Abstract in English:Abstract Immunobiologicals are a reality in current clinical practice and have increasingly gained space in the inflammatory disease scenario, especially in dermatology, with approved drugs for psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and hidradenitis suppurativa, in addition to many others undergoing study. It is important for dermatologists to have knowledge of the medications approved in Brazil, for the best management of dermatoses, in addition to the fact that they represent hope for improvement in patients with chronic diseases.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Adverse drug reactions are frequent, with cutaneous manifestations being the most common. In the hospital environment, the incidence of cutaneous drug reactions varies from 2% to 3%. Objective To analyze the profile of cutaneous drug reactions, relating clinical forms, suspected medications, histopathological alterations, systemic repercussions, treatment and course. Methods Clinical, retrospective and observational study of patients seen by the Dermatology Interconsultation team from January 2013 to December 2016. Results The frequency of cutaneous drug reactions among the evaluated patients was 13.6%, with 219 cases diagnosed. In 65.7%, the reaction was considered mild, of which the most common was exanthema, while in 34.2%, the reaction was considered severe, with DRESS being the main form of reaction(18.2%). Antibiotics (36.5%) and anticonvulsants (10%) were the most involved drugs. In addition to drug discontinuation, systemic corticosteroids were prescribed in 47% of cases and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in 4.5%. Of the mild forms, in 62%, expectant management and/or exclusive use of symptomatic treatment was used. Study limitations Retrospective study, with limitations inherent to this type of investigation; lack of some information in medical records; long evaluation period, with a possible change in external validity. Conclusion The most frequently identified clinical form was exanthema, and antibiotics and anticonvulsants were the most frequently involved drug classes. About one-third of the patients had severe cutaneous drug reactions, with DRESS being the main one. Cutaneous drug reactions are frequent in clinical practice, and the dermatologist should be called in as soon as possible to assist in the diagnosis and management of these cases.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Mohs Micrographic Surgery (MMS) is commonly used to treat high-risk basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Objectives Correlate clinicopathologic preoperative features with the number of MMS stages (primary endpoint) and margins (secondary endpoint) required for BCC complete excision. Methods We retrospectively analyzed BCCs treated by MMS in a 2-year period at the study’s institution. Variables studied included the patient gender, age, immune status, lesion size, location, if it was a primary, recurrent, or persistent tumor, histopathologic characteristics, number of surgical stages, and amount of tissue excised. Results 116 BCCs were included. The majority (61.2%, n = 71) required a single-stage surgery for complete clearance, requiring a final margins of 3.11 ± 2.35 mm. Statistically significant differences between locations in different high-risk areas (periocular, perioral, nose, ear) and the number of MMS stages required for complete excision (p = 0.025) were found, with periocular tumours requiring the highest mean of stages (2.29 ± 0.95). An aggressive histopathology significantly influenced the number of MMS stages (p = 0.012). Any significant relation between clinicopathological features and variation in the final surgical margins was found, just certain tendencies (male patients, persistent tumor, periocular location, and high-risk histopathological tumors required larger margins). Neither patient age or tumor dimension correlated significantly with both number of MMS stages and final surgical margins. Study limitations Limitations of this study include its single-center nature with a small sample size, which limits the value of conclusions. Conclusion Main factors related to a greater number of MMS stages were periocular location and high-risk histopathological subtype of the tumor.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Leishmaniasis is caused by an intracellular protozoan of the Leishmania genus. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum complement protein and recognizes lipoprotein antigens in protozoa and the bacterial plasma membrane. Nucleotide variants in the promoter region and exon 1 of the MBL gene can influence its expression or change its molecular structure. Objective To evaluate, through a systematic review, case-control studies of the genetic association of variants in the MBL2 gene and the risk of developing leishmaniasis. Methods This review carried out a search in PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Lilacs databases for case-control publications with six polymorphisms in the mannose-binding Lectin gene. The following strategy was used: P = Patients at risk of leishmaniasis; I = Presence of polymorphisms; C = Absence of polymorphisms; O = Occurrence of leishmaniasis. Four case/control studies consisting of 791 patients with leishmaniasis and 967 healthy subjects (Control) are included in this meta-analysis. The association of variants in the mannose-binding Lectin gene and leishmaniasis under the allelic genetic model, -550 (Hvs. L), -221 (X vs. Y), +4 (Q vs. P), CD52 (A vs. D), CD54 (A vs. B), CD57 (A vs. C) and A/O genotype (A vs. O) was evaluated. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42020201755. Results The meta-analysis results for any allelic genetic model showed no significant association for the variants within the promoter, the untranslated region, and exon 1, as well as for the wild-type A allele and mutant allele O with leishmaniasis. Study limitations Caution should be exercised when interpreting these results, as they are based on a few studies, which show divergent results when analyzed separately. Conclusions This meta-analysis showed a non-significant association between the rs11003125, rs7096206, rs7095891, rs5030737, rs1800450, and rs1800451 polymorphisms of the Mannose-binding Lectin gene and leishmaniasis in any allelic and heterogeneous evaluation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Atopic dermatitis is the most common inflammatory skin disease in childhood and has an important impact on quality of life, especially severe cases or those that are recalcitrant to treatments. Sensitization to allergens with the potential for allergic contact dermatitis is a factor associated with cases of recalcitrant atopic dermatitis. Understanding the relationship between atopic dermatitis, allergens, and allergic contact dermatitis is essential. In Brazil, there are no studies on sensitization to allergens found in patch tests with pediatric batteries in patients with atopic dermatitis. Objectives To verify the main sensitizing agents, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis and the epidemiological and clinical profile of children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis. Methods Cross-sectional, prospective study in patients between 4 and 18 years of age, with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis, treated at the Sanitary Dermatology Outpatient Clinic (RS). All patients underwent patch tests with a battery of pediatric allergens. Results The prevalence of sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis in the evaluated patients was 37.07% (20/54) and 27.7% (15/54), respectively. The most frequent allergens were: nickel sulfate (16.7%), disperse blue (5.6%), and fragrance mix I (5.6%). Nickel was associated with the female sex (p = 0.019). Study limitations Sample size and selection, absence of a control group. Conclusions A proportion of patients with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis may be sensitized to different allergens and may even have developed allergic contact dermatitis. Recognizing this context is important in the prevention strategy and management of the disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Vitiligo is a common disease with a high burden, and its recalcitrant type is unresponsive to current medical treatments. Autologous non-cultured and trypsinized melanocyte grafting, which is a simple and experience-based procedure, has been suggested for the treatment of vitiligo. Objective To assess autologous non-cultured and trypsinised melanocyte grafting in recalcitrant vitiligo. Methods This clinical trial was done on 28 patients (20 females and 8 males). After demarcation and preparation of both donor and recipient sites, both sites were shaved by a curette. The materials harvested from the donor site were trypsinized and centrifuged. The resulting suspension was mixed with hyaluronic acid gel and was spread over the shaved recipient area. Results Twenty-eight patients with a total of 108 lesions and a mean age of 25.93 ± 7.11 years were included in the present study. Generalized vitiligo (57.1%) was the most common clinical type and the face and neck regions (38%) were the most frequent treated sites. Good to excellent repigmentation was seen in the face and neck, trunk, upper extremity, and genitals in 31 (57.4%), 11 (20.4%), 9 (16.7%) and 3 (5.5%) patients, respectively. Face and neck showed significantly better results (p < 0.05). Study limitations Low sample size and single-center study. Conclusion Autologous non-cultured and trypsinized melanocyte grafting is a safe method with satisfactory outcomes in recalcitrant vitiligo. Appropriate training of physicians and proper use of specialists’ experiences can be effective in increasing the improvement rate.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a viral rickettsial disease caused by Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71 in most cases. It is commonly seen in children under ten years old, who present oral enanthema and a macular, maculopapular, or vesicular rash on their hands and feet. However, an increase in cases caused by other viral serotypes was observed in adults in recent years with various clinical presentations and a troublesome diagnosis. Three cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease are reported to show the clinical variability and diagnostic complexity that this disease may present in adult patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacillus that frequently causes septicemia, abscesses and infections in skin wounds. Panniculitis caused by this microorganism is unusual and there are few well-documented cases, none of them in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. The present report describes an immunosuppressed patient with systemic lupus erythematosus who developed panniculitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with a review of the literature on this rare presentation.
Abstract in English:Abstract This review is focused on updating knowledge about cholestatic pruritus. It summarizes clinical-epidemiological characteristics, pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and evidence-based therapeutic recommendations regarding this form of pruritus. Pruritus is a frequent symptom that accompanies several liver diseases, particularly cholestatic ones. The symptom may be mild and tolerable, but it can also dramatically reduce the quality of life. Although the exact pathophysiology of this form of pruritus remains unclear, current evidence supports a mixed origin. It is extremely important for dermatologists to have knowledge about cholestatic pruritus since they are usually the first physicians to be sought by the patient when they experience the symptom. In the absence of specific dermatological alterations, cholestasis must always be considered as a possible cause of pruritus. In addition to allowing an adequate diagnosis, a better pathophysiological understanding of hepatic pruritus provides the identification of new therapeutic targets and, consequently, optimization of the approach in patients with this condition.
Abstract in English:Abstract Leprosy, a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, has polymorphic neurocutaneous manifestations strongly correlated with the host immune response. Peripheral neural damage can lead to sensory and motor losses, as well as deformities of the hands and feet. Both innate and acquired immune responses are involved, but the disease has been classically described along a Th1/Th2 spectrum, where the Th1 pole corresponds to the more limited presentations and the Th2 to the multibacillary ones. The aim of this review is to discuss this dichotomy in light of the current knowledge of the cytokines, T helper subpopulations, and regulatory T cells involved in each presentation of leprosy. The text will also address leprosy reactions related to increased inflammatory activity in both limited and multibacillary presentations, leading to exacerbation of chronic signs and symptoms and/or the development of new ones. Despite the efforts of many research groups around the world, there is no standardized serological test/biological marker for diagnosis so far, even in endemic areas, which could contribute to the eradication of leprosy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Lichen planopilaris and frontal fibrosing alopecia are primary scarring alopecias where diagnosis can be suggested by clinical and trichoscopy features, especially in the early stages, but scalp biopsy is the standard exam for definitive diagnosis. Frontal fibrosing alopecia is considered a variant of lichen planopilaris, as the histopathological findings are similar, with a perifollicular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate, sometimes with a lichenoid pattern. A thorough clinical examination, trichoscopy and photographic documentation are essential to assess the evolution and therapeutic response. To date, there are no validated treatments or guidelines for these diseases, but there are recommendations that vary with the individual characteristics of each patient. This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature, including an update on topics related to the diagnosis, follow-up, histopathological aspects and available treatments for lichen planopilaris and frontal fibrosing alopecia, highlighting their similarities, differences and peculiarities.
Abstract in English:Abstract Atopic dermatitis predisposes to skin infections, and on the other hand, some therapies used for atopic dermatitis may worsen viral infections whose lesions may be more diffuse and resistant to treatment. The authors present a patient with severe atopic dermatitis and disseminated molluscum contagiosum infection. The molluscum contagiosum did not clear with topical treatment, and it worsened her atopic dermatitis even more, so the authors started treatment with dupilumab. After two months, the patient's dermatitis went into clinical remission and there was resolution of the infection with no recurrence at the 12-month follow-up. Dupilumab is nowadays a promising treatment for severe atopic dermatitis. To our knowledge, only four reports of molluscum contagiosum during dupilumab therapy have been reported in the literature, with contrasting effects. According to the authors’ experience, treatment with dupilumab appears to be a safe alternative for patients with severe atopic dermatitis who are also infected with molluscum contagiosum, as opposed to other treatments such as systemic corticosteroids or cyclosporine.
Abstract in English:Abstract Anogenital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections worldwide. It has several clinical manifestations, from cases of primary herpes infection to recurrent forms, among them chronic mucocutaneous herpes. This presentation is rare, characterized by a duration of more than four weeks, usually associated with immunosuppression and resistance to classic anti-herpetic treatment. The present study presents a series of ten cases of chronic mucocutaneous herpes with a discussion about its clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic aspects.
Abstract in English:Abstract The number of skin infections caused by atypical mycobacteria has increased in recent decades. They usually appear after contact with wounds and interruptions in the integrity of the skin. The present report describes a case of cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium marinum, in a young, immunocompetent patient, with a prolonged evolution, diagnosed through a skin lesion culture (from a spindle biopsy of the skin). The patient was treated with multidrug therapy, including clarithromycin, doxycycline, and rifampicin, due to the lesion extent, with satisfactory results. A brief review of the literature is also provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by changes in the bone and soft tissue systems, induced by excess growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor type 1. Among the skin lesions associated with acromegaly is cutis verticis gyrata, an hypertrophic, and coarse folding of the skin of the scalp, an association of uncommon incidence and unknown prevalence. This case report describes the case of a patient diagnosed with acromegaly at age 60 with previously unidentified cutis verticis gyrata. This report aims to review the literature on cutis verticis gyrata and its unusual association with acromegaly.
Abstract in English:Abstract Alopecia areta (AA) and trichotillomania (TTM) are common causes for hair loss on the eyebrows. Yellow dots, vellus hairs, anisotrichosis, empty follicular openings, and black dots were observed in the present study’s patients with AA. Split hairs, question mark hairs, broken hairs, flame hairs, black dots, hairs with different lengths, and hemorrhagic areas were found in the patients with TTM. Trichoscopy is a very useful and helpful technic in distinguishing AA and TTM on the eyebrows.
Abstract in English:Abstract A 73-year-old male patient developed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in the anal canal nine months ago. He was treated with two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin and concomitant radiotherapy (6 MeV linear photon accelerator, total dose of 54 Gy), with complete remission. Since forty-five days he presentes a painful perianal and intergluteal erosion with circinate pustular borders. Light microscopy showed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the epidermis with microabscesses of inflammatory cells (neutrophils and eosinophils) and acantholytic keratinocytes . Indirect immunofluorescence was positive for IgG, with an intercellular pattern, 1:80 titer. The diagnosis of radiotherapy-induced pemphigus vegetans was established and there was significant regression with oral prednisone (40 mg) and topical betamethasone.