the diagnosis. Before treatment begins, associated malignancies should be investigated. Surgical excision and micrographic surgery are the best treatment options, although recurrences are frequent.
Abstract in English:Biologic drugs represent a substantial progress in the treatment of chronic inflammatory immunologic diseases. However, its crescent use has revealed seldom reported or unknown adverse reactions, mainly associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF). Psoriasiform cutaneous reactions and few cases of alopecia can occur in some patients while taking these drugs. Two cases of alopecia were reported after anti-TNF therapy. Both also developed psoriasiform lesions on the body. This is the second report about a new entity described as 'anti-TNF therapy-related alopecia', which combines clinical and histopathological features of both alopecia areata and psoriatic alopecia. The recognition of these effects by specialists is essential for the proper management and guidance of these patients.
Abstract in English:We report the case of a 54-year-old woman with concurrent Sweet's syndrome, pathergy phenomenon and eythema nodosum-like lesions associated with suppurative tonsillitis. Tender, violaceous and highly edematous papules and plaques were detected on the forearms and legs, some of which were pseudovesicular. Similar edematous papules were detected on the dorsum of the hands at the sites of intravenous injection. Biopsies of a plaque on the forearm and a papule at the site of intravenous injection confirmed the presence of Sweet's syndrome. Multiple, tender, violet-red, subcutaneous erythematous nodules were revealed on the legs. A biopsy taken from a nodule on the leg revealed septal panniculitis. To our knowledge, no patient with concurrent Sweet's syndrome, pathergy phenomenon, and erythema nodosum-lesions had been reported yet in previous literature.
Abstract in English:Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention.
Abstract in English:Kikuchi's disease is a benign, self-limiting disease, whose pathogenesis remains unknown. Patients most often present with cervical lymphadenopathy, sometimes associated with fever and leukopenia. It has been reported that up to 40% of patients with Kikuchi's disease have also cutaneous eruptions, but no specific skin changes have been described. Kikuchi's disease can be subclassified into three histologic subtypes: a proliferative type, a necrotizing type and a xantomathous type. Most patients with Kikuchi's disease require no specific treatment, because the disease regresses spontaneously, within a few weeks to months. We report a case of a 31-year-old woman with xanthomatous type of Kikuchi's disease, whose first manifestation was the onset of erythematous papules with central suppuration on her face and on her left hand.
Abstract in English:Brazilian spotted fever is an acute febrile infectious disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, transmitted by tick bite. As this disease is rare and has high mortality rates in Brazil, the clinical aspects and epidemiological data may help the diagnosis. We report a case of Brazilian spotted fever in a 19-year-old patient who presented maculopapular exanthema in the palmar region and upper limbs, lymphadenopathy, fever, chills, headache, conjunctival hyperemia, nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, myalgia, developing neurological signs and abdominal pain. He was treated with doxycycline with clinical improvement. We emphasize the importance of the recognition of this disease by dermatologists as cutaneous manifestations are the key findings to establish early diagnosis and prevent complications.
Abstract in English:We report the case of a three-year-old child who, following long term treatment with topical corticosteroids and their associations for a case of ringworm on the face developed a form of folliculitis known as Majocchi's Granuloma. Treatment with oral Griseofulvin was successful.
Abstract in English:A 70-year-old male presenting a 3-month history of genital painless erythematous nodules in the balanopreputial sulcus was referred to our service. Histopathological exam presented a chronic dermatitis with epithelioid granulomas and Grocott staining revealed numerous fungal structures with a suggestive morphology of Histoplasma sp. Cultures evidenced Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum. Treatment with oral itraconazole led to complete remission of lesions.
Abstract in English:Local flaps are the standard procedure to reconstruct facial defects. As it occurs in any surgical procedure, the incision should be planned so that scars are located in the minimum skin tension lines. We report two cases of O to Z flaps in the supra and infraciliary regions. One of them is a hatchet flap.
Abstract in English:Lymphangiomas are congenital lymphatic malformations and cutaneous lymphangioma circumscriptum is the most common type. It is clinically characterized by clusters of translucent vesicles and the presence of dermoscopically yellow lacunae surrounded by pale septa, as well as reddish to bluish lacunae. In our case, the recently described hypopyon-like feature manifested, aiding in the sometimes difficult differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphangioma circumscriptum with vascular lesions, further highlighting the importance of dermoscopy in what can be a diagnostic challenge.
Abstract in English:A sixty-one year old white female was referred to the Dermatology Department to treat an ingrown nail in the inner corner of the left hallux. Examination of the entire nail unit showed the presence of xanthonychia in the outer corner besides thickening and increase in the transverse curvature of the nail plate. Dermoscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance of the free edge of the nail plate detected characteristic signs of onychomatricoma, a diagnosis that was later confirmed by anatomopathological exam.
Abstract in English:Lacaziosis or Jorge Lobo's disease is a fungal, granulomatous, chronic infectious disease caused by Lacazia loboi, which usually affects the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is characterized by slow evolution and a variety of cutaneous manifestations with the most common clinical expression being nodular keloid lesions that predominate in exposed areas. We report the case of a patient who had an unusual clinical presentation, with a single-plated lesion on the back. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of Lacaziosis.
Abstract in English:Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis is the most common acquired systemic amyloidosis. Its presentation is often insidious and progressive, which may delay diagnosis. The authors describe a rare case of immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis in a 34-year-old man with scleroderma-like manifestation substantiated by multifarious laboratory investigations and the histopathologic feature of involved skin lesions stained with Congo red and crystal violet. This helps to maintain a high clinical suspicion of the disease when confronting similar skin presentation.
Abstract in English:We conducted a transversal retrospective study with secondary data collection from 25 cases of sporotrichosis, treated at a teaching unit in inner São Paulo (Brazil), between the years 2003-2013. We found that the prevalence was higher in men (72%), rural workers (44%) and those living in rural areas (60%), with an average age of 42.48 years. The median between the onset of lesions and diagnosis was six weeks. Lesions predominated in the upper limbs (92%), and were classified as lymphocutaneous (80%) and fixed cutaneous (20%) forms. Clinical cure was observed in 62.5% of the cases treated with potassium iodide and 100% of cases treated with itraconazole.
Abstract in English:Shiitake Dermatitis is a skin eruption that resembles whiplash marks and occurs after consumption of raw shiitake mushrooms. It is caused by a toxic reaction to lentinan, a thermolabil polysaccharide which decomposes upon heating. We report the second case of this dermatitis in Brazil. A 25-year-old man presented with linearly arranged erythematous, pruritic papules on the trunk and limbs, after ingestion of a salad containing raw shiitake mushrooms. The eruption was self-limited, resolving within 10 days of onset. The recognition of this entity gains importance due to the increased consumption of shiitake mushrooms in occidental countries.
Abstract in English:Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune, acquired, cutaneous disease caused by the production of autoantibodies against hemidesmosomes' components in the basement membrane. The estimated incidence in Europe ranges from 7 to 43 cases per million inhabitants per year. Several studies have reported an association between BP and neurological disorders (ND). Our cohort of Bullous pemphigoid and ND is the first in Brazil and showed a significantly high prevalence of neurological and/or psychiatric diseases, especially cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and dementia, in agreement with the prevalence reported in several studies published in the medical literature in recent years.