Abstract in English:Abstract Actinic keratoses are dysplastic proliferations of keratinocytes with potential for malignant transformation. Clinically, actinic keratoses present as macules, papules, or hyperkeratotic plaques with an erythematous background that occur on photoexposed areas. At initial stages, they may be better identified by palpation rather than by visual inspection. They may also be pigmented and show variable degrees of infiltration; when multiple they then constitute the so-called field cancerization. Their prevalence ranges from 11% to 60% in Caucasian individuals above 40 years. Ultraviolet radiation is the main factor involved in pathogenesis, but individual factors also play a role in the predisposing to lesions appearance. Diagnosis of lesions is based on clinical and dermoscopic examination, but in some situations histopathological analysis may be necessary. The risk of transformation into squamous cell carcinoma is the major concern regarding actinic keratoses. Therapeutic modalities for actinic keratoses include topical medications, and ablative and surgical methods; the best treatment option should always be individualized according to the patient.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Palmoplantar pustulosis is considered to be a localized pustular psoriasis confined to the palms and soles. Mutation of the IL36RN gene, encoding interleukin-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra), is associated with generalized pustular psoriasis, but IL36RN mutations in Chinese palmoplantar pustulosis patients have not previously been investigated. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutation of IL36RN in Chinese patients with palmoplantar pustulosis. Methods: Fifty-one Han Chinese patients with palmoplantar pustulosis were recruited. All exons and exon-intron boundary sequences of IL36RN were amplified in polymerase chain reactions, and Sanger sequencing of the amplicons was performed. Results: Among the 51 palmoplantar pustulosis patients, four different single-base substitutions were identified in nine patients. The mutations were c.140A>G/p.Asn47Ser in five patients, c.258G>A/p.Met86IIe in two patients, and c.115+6T>C and c.169G>A/p.Val57IIe in one patient each. All mutations were heterozygous. Comparison with the human genome database and reported literature suggested that these variants may not be pathogenic mutations causing palmoplantar pustulosis. Furthermore, there was no difference in disease severity, onset age, or disease duration between patients with these heterozygous IL36RN variants and those without (p > 0.1). Study limitation: Lack of the further evaluation of IL36Ra protein in palmoplantar pustulosis lesions. Conclusions: The four variants of IL36RN identified did not appear to be associated with the specific phenotypes of palmoplantar pustulosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Reports regarding the causative drugs of drug-induced cutaneous adverse reactions in China are indistinct, such that different regions have reported the spectrum of drugs differs substantially in different clinical conditions. Objective: To explore the causative drugs that led to cutaneous reactions. Methods: Adverse drug reaction reports from central China were collected and divided into cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions groups. Cases were reviewed retrospectively for causative drugs. Results: The male:female ratio was equal in both cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. In cutaneous adverse reactions (n = 482), the highest incidence happened between 51 and 60 years of age and the top three causative drugs were antibiotics (48%), Chinese medicine (16%), and allopurinol (9%). In severe cutaneous adverse reactions (n = 126), the highest incidence happened between 41 and 50 years of age and the top three causative drugs were sedative-hypnotics and antiepileptics (39%), antibiotics (22%), and allopurinol (15%). Carbamazepine was the most frequently used single-drug (16/18) in sedative-hypnotics and antiepileptics. β-lactams were the most frequently used antibiotics that induced both cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Study limitations: The small sample size, retrospective design, collection of cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions at different time frames and locations, and exclusion of patients taking more than five medications are limitations of the study. Conclusions: Gender does not affect cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. The top three drugs to induce cutaneous adverse reactions are antibiotics, Chinese medicine, and allopurinol, while those that triggered severe cutaneous adverse reactions are sedative-hypnotics and antiepileptics, antibiotics, and allopurinol. Carbamazepine is the most frequent single drug that induces severe cutaneous adverse reactions. β-lactams are the most frequently used antibiotics that induce both cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Mohs micrographic surgery is a surgical technique for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Surgery begins by removing the visible tumor before excision of the tissue specimens for evaluation of the tumor margins. Objectives: To present a new way to evaluate the material obtained from debulking, by horizontal histological analysis of the fragment. Methods: Descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study based on the medical records and histological lamellae of patients with primary basal cell carcinomas smaller than 1.5 cm submitted to Mohs micrographic surgery and who had the visible tumor analyzed by horizontal histological sections. Results: The sample evaluated included 16 patients with lesions located on the face. Comparing the histopathological examinations of incisional biopsy in vertical sections and debulking in horizontal sections, there was agreement in seven cases. The histological analysis performed in horizontal sections allowed identification of the tumor site in 13 cases, and the relation between tumor and margin showed that in 11 cases, the lateral margin was compromised.Study limitations: The technique was better-applied in lesions smaller than 2 cm. Conclusion: Horizontal histological analysis of debulking has advantages for Mohs surgery, since it allows visualization of almost all tumor extension in the same view plane of the dermatoscopy, allowing better definition of the histological subtype, tumor site, and tumor/margin of lesions less than 1.5 cm.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Psoriasis is a skin-articular disease with unclear etiopathogenesis. It has been suggested that the disease is immune-mediated by T-lymphocytes, predominantly Th17 cells. Similar to psoriasis, geographic tongue is an inflammatory disease with participation of Th17 cells and direct correlation with psoriasis. Objective: To investigate and compare the inflammatory responses and the Th17 pathway in psoriasis and geographic tongue. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 46 participants that were categorized into three groups: (A) patients with psoriasis vulgaris; (B) patients with geographic tongue and psoriasis; (C) patients with geographic tongue without psoriasis. All patients underwent physical examination, and a skin and oral biopsy for histopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis with anti-IL6, anti-IL17, and anti-IL23 antibodies. Results: Histological analysis of all lesions showed mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. However, moderate intensity was prevalent for the patients with geographic tongue and psoriasis and geographic tongue groups. Immunopositivity for the antibodies anti-IL6, anti-IL17, and anti-IL23 revealed cytoplasmic staining, mainly basal and parabasal, in both psoriasis and geographic tongue. Regarding IL-6, in patients with geographic tongue and psoriasis cases the staining was stronger than in patients with geographic tongue without psoriasis cases. IL-17 evidenced more pronounced and extensive staining when compared to the other analyzed interleukins. IL-23 presented similar immunopositivity for both geographic tongue and psoriasis, demonstrating that the neutrophils recruited into the epithelium were stained. Study limitation: This study was limited by the number of cases. Conclusion: The inflammatory process and immunostaining of IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23 were similar in geographic tongue and psoriasis, suggesting the existence of a type of geographic tongue that represents an oral manifestation of psoriasis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Acne vulgaris is recognized as the third most prevalent skin disease worldwide, with highest prevalence among adolescents. Beliefs and perceptions of adolescents about acne are incoherent in the literature. Objectives: To assess the most frequently reported acne-related beliefs in adolescents in order to focus on misconceptions and develop proper recommendations. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study on representative sample of 2516 schoolchildren was conducted in six randomly selected secondary schools in Belgrade, Serbia. Only schoolchildren with present or past acne history participated. Factors believed to aggravate or ameliorate acne were recorded and analyzed, and the comparisons between girls and boys were evaluated using Pearson's chi-squared test. Results: A total of 1452 schoolchildren with acne participated, aged 14-18 years, among them 801 (55.2%) girls and 651 (44.8%) boys. Boys significantly more frequently believed that sweating, exercise, and dairy foods aggravate acne, whereas girls significantly more frequently blamed emotional stress, sweets, fatty foods, sun, and lack of sleep. The top four amelioration factors were as follows: comedone extraction, healthy diet, sun exposure, and increased water consumption. Acne regression was more frequently perceived to be linked with cigarettes in boys, but with sun exposure and weight loss in girls. Study limitations: The narrow age span of adolescents (14-18 years) and exclusion of acne-free adolescents are limitations due to study design. Conclusion: This survey is part of the first epidemiological study on a representative sample in the Western Balkan region. The significance of the most frequent acne-related beliefs is discussed and myths about acne are highlighted.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Different strategies have been proposed for the cardiovascular risk management of patients with psoriasis. Objective: To estimate the cardiovascular risk and evaluate two cardiovascular prevention strategies in patients with psoriasis, analyzing which proportion of patients would be candidates to receive statin therapy. Methods: A retrospective cohort was selected from a secondary database. All patients >18 years with psoriasis without cardiovascular disease or lipid-lowering treatment were included. The atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator (2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines) and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk calculator (2016 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Atherosclerosis guidelines) were calculated. The SCORE risk value was adjusted by a multiplication factor of 1.5. The recommendations for the indication of statins suggested by both guidelines were analyzed. Results: A total of 892 patients (mean age 59.9 ± 16.5 years, 54.5% women) were included. The median atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator and Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation values were 13.4% (IQR 6.1-27.0%) and 1.9% (IQR 0.4-5.2), respectively. According to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator, 20.1%, 11.0%, 32.9%, and 36.4% of the population was classified at low, borderline, moderate, or high risk. Applying the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation, 26.5%, 42.9%, 20.8%, and 9.8% of patients were stratified as having low, moderate, high, or very high risk, respectively. The proportion of subjects with statin indication was similar using both strategies: 60.1% and 60.9% for the 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and 2016 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Atherosclerosis guidelines, respectively. Study limitations: This was a secondary database study. Data on the severity of psoriasis and pharmacological treatments were not included in the analysis. Conclusion: This population with psoriasis was mostly classified at moderate-high risk and the statin therapy indication was similar when applying the two strategies evaluated.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: A skin field cancerization is a cutaneous area with subclinical changes resultant from chronic sun exposure, with a higher predisposition to development of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. So far, there are no well-defined objective parameters that can indicate their degree of activity. Objectives: To describe and compare morphometric aspects and expression of factors related to apoptosis and cell proliferation in actinic keratosis (AK), in both photoexposed and photoprotected epidermis. Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients with actinic keratosis in the forearms, biopsied at two points: the actinic keratosis and the axillary region. The biopsies of the actinic keratosis, perilesional area, and axilla were evaluated through keratinocyte intraepithelial neoplasia (KIN), and immunohistochemistry of p53, survivin, and Ki67. Nuclear morphometry of basal layer cells was performed through digital image analysis: entropy, area, perimeter, Ra, fractal dimension, circularity, color intensity, and largest diameter. Results: There were 13 patients included and 38 actinic keratosis biopsied. In morphometry, 1039 nuclei were analyzed, of which 228 represented axillary skin, 396 demonstrated actinic keratosis, and 415 represented the perilesional area to the actinic keratosis. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in all variables tested for the topographies evaluated. A significant correlation was identified between nucellar morphometric elements, KIN, proliferation markers, and apoptosis. Joint patterns of p53, Ki67, and KIN discriminated the topographies sampled. Study limitations: This was a cross-sectional study with a small number of patients. Conclusions: There are patterns of proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and different cellular morphometrics between photoprotected skin and photoexposed skin. The joint expression of p53, Ki67, and KIN can characterize skin field cancerization activity.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Rosacea may result in emotional distress and anxiety. However, data on the presence of generalized anxiety disorder in rosacea patients are scarce. Objective: The aim of the study was to detect the frequency and level of anxiety and depression in patients with rosacea. Methods: A total of 194 consecutive rosacea patients and 194 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Severity of rosacea was assessed in patients according to the criteria of the National Rosacea Society Ethics Committee. Both patients and controls were evaluated by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, and severity was measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-Adult. Results: Individuals who were diagnosed with an anxiety and/or depressive disorder were more common in patient group (24.7% vs. 7.2%, p < 0,01). Female patients were particularly at risk for having generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 2.8; 95% CI 1.15-7.37; p = 0.02). Study limitations: Single center study and limited sample size. Conclusions: Rosacea patients show greater risk of having anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder. Female patients, those with lower educational levels, those with phymatous subtype, untreated patients, and patients with prior psychiatric morbidity may be at particular risk for anxiety. It is essential to consider the psychological characteristics of patients to improve their well-being.
Abstract in English:Abstract Although the association of multiple autoimmune diseases has already been widely described, no reports of the association between vitiligo, primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjogren's syndrome were retrieved in the SciELO and PubMed databases. The authors describe the case of a female patient who was diagnosed with primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjogren's syndrome at age 54. At age 58, she developed vitiligo restricted to the face, associated with significant impairment of self-esteem and quality of life. Antinuclear antibody was negative at the onset of the condition, but became positive after phototherapy initiation. In general, the occurrence of multiple autoimmune diseases in the same patient is known as a mosaic of autoimmunity. However, specific mechanisms appear to interconnect primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjogren's syndrome, such as PDC-E2-mediated generalized epithelitis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia is a rare inflammatory disease caused by a mutation in the PSTPIP1 gene, with a dysregulation of calprotectin metabolism. Calprotectin is a zinc-binding protein with antimicrobial properties and pro-inflammatory action. The authors report the case of a 20 year-old girl with cutaneous ulcers comparable with pyoderma gangrenosum, growth failure and chronic anemia, who was given the diagnosis of hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia. Measurement of serum zinc and calprotectin concentrations are indicated in these cases.
Abstract in English:Abstract Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis of Gougerot and Carteaud is a rare dermatosis with onset during puberty, more prevalent in females than in males. The pathogenesis is unknown, but some theories suggest either a keratinization or endocrine disorder. The lesions are verrucous, brownish, hyperkeratotic papules or spots that coalesce in a confluent and/or reticulated pattern. This report presents a case with extensive cutaneous involvement associated with acanthosis nigricans and good response to treatment with methotrexate.
Abstract in English:Abstract Primary male genital melanomas are very rare; they are associated with high mortality and late detection. Scrotal melanoma is the least common presentation and only 23 cases have been reported. Herein, the authors present a 30-year-old patient with stage IIIC (T4b, N2a, M0) scrotal melanoma in order to report the characteristics, treatment, and outcome, as well as to emphasize the importance of examination of the genitals, education of patients about self-examination and destigmatizing genital lesions to increase the likelihood of earlier detection.
Abstract in English:Abstract Eosinophilic spongiosis is a histological feature shared by some distinct inflammatory disorders, and is characterized by the presence of intraepidermal eosinophils associated with spongiosis. Most often, isolated eosinophilic spongiosis indicates the early stages of a subjacent autoimmune bullous dermatosis, such as the pemphigus group and bullous pemphigoid. Herein, the main causes of eosinophilic spongiosis are discussed, as well as the supplementary investigation needed to elucidate its etiology.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pyoderma gangrenosum is a neutrophilic dermatosis characterized by chronic ulcers due to an abnormal immune response. Despite the existence of diagnostic criteria, there is no gold standard for diagnosis or treatment. In Latin America, recognizing and treating pyoderma gangrenosum is even more challenging since skin and soft tissue bacterial and non-bacterial infections are common mimickers. Therefore, this review aims to characterize reported cases of pyoderma gangrenosum in this region in order to assist in the assessment and management of this condition. Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile are the countries in Latin America that have reported the largest cohort of patients with this disease. The most frequent clinical presentation is the ulcerative form and the most frequently associated conditions are inflammatory bowel diseases, inflammatory arthropaties, and hematologic malignancies. The most common treatment modalities include systemic corticosteroids and cyclosporine. Other reported treatments are methotrexate, dapsone, and cyclophosphamide. Finally, the use of biological therapy is still limited in this region.
Abstract in English:Abstract This report describes a case of unusual deep skin ulcers with tortuous sinus tract formation in an immunocompetent woman. She was initially diagnosed with a Staphylococcus aureus skin infection and histopathologically diagnosed with pyoderma gangrenosum. However, culture from the deep end of ribbon gauze inserted into the subcutaneous sinus tract revealed shiny, light-yellow mucoid colonies, which were identified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. She was treated with fluconazole for nine months and completely healed. Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by variants of C. neoformans species. Cutaneous manifestations of cryptococcosis are quite divergent, rarely occurring as deep skin ulcers with sinus formation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Melanoacanthoma is a rare variant of seborrheic keratosis, which is notable for dark pigmentation and fast radial growth, making it difficult to distinguish from melanoma. Histologically, it is characterized by proliferation of keratinocytes and dendritic melanocytes. The authors report a scalp lesion, fast growing, suspected by dermoscopy and confocal microscopy examination, with dendritic cells distributed throughout the lesion. Based on these findings, it was not possible to classify this lesion as clearly benign, so it was excised. Histopathologic evaluation and immunostain were consistent with melanoacanthoma.
Abstract in English:Abstract Lobular capillary hemangioma or pyogenic granuloma is a benign vascular tumor of the skin or mucous membranes. Most patients present a single lesion. It manifests clinically as an erythematous, friable, and fast-growing tumor. This report details a case with exuberant presentation in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis, using adalimumab. Factors triggering pyogenic granuloma are not well known. They may spontaneously regress, but most require treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract A 28-year-old white female patient presented with multiple erythematous-to-violaceous, painful, suppurative nodules on the buttocks and thighs that appeared after two weeks of mesotherapy with deoxycholate, caffeine, sunflower liposomes, and sinetrol for localized fat. She was treated for atypical mycobacteriosis, but with no satisfactory response after antibiotic therapy. Bacterial, mycobacterial, and fungal culture were all negative. Histopathologic examination of the biopsy showed noninfectious suppurative panniculitis. It resolved after treatment with methotrexate, prednisone, and hydroxychloroquine. This report highlights the rarity of this complication, the importance of its early recognition, and differentiation with atypical fast growing mycobacterioses.