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Angiotensin-II induced insulin resistance

Resistência à insulina induzida por angiotensina-II

Eda Demir Onal Serhat Isik Dilek Berker Serdar Guler About the authors

We read with great interest the article by Lima-Martínez and cols. (1Lima-Martínez MM, López-Mendez G, Odreman R, Donis JH, Paoli M. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness and its association with adiponectin in metabolic syndrome patients from Mérida, Venezuela. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2014;58(4):352-61.). They studied the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and plasma levels of adiponectin in Venezuelan patients. And they found a significant association between EAT thickness and both metabolic syndrome components and adiponectin concentration. The authors also reported a strong correlation between left ventricular mass and EAT thickness. The article has important messages. But there are some items to be clarified.

Angiotensin II (AII), the major hormone of the renin-angiotensin system, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Evidence has suggested that AII impairs insulin sensitivity (2Rao RH. Pressor dose of angiotensin II increase hepatic glucose output and decrease insulin sensitivity in rats. J Endocrinol. 1996;148(2):31-8.). Hypertensive subjects and animal models have shown improvements in insulin resistance in response to treatment with angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or AII type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker (3Iimura O, Shimamoto K, Matsuda K, Masuda A, Takizawa H, Higashiura K, et al. Effects of angiotensin receptor antagonist and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor on insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats and essential hypertensives. Am J Hypertens. 1995;8(4):353-7.). The exact mechanisms for the AII-induced insulin resistance remain largely unknown. But Ran and cols. previously showed that long-term AII infusion decreased the circulating adiponectin concentration without affecting the gene expression in rats, and this may facilitate the development of insulin resistance. And AT1R blocker ameliorated the AII-induced hypoadiponectinemia (4Ran J, Hirano T, Fukui T, Saito K, Kageyama H, Okada K, et al. Angiotensin II infusion decreases plasma adiponectin level via its type 1 receptor in rats: an implication for hypertension-related insulin resistance. Metabolism. 2006;55(4):478-88.).

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is well known to be associated with increased cardiac risk. Regression of LVH over a period of a few months has been reported with ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) (5Franz IW, Tönnesmann U, Müller JF. Time course of complete normalization of left ventricular hypertrophy during long-term antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Am J Hypertens. 1998;11(6):631-9.). Regression of LVH continues gradually over time (three years or more) and may be associated with complete reversal of LVH and other abnormalities induced by hypertension such as left atrial enlargement and diastolic dysfunction (5Franz IW, Tönnesmann U, Müller JF. Time course of complete normalization of left ventricular hypertrophy during long-term antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Am J Hypertens. 1998;11(6):631-9.).

Lima-Martínez and cols. mentioned that 16 out of 27 patients in their series were on ACE inhibitor or ARB therapy (1Lima-Martínez MM, López-Mendez G, Odreman R, Donis JH, Paoli M. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness and its association with adiponectin in metabolic syndrome patients from Mérida, Venezuela. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2014;58(4):352-61.). Considering the above mentioned data, antihypertensive therapy may have influenced left ventricular measurements and plasma levels of adiponectin. For these reasons, the authors have better mentioned this point as a limitation of the study.

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Lima-Martínez MM, López-Mendez G, Odreman R, Donis JH, Paoli M. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness and its association with adiponectin in metabolic syndrome patients from Mérida, Venezuela. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2014;58(4):352-61.
  • 2
    Rao RH. Pressor dose of angiotensin II increase hepatic glucose output and decrease insulin sensitivity in rats. J Endocrinol. 1996;148(2):31-8.
  • 3
    Iimura O, Shimamoto K, Matsuda K, Masuda A, Takizawa H, Higashiura K, et al. Effects of angiotensin receptor antagonist and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor on insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats and essential hypertensives. Am J Hypertens. 1995;8(4):353-7.
  • 4
    Ran J, Hirano T, Fukui T, Saito K, Kageyama H, Okada K, et al. Angiotensin II infusion decreases plasma adiponectin level via its type 1 receptor in rats: an implication for hypertension-related insulin resistance. Metabolism. 2006;55(4):478-88.
  • 5
    Franz IW, Tönnesmann U, Müller JF. Time course of complete normalization of left ventricular hypertrophy during long-term antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Am J Hypertens. 1998;11(6):631-9.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Dec 2014

History

  • Received
    28 July 2014
  • Accepted
    7 Sept 2014
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