Abstract in English:Abstract Cutaneous mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection caused by opportunistic fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota. It is frequent in poorly controlled diabetic patients and individuals with immunosuppression. It is usually acquired by direct inoculation through trauma. The clinical presentation is nonspecific, but an indurated plaque that rapidly evolves to necrosis is a common finding. Diagnosis should be confirmed by demonstration of the etiological agent and new molecular diagnostic tools have recently been described. It is an invasive life-threatening disease and in order to improve survival, a prompt diagnosis and multidisciplinary management should be provided. The treatment of choice is amphotericin B, but new azoles, such as posaconazole and isavuconazole, must be considered.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Vitiligo is a chronic disease characterized by the appearance of achromic macules caused by melanocyte destruction. Surgical treatments with melanocyte transplantation can be used for stable vitiligo cases. Objectives: To evaluate treatment response to the autologous transplantation of noncultured epidermal cell suspension in patients with stable vitiligo. Methods: Case series study in patients with stable vitiligo submitted to noncultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation and evaluated at least once, between 3 and 6 months after the procedure, to observe repigmentation and possible adverse effects. The maximum follow-up period for some patients was 24 months. Results: Of the 20 patients who underwent 24 procedures, 25% showed an excellent rate of repigmentation, 50% good repigmentation, 15% regular, and 10% poor response. The best results were observed in face and neck lesions, while the worst in extremity lesions (88% and 33% of satisfactory responses, respectively). Patients with segmental vitiligo had a better response (84%) compared to non-segmental ones (63%). As side effects were observed hyperpigmentation of the treated area and the appearance of Koebner phenomenon in the donor area. Study limitations: Some limitations of the study included the small number of patients, a subjective evaluation, and the lack of long-term follow-up on the results. CONCLUSION: Noncultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation is efficient and well tolerated for stable vitiligo treatment, especially for segmental vitiligo on the face and neck.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Von Zumbusch type of generalized pustular psoriasis is a rare variant of psoriasis in children. It can occur in patients with or without psoriasis vulgaris. Objective: The aim of the study was to discuss the precipitating factors, clinical manifestations, laboratory data and therapy of von Zumbusch type of generalized pustular psoriasis in children from southwestern China and to improve the diagnosis and treatment level. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted for inpatients aged 14 years old or less with von Zumbusch type of generalized pustular psoriasis in our department from 2005 to 2014. Results: A total of 26 patients were included, of whom four (15.38%) had previous history of psoriasis vulgaris and one (3.85%) had previous history of psoriasis arthropathica. Mean onset age was 6.90 years. Gender distribution was equivalent. Incidence of the disease in summer and autumn was higher than that in winter and spring. Nineteen (73.08%) cases were triggered by infection, two (7.69%) cases were caused by sudden discontinuation of systemic use of corticosteroid. Twenty-four (92.31%) cases had concomitant fever. The initial lesion manifested as non-follicular sterile pustules on erythema. Sixteen patients responded well to acitretin, 11 to Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF), two to cyclosporine, and one to methotrexate. Study limitations: This study is a retrospective one and the number of cases is small. CONCLUSION: Von Zumbusch type of generalized pustular psoriasis is a rare disease in children, infection is the most common precipitating factor, acitretin is the first-line therapy, traditional Chinese medicine TwHF also can be used.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: S100B protein was reported to be elevated in psoriatic patients' serum, with no previous evaluation of its skin expression, in contrast to the extensively studied S100 protein. Objective: To evaluate the serum level and skin expression of S100B in psoriasis to assess its possible involvement in its pathogenesis. Methods: Serum level of S100B protein was estimated in 40 psoriatic patients of different clinical varieties and 10 healthy controls. S100B protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically in lesional and non-lesional skin of patients and in normal skin of controls. Relation to disease severity was also evaluated. Results: Serum level of S100B protein was significantly higher in psoriatic patients (0.15±0.03 µg/l) than in controls (0.03±0.007 µg/l) (P-value <0.001) with no significant correlation with PASI score. On comparing grades of S100B protein skin expression in lesional and non-lesional skin biopsies, a statistically significant difference was found (P=0.046) with higher percentage of strong S100B skin expression (60%) in non-lesional than in lesional (42%) skin. All the control biopsies showed negative expression. Study limitations: Relatively small sample size with a limited range of low PASI scores. Conclusion: This study points to a potential link between psoriasis and S100B protein with higher serum and skin expression in patients than in controls.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Familial progressive hyper- and hypopigmentation (FPHH) is a rare genodermatosis that is characterized by diffuse hyper- and hypopigmented spots on the skin and mucous membranes. It is caused by a pathogenic mutation of the KITLG gene. Objectives: To investigate the clinical features and mutation of the KITLG gene in a Chinese family with FPHH. Methods: Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of lesions from the proband was performed. The KITLG gene was screened for the presence of mutations. Results: A Chinese family containing 14 individuals with FPHH was described, and the proband was a 5-year-old girl showing diffuse hyper- and hypopigmented lesions on her extremities and trunk. Histopathological and immunohistochemical staining for S100 and HMB45 of skin biopsy specimens from the hyperpigmented areas showed a striking increase in melanin throughout the epidermis, especially in the basal cell layer, and staining of hypopigmented area specimens displayed lower levels of melanin in the epidermis. Mutation analysis of the KITLG gene was performed, but no mutation was found. Study limitations: The new pathogenic gene was not found. Conclusion: A family with FPHH was described. Analysis revealed that its members did not have any mutations of the KITLG gene, which provided evidence for genetic heterogeneity of this genodermatosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: In Brazil, 38,000 new cases of leprosy are discovered each year, making it a public health problem. Objective: To identify whether or not there is an association between activity limitations and the restriction of social participation with some demographic data (age range, gender, and education) of the patients in a Basic Health Unit (BHU), diagnosed with leprosy. Methods: The SALSA scale was used to assess activity limitations, whereas the Participation scale was used to assess the restriction of social participation. Results: The assessments were conducted with 31 BHU patients diagnosed with leprosy. Males were the most affected by leprosy, the multibacillary was the most prevalent, and education proved to be an important factor when related to the disease injuries among the evaluated individuals. Regarding activity limitations and the restriction of social participation, the percentage of individuals without limitations and without restrictions was greater in both scales. Study limitations: The main limitation is the small study sample. Conclusion: It can be concluded that, for the studied sample, no association was observed between the activity limitations, evaluated by the Salsa scale, nor the restriction of social participation, evaluated by the Participation Scale, with the analyzed demographic data.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Childhood is a dynamic period regarding nevogenesis. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive technique, recommended for the evaluation of pigmented cutaneous lesions. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the structures and dermoscopic patterns of melanocytic nevi observed in children and adolescents. Methods: Dermoscopy with photographic documentation was used for nevi located on the face, trunk, and extremities of 38 patients aged from one to 16 years examined at the Pediatric Dermatology Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results: The study included 201 skin lesions that were diagnosed as nevi during clinic examination. Upon evaluation of the global dermoscopic pattern of the lesions, the most frequently observed nevi were reticular (39.0%), followed by homogeneous (23.9%) and globular nevi (16.4%). During evaluation of the dermoscopic structures, according to the body site, the pigment network was the most observed in the extremities. Study limitations: A limitation to be considered is that the inclusion of small or new lesions may hinder the differentiation between dots and globules. Conclusions: In our study, the most observed pattern was reticular. There was a difference in the predominance of structures dependent on the anatomical location.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: The rate of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions is low, and these reactions can result in death or disability. An evidence-based epidemiological study of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions in China has not been reported. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiology and characteristics of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions of Chinese inpatients during the recent 15 years with meta-analysis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed Chinese literature reporting severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions and collecting data from 2000 to 2015, which were in accordance with our inclusion criteria. All included data were analyzed with the Launch Open Meta-Analyst software. Results: Twenty-five articles involving 928 cases with severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions were included. Men to women ratio was 1.14:1. Twenty-one per cent of the patients had drug allergy history. Antibiotics (26.0%), sedative hypnotics and anticonvulsants (21.6%), and antipyretic analgesics (17.1%) were the most common causative drugs. The most frequent clinical subtype was Stevens-Johnson syndrome (50.1%), followed by toxic epidermal necrolysis (25.4%), exfoliative dermatitis (21.0%) and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (1.6%). In addition to skin rashes, patients with severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions suffered mostly from fever (73%), and blood routine abnormality (66.7%). Study limitations: This meta-analysis is limited by its retrospective design and by its methodological variation. Conclusion: The most common causative drugs were antibiotics and sedative hypnotics and anticonvulsants. Stevens-Johnson syndrome was the most frequent clinical subtype of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions. In addition to skin rashes, patients with severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions suffered mostly from fever, mucosal lesion, and hematologic abnormalities.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Photodynamic therapy with topical aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) has been suggested to be effective in treatment of acne vulgaris. However, adverse events occur during and after treatment. Objectives: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of optical intra-tissue fiber irradiation (OFI) ALA-PDT versus traditional ALA-PDT in treatment of acne vulgaris in rabbit models. Methods: Twenty-five rabbits of clean grade were used. Twenty rabbits were randomly selected to establish acne model and the other five were used as control. Rabbits in model group (40 ears) were further divided into four groups (10 ears/group): I, OFI-ALA-PDT with the head of optical fiber inserted into the target lesion (intra-tissue); II, traditional ALA-PDT group; III, OFI group; IV, blank control group without any treatment. Uncomfortable symptoms, adverse events, and effectiveness rates were recorded on post-treatment day 14, 30, and 45. Results: On post-treatment day 14, the effectiveness rate in OFI-ALA-PDT group was obviously higher than that of the other three groups (P<0.05). However, no improved effects were observed in OFI-ALA-PDT group on day 30 and 45. During the period of treatment, the frequencies of uncomfortable symptoms in ALA-PDT group were obviously higher than those in the other three groups (P<0.05). The adverse event rate in OFI-ALA-PDT group was obviously lower than that of the ALA-PDT group (P<0.05) Study limitations: The unblindness of the study and temporary animal models of acne induced may hamper the assessment and monitoring of the results, and future studies are still needed to clarify it further. Conclusion: The OFI-ALA-PDT group (intra-tissue irradiation) showed no improved efficacy on treating rabbit ear acne but had higher safety and better tolerability.
Abstract in English:Abstract The skin cells continuously produce, through cellular respiration, metabolic processes or under external aggressions, highly reactive molecules oxidation products, generally called free radicals. These molecules are immediately neutralized by enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems in a physiological and dynamic balance. In situations where this balance is broken, various cellular structures, such as the cell membrane, nuclear or mitochondrial DNA may suffer structural modifications, triggering or worsening skin diseases. several substances with alleged antioxidant effects has been offered for topical or oral use, but little is known about their safety, possible associations and especially their mechanism of action. The management of topical and oral antioxidants can help dermatologist to intervene in the oxidative processes safely and effectively, since they know the mechanisms, limitations and potential risks of using these molecules as well as the potential benefits of available associations.
Abstract in English:Abstract The tretinoin peel, also known as retinoic acid peel, is a superficial peeling often performed in dermatological clinics in Brazil. The first study on this was published in 2001, by Cuce et al., as a treatment option for melasma. Since then, other studies have reported its applicability with reasonable methodology, although without a consistent scientific background and consensus. Topical tretinoin is used for the treatment of various dermatoses such as acne, melasma, scars, skin aging and non-melanoma skin cancer. The identification of retinoids cellular receptors was reported in 1987, but a direct cause-effect relation has not been established. This article reviews studies evaluating the use of topical tretinoin as agent for superficial chemical peel. Most of them have shown benefits in the treatment of melasma and skin aging. A better quality methodology in the study design, considering indication and intervention is indispensable regarding concentration, vehicle and treatment regimen (interval and number of applications). Additionally, more controlled and randomized studies comparing the treatment with tretinoin cream versus its use as a peeling agent, mainly for melasma and photoaging, are necessary.
Abstract in English:Abstract Free radicals are unstable chemical species, highly reactive, being formed by cellular entities of different tissues. Increased production of these species without proper effective action of endogenous and exogenous antioxidant systems, generates a condition of oxidative stress, potentially provider of skin disorders that extend from functional impairments (skin cancer, dermatitis, chronic and acute inflammatory processes) even aesthetic character, with the destruction of structural proteins and cellular changes with the appearance of stains, marks and lines of expressions and other signs inherent to the intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging process. The antioxidants are chemical substances commonly used in clinical practice for topical application and may contribute in the fight against the radical species responsible for many skin damage. This paper summarized the main evidence of the benefits brought by the topical application of antioxidants in the skin, considering the amplitude of the indicative performance of antioxidant activity by in vitro and ex-vivo tests as well as in vivo tests. It is recognized that a breadth of product performance tests should be explored to truly identify the effectiveness of antioxidant products for an anti-aging effect.
Abstract in English:Abstract The concern about malignant skin neoplasms leads to the excision of smaller lesions. This study on small melanocytic lesions aims to evaluate the range of possible histopathological diagnoses, describe histopathological aspects, and assess the usefulness of serial histological sections. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive histopathological study examining 76 pigmented skin lesions up to 6 mm in diameter. Histopathological diagnoses included atypical melanocytic nevi (n=38), common melanocytic nevi (n=18), atypical lentiginous melanocytic hyperplasia with architectural features of atypical melanocytic nevi (n=7), lentigo simplex (n=2), and malignant melanoma (n=1). Ten cases were non-diagnostic. Cytological atypia was not an exclusive finding of atypical lesions. Examination of serial sections did not change histopathological impression. Early detection of malignant melanoma is important, but clinical and dermoscopy exams may be leading to the resection of a great number of benign lesions. Strict attention to histopathological criteria results in a large number of non-diagnostic cases.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Kamino bodies in Reed nevus, since most studies to date show conflicting data on this issue. This was a retrospective observational study, in which the histopathology of 19 Reed nevus lesions were reviewed. The slides were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff, with a special focus placed on the identification of Kamino bodies. Some clinical data were also collected. The median patient age was 12 years (range of 2 to 58). The women to men ratio was 5:4. Lesions were located on different parts of the body. Kamino bodies were found in eleven lesions (57.89%). five showed pigmented Kamino bodies (26.31%), four non-pigmented Kamino bodies (21,05%), and 2 (10.52%) had both. Kamino bodies, pigmented or not, are a common histological finding in Reed nevus and may well represent a good marker to differentiate these from malignant melanomas.
Abstract in English:Abstract Crusted or Norwegian scabies is a parasitic infectious disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis that mainly affects immunocompromised individuals and those with neurological patients. We report a case of crusted scabies in a 4-month-old infant who had been treated erroneously for atopic dermatitis with high doses of corticosteroids. This initial misdiagnosis associated with the abusive use of corticosteroid facilitated the evolution of scabies to crusted scabies and its main complications of secondary infection and sepsis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon neuroendocrine carcinoma with a rising incidence and an aggressive behavior. It predominantly occurs in older patients, with onset occurring at a mean age of 75-80 years. Recognized risk factors are ultraviolet sunlight exposure, immunosuppression, and, more recently, Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a young HIV positive patient with Merkel Cell polyomavirus detected in the tumor.
Abstract in English:Abstract Brazil has the second largest number of leprosy cases in the world; nevertheless, late diagnosis is common. We report the case of a male patient with pain and numbness in both hands and feet for six years with positive rheumatoid factor and anticardiolipin under rheumatoid arthritis treatment for five years. Examination revealed diffuse cutaneous infiltration and leonine facies, characteristic features of lepromatous leprosy. Autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor and anticardiolipin are markers of rheumatic autoimmune diseases, but their presence is also described in leprosy. We report the present case in order to alert health professionals to remember leprosy, even in areas where the disease is considered eliminated as a public health problem, avoiding misinterpretations of serologic findings and misdiagnosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is a rare and benign vascular tumor whose etiology remains uncertain. It clinically presents itself by angiomatous papules or nodules located on the head and neck. Many controversies in the literature are found in relation to angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia and Kimura's disease - its main differential diagnosis - due to their clinical and histopathological similarities. However, currently, most studies agree that they are distinct diseases. The present case illustrates a characteristic description of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia and also highlights the main differences with Kimura's disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract Lymphangioma is a rare benign disease of the lymphatic vessels. Typically, they are primary conditions but may be acquired secondarily, such as those caused by irradiation during radiotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer. The local lymphatic obstruction provoked by irradiation causes the appearance of asymptomatic hyaline vesicles on the irradiated skin. The present report describes a 78-year-old female patient, who initially presented hyaline vesicles that progressed into multiple papules with serous exudation of a yellowish and odorless secretion on the area of chronic radiodermitis in right breast. Despite the rarity of the case, we emphasize the importance of knowledge regarding dermatological disease for early diagnosis and proper medical conduct.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cancer of the vulva accounts for at least 1% of malignant neoplasms among women. Although rare, vulvar melanoma is the second most common histological type of vulvar cancer, representing 7-10% of all malignant vulvar neoplasms. Initial symptoms are non-specific and complete excision of the lesion is indicated in cases with suspected diagnosis. Prognosis of patients with these neoplasms is poor and remains unchanged despite the treatment approach. Hemivulvectomy with lymph node dissection is the current procedure of choice, associated or not with adjuvant therapies. We report two cases of patients presenting with late diagnosed vulvar melanoma and the relevant aspects in their therapeutic management.
Abstract in English:Abstract Methotrexate has immunosuppressive effects and is administered for refractory chronic urticaria. We present a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a patient with refractory chronic urticaria managed by low-dose weekly methotrexate treatment (total cumulative dose 195mg). Our study highlights the importance of providing prompt diagnosis and treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with chronic urticaria under methotrexate therapy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare drug-induced eruption that is characterized by acute, nonfollicular sterile pustules on an erythematous and edematous base. The most frequently implicated drugs are beta-lactam antibiotics. Hydroxychloroquine has been widely used to treat dermatologic and rheumatologic diseases and has been reported as a rare cause of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. A 42-year-old female presented with pustular lesions on the skin surface with erythema, facial edema, and occasional atypical target-like lesions after 21 days of treatment with 200mg/day hydroxychloroquine for rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosed one month previously. We report a case with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by hydroxychloroquine and treated with dapsone and systemic corticosteroid.
Abstract in English:Abstract The current report presents the case of a 41-year-old male patient with a two-month history of asthenopia and plaques in the frontotemporal region. Computed tomography revealed bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Ophthalmological examination showed elevated intraocular pressure. Skin biopsy demonstrated aa dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed mainly of epithelioid cells and a few multinucleated giant cells, but no obvious lymphocytes. Findings of thorough physical examinations and auxiliary examinations suggested the presence of cutaneous sarcoidosis and secondary open-angle glaucoma. Treatment consisted mainly of oral methylprednisolone. Skin lesions, bilateral hilar, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy resolved completely. Cutaneous sarcoidosis is often accompanied by extracutaneous organ involvement. Dermatologists must be aware of the disease's extracutaneous manifestations to ensure accurate diagnosis for further treatments.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cutaneous and systemic plasmacytosis is a rare disorder characterized by cutaneous polyclonal plasma cell infiltration frequently associated with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and lymphadenopathy. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman with an inflammatory ulcerated plaque in the left masseter region. A skin biopsy showed dense perivascular infiltrate of mature plasma cells in the dermis without atypia and immunoglobulin light chain restriction. After physical examination and further investigation, we ruled out systemic disease. Our patient was successfully treated only with hydrocortisone cream application. Few cases of isolated benign primary cutaneous plasmacytosis have been described, particularly in children. After excluding the diagnosis of a reactive process to an infection, which is unlikely in this case, we suspected of a rare manifestation of primary cutaneous plasmacytosis in adults with distinct presentation and clinical course.
Abstract in English:Abstract Superficial mycoses are fungal infections restricted to the stratum corneum and to the hair shafts, with no penetration in the epidermis; they are: white piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra. This study presents images of mycological tests performed in the laboratory, as well as exams performed at the authors office, in order to improve the dermatologist's knowledge about the diagnosis of these dermatoses, which are common in many countries.
Abstract in English:Abstract Ectodermal dysplasias are conditions that present primary defects in two or more tissues of ectodermal origin and can be classified as hypohidrotic and hidrotic. Hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia or Clouston syndrome is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis and appears as a triad of clinical findings: palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, and hypotrichosis. The hair is sparse and brittle. The nails become thickened and dystrophic, which is an essential characteristic of the syndrome. The diagnosis is made based on clinical findings. This study reports a case of a patient who began with changes in hair, nails and palmoplantar keratoderma in early childhood.
Abstract in English:Abstract A 59-year-old woman reported a 20-day history of slightly scaly erythematous infiltrated patches on her palms and soles with a histopathological result which was consistent with interstitial-pattern granuloma annulare, clinically classified as patch granuloma annulare. This is a rare clinical variant of granuloma annulare, with an unknown incidence and characteristic clinical and histopathological features. The patient evolved with a complete remission of the lesions after biopsy and the use of high-potency topical corticosteroid.
Abstract in English:Abstract The main allergen responsible for contact dermatitis to nail polish is tosylamide-formaldehyde resin. The so-called hypoallergenic nail polishes are suposedly free of agents that commonly trigger reactions. The commercially available products and their compositions were studied. It was observed that most brands present at least one component capable of triggering the disease; therefore, allergic reaction may occur even when hypoallergenic polishes are used. There should be a proper investigation of the specific allergen through a patch test, because more than one component can cause an allergy, and we need to check the exact composition of each product.
Abstract in English:Abstract Epidemiology of diseases is influenced by population socio-demographic circumstances. Therefore it can be modified along the time. There are no studies exploring epidemiological transition in dermatology. This study investigated the incidence of dermatoses in new patients from a Brazilian country town public service in 2003 and 2014. There was a significant increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, leprosy, melasma, pruritus and hidradenitis suppurativa. However, a prominent reduction in scheduling of appointments for surgeries of benign lesions, drug reactions, urticaria and superficial mycoses was detected. The identification of epidemiological trends guides the dimensioning of health system and professional qualification policies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Anogenital warts are a worldwide public health problem. They consist of epithelial proliferations caused by HPV, whose transmission occurs mainly through sexual intercourse. In this study, we evaluated their impact on the quality of life of adult males. We interviewed 88 men in an outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases at a Brazilian public institution, using the DLQI-BRA questionnaire. Most patients (81%) presented mild or no impairment of quality of life. The main dimensions affected were sex life, symptoms, and embarrassment. The low impact on quality of life may well justify the delay in seeking medical treatment, favoring the spread of the disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract The etiopathogenesis of female pattern hair loss is still poorly understood. In addition to genetic and hormonal elements, environmental factors could be involved. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is expressed in keratinocytes and can be activated by environmental pollutants leading to alterations in the cell cycle, inflammation, and apoptosis. Here we demonstrate the overexpression of nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptors in miniaturized hair follicles in female pattern hair loss.