Chronic interstitial pancreatitis and chronic wasting disease caused by Eurytrema coelomaticum in Nelore cow

Pancreatite crônica intersticial e caquexia causada por Eurytrema coelomaticum em vaca Nelore

M.A. Rachid H.M. Aquino Neto E.J. Facury-Filho A.U. Carvalho G.R. Valle A.C. Vasconcelos About the authors

Abstract

A euritrematose bovina, causada por Eurytrema coelomaticum, tem sido relatada no Brasil. A doença pode afetar animais domésticos, incluindo ruminantes. Estes parasitos geralmente vivem nos ductos pancreáticos e ocasionalmente nos ductos biliares. Este estudo relata um quadro de caquexia em um bovino parasitado por E. coelomaticum proveniente de um rebanho de gado de corte localizado no Estado de Minas Gerais. O animal acometido apresentou perda progressiva de peso, glicosúria e cetonúria. Na necropsia o pâncreas apresentava-se diminuído de tamanho, brancacento, intensa e difusamente firme (fibrose). Vários ductos apresentavam-se dilatados e repletos de Eurytrema. Microscopicamente foi observada destruição extensa do parênquima pancreático e fibrose, ovos e parasitas intralesionais, hiperplasia ductal e inflamação multifocal crônica. Este relato descreve a perda progressiva de peso e pancreatite crônica associada a E. coelomaticum em bovino de corte no Estado de Minas Gerais.

caquexia; bovino; euritrematose; pancreatite


caquexia; bovino; euritrematose; pancreatite

COMMUNICATION

Chronic interstitial pancreatitis and chronic wasting disease caused by Eurytrema coelomaticum in Nelore cow

Pancreatite crônica intersticial e caquexia causada por Eurytrema coelomaticum em vaca Nelore

M.A. RachidI; H.M. Aquino NetoI; E.J. Facury-FilhoI; A.U. CarvalhoI; G.R. ValleI; A.C. VasconcelosI

IInstituto de Ciências Biológicas - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901 - Belo Horizonte, MG

IIEscola de Veterinária - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, MG

IIIPontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais - Betim, MG

Keywords: wasting disease, bovine, eurytrematosis, pancreatitis

RESUMO

A euritrematose bovina, causada por Eurytrema coelomaticum, tem sido relatada no Brasil. A doença pode afetar animais domésticos, incluindo ruminantes. Estes parasitos geralmente vivem nos ductos pancreáticos e ocasionalmente nos ductos biliares. Este estudo relata um quadro de caquexia em um bovino parasitado por E. coelomaticum proveniente de um rebanho de gado de corte localizado no Estado de Minas Gerais. O animal acometido apresentou perda progressiva de peso, glicosúria e cetonúria. Na necropsia o pâncreas apresentava-se diminuído de tamanho, brancacento, intensa e difusamente firme (fibrose). Vários ductos apresentavam-se dilatados e repletos de Eurytrema. Microscopicamente foi observada destruição extensa do parênquima pancreático e fibrose, ovos e parasitas intralesionais, hiperplasia ductal e inflamação multifocal crônica. Este relato descreve a perda progressiva de peso e pancreatite crônica associada a E. coelomaticum em bovino de corte no Estado de Minas Gerais.

Palavras-chave: caquexia, bovino, euritrematose, pancreatite

Eurytrematosis is caused by Eurytrema coelomaticum and E. pancreaticum that live mainly in the pancreatic ducts of cattle, sheep, goats and buffalos (Travassos et al., 1969; Mattos Junior & Vianna., 1987; Dorny et al., 1996). In Brazil, eurytrematosis, caused by E. coelomaticum has been sporadically reported in ruminants in the central-western, southern and southeastern regions of the country (Mattos Junior and Vianna., 1987). E. coelomaticum is usually considered an incidental finding at necropsy or in slaughterhouses and leads to the condemnation of the pancreas during routine inspection. However, bovine eurytrematosis associated with chronic emaciation has been noted in beef cattle herds (Bassani et al., 2006). The involvement of Eurytrema spp. with wasting disease in beef cattle has rarely been reported in Brazil, mainly in the State of Minas Gerais. This short communication describes the clinical and pathological findings of Nelore cow with eurytrematosis.

A beef cattle herd from Alto Jequitinhonha, northeast region of Minas Gerais, with a history of wasting disease affecting a small number of animals was studied. The animals were grazed on a Brachiaria spp. pasture and received adequate mineral supplementation and anthelminthic strategic treatments. Four Nelore cows and one bull from eighty-seven cattle became sick and died. Three years later, three cows from the same herd presented progressive weight loss, apathy, emaciation, weakness and lateral decubitus. At fecal salt-flotation examination the affected animals were positive for Eurytrema spp., Cooperia spp. and Haemonchus spp. The urinalysis revealed glucosuria (glucose > 2000mg/dl), ketonuria (ketone bodies: 160mg/dl) and pH=6,0. One cow was humanely euthanatized due to poor prognosis. At the necropsy, the pancreas was pale, small, firm, and irregular, with areas of parenchymal destruction. Thickened and dilated ducts were filled with leaf-shaped trematodes (Figure 1A). The parasites were classified as E. coelomaticum based on typical morphological characteristics (Travassos et al., 1969). Mesenteric and popliteal lymph nodes were reactive and the liver was enlarged, pale to yellow and had round edges. Histological findings showed intense parenchymal destruction of the pancreas with large areas of fibrosis and multifocal infiltrates of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, containing several brownish parasite eggs (Figure 1B-C). These eggs had an oval shape, with a thick and refractional wall. The remnant tissue showed dilated and hyperplasic ducts, partially filled with adult parasites (Figure 1B). There was also intense cellular degeneration of islet of Langerhans (Figure 1D). The liver showed moderate periacinar fatty change. The kidney had mild nephrosis with aggregates of protein casts within cortical and medullary tubules. The lymph nodes presented mild nodular hyperplasia.


 




In the present report, the clinical signs of lethargy, weakness, recumbency, depression and emaciation were similar to those observed in cattle infected with Eurytrema spp (Ilha et al., 2005). The gradual weight loss can be associated with severe pancreatic lesion of exocrine portion, important to enzyme secretion and responsible for diverse digestive processes and endocrine portion, related to the production of glycemic hormones (insulin and glucagon) (Pierzynowski and Zabielski, 1999). Glucosuria and nephrosis were also detected in sheep infected with Eurytrema pancreaticum (Graydon et al., 1992). Cattle with eurytrematosis can exhibit regenerative anemia, high plasma amylase and glucose concentrations and mild increased in glucose levels (Ilha et al., 2005). Blood glucose was not measured in this study. Another cow from the same farm with chronic emaciation revealed hyperglycemia and posterior recovery. Moreover, ketonuria observed in the present study could be attributed to increased lipolysis with ketone bodies synthesis. Histologically, there was intense pancreatic destruction, which probably promoted pancreatic insufficiency. These pancreatic lesions were in agreement with other studies in cattle and sheep with eurytrematosis, which described similar changes (Graydon et al., 1992; Ilha et al., 2005).

In the present report the most remarkable finding was extensive pancreatic fibrosis associated to a large amount of pancreatic flukes as described by other authors (Ilha et al., 2005; Bassani et al., 2006). Generally, pancreatic eurytrematosis affects well fed animals, which are treated with adequate anthelminthic drugs and mineral supplementation (Ilha et al., 2005). In conclusion, this report evidenced progressive weight loss and chronic pancreatitis in a beef bovine associated with E. coelomaticum in the State of Minas Gerais.

Recebido em 17 de março de 2011

Aceito em 13 de abril de 2011

E-mail: milenerachid@gmail.com

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  • DORNY, P.; BATUBARA, A.; ISKANDER, M. et al Helminth infections of sheep in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Vet. Parasitol, v.61, p.353-358, 1996.
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  • ILHA, M.R.; LORETTI, A.P.; REIS, A.C. Wasting and mortality in beef cattle parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum in the State of Parana, southern Brazil. Vet. Parasitol, v.133, p.49-60, 2005.
  • MATTOS JUNIOR, D.G.; VIANNA, S.S.S. O Eurytrema coelomaticum (Trematoda: Dricocoeliidae) no Brasil. Arq. Flum. Med. Vet., v.2, p.3-7, 1987.
  • PIERZYNOWSKI, S.G.; ZABIELSKI, R. (1 ed). Biology of the pancreas in growing animals. In: DEVELOPMENTS in animal and veterinary sciences Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1999. p.16-43.
  • TRAVASSOS, L.; FREITAS, J.F.T.; KOHN, A. Trematóideos do Brasil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, v.67, p.11-886, 1969.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    08 Aug 2011
  • Date of issue
    June 2011

History

  • Received
    17 Mar 2011
  • Accepted
    13 Apr 2011
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