The objective of this study were to obtain dosimetric data from a patient with thyroid cancer simultaneously undergoing peritoneal dialysis therapy, so as to determine the appropriate amount of 131I activity to be applied therapeutically. Percentages of radioiodine in the blood and the whole-body were evaluated, and radiation absorbed doses were calculated according to OLINDA/EXM software. Whole-body 131I effective half-time was 45.5 hours, being four times longer than for patients without any renal dysfunction. Bone-marrow absorbed dose was 0.074 mGy/MBq, with ablative procedure maintenance at 3.7 GBq, as the reported absorbed dose was insufficiently restrictive to change the usual amount of radioiodine activity administered for ablation. It was concluded that radioiodine therapeutic-dose adjustment, based on individual patient dosimetry, is an important way of controlling therapy. It also permits the safe and potential delivery of higher doses of radiation to tumors and undesirable tissues, with a minimum of malignant effects on healthy tissues.