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Bone protective effect of sinomenine against monosodium iodoacetate induced knee and hip injury in rat model: an inflammatory pathway

ABSTRACT

Purpose:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease which is categorized via destruction of joint cartilage and it also affects the various joints, especially knees and hips. Sinomenine active phytoconstituents isolated from the stem of Sinomenium acutum and already proof anti-inflammatory effect against the arthritis model of rodent. In this experimental protocol, we scrutinized the anti-osteoarthritis effect of sinomenine against monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) induced OA in rats.

Methods:

MIA (3 mg/50 μL) was used for inducing the OA in the rats, and rats received the oral administration of sinomenine (2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg body weight) up to the end of the experimental study (four weeks). The body and organs weight were estimated. Aggrecan, C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II), glycosaminoglycans (GCGs), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), antioxidant, inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) were analyzed.

Results:

Sinomenine significantly (P < 0.001) boosted the body weight and reduced the heart weight, but the weight of spleen and kidney remain unchanged. Sinomenine significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the level of nitric oxide, MCP-1 and improved the level of aggrecan, IFN-γ and GCGs. Sinomenine remarkably upregulated the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase and suppressed the level of malonaldehyde. It effectually modulated the level of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators and significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the level of MMPs, like MMP-1, 2, 3, 9 and 13.

Conclusions:

Sinomenine is a beneficial active agent for the treatment of OA disease.

Key words
Osteoarthritis; Inflammation; Sinomenine; Antioxidants; Matrix Metalloproteinases

Introduction

The most frequent type of degenerative joint diseases is osteoarthritis (OA). OA is induced via joint cartilage destruction and it affects the entire joints of the body, especially knees and hips11 Xu Q, Zhang ZF, Sun WX. Effect of naringin on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis pain in rats. Med Sci Monit. 2017;23:3746–51. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.902396
https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.902396...
,22 Chun JM, Lee AY, Nam JY. Effects of Dipsacus asperoides Extract on Monosodium Iodoacetate–Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats Based on Gene Expression Profiling. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:615157. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.615157
https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.61515...
. Various risk factors such as obesity, aging, muscle weakness, and injury are involved in the incidence of OA disease33 Luo Y, Li J, Wang B, Zhang Q, Bian Y, Wang R. Protective effect of glycyrrhizin on osteoarthritis cartilage degeneration and inflammation response in a rat model. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2021;53:285–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09889-1
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09889...
. The incidence of the OA upsurges day by day due to increase age22 Chun JM, Lee AY, Nam JY. Effects of Dipsacus asperoides Extract on Monosodium Iodoacetate–Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats Based on Gene Expression Profiling. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:615157. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.615157
https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.61515...
. Multiple risk factors for OA disease, such as metabolic processes, inflammation, and molecular and cellular mechanisms, all play a significant role in the disease’s emergence and expansion22 Chun JM, Lee AY, Nam JY. Effects of Dipsacus asperoides Extract on Monosodium Iodoacetate–Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats Based on Gene Expression Profiling. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:615157. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.615157
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,44 Lee YM, Son E, Kim SH, Kim DS. Effect of Alpinia oxyphylla extract in vitro and in a monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis rat model. Phytomedicine. 2019;65:153095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2019.153095
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. Loss of flexibility, swelling, stiffness, tenderness, and pain symptoms are involved in the OA disease. More than 80% of OA patients feel difficulty in routine works. Recently, a published meta-analysis study showed that globally incidence of knee OA was 16% in 15 year-old people and 22.9% in the aged of ≥ 40, with a female to male ratio (1.62)55 Pang KL, Ghafar NA, Soelaiman IN, Chin KY. Protective effects of annatto tocotrienol and palm tocotrienol-rich fraction on chondrocytes exposed to monosodium iodoacetate. Appl Sci. 2021;11(20):9643. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209643
https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209643...
. Due to multiple risk factors involved, it is very difficult to treat the disease.

OA disease differs from the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease33 Luo Y, Li J, Wang B, Zhang Q, Bian Y, Wang R. Protective effect of glycyrrhizin on osteoarthritis cartilage degeneration and inflammation response in a rat model. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2021;53:285–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09889-1
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09889...
. The inflammatory response in the joints, as well as the inflammatory reaction involved in joint swelling and pain, is involved in OA disorders22 Chun JM, Lee AY, Nam JY. Effects of Dipsacus asperoides Extract on Monosodium Iodoacetate–Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats Based on Gene Expression Profiling. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:615157. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.615157
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,66 Qiao YQ, Jiang PF, Gao YZ. Lutein prevents osteoarthritis through Nrf2 activation and downregulation of inflammation. Arch Med Sci. 2018;14(3):617–24. https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2016.59871
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. RA is an autoimmune disease and involves the inflammatory response in the expansion of disease77 Kumar V, Anwar F, Verma A, Mujeeb M. Therapeutic effect of umbelliferon-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(2I→1II)-α-D-glucopyranoside on adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. J Food Sci Technol. 2015;52:3402–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1403-x
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. Previous investigation suggested that the enhanced level of cytokines and inflammatory mediators was observed in the synovial fluids of OA patients66 Qiao YQ, Jiang PF, Gao YZ. Lutein prevents osteoarthritis through Nrf2 activation and downregulation of inflammation. Arch Med Sci. 2018;14(3):617–24. https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2016.59871
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,88 Liao T, Ding L, Wu P. Chrysin attenuates the NLRP3 inflammasome cascade to reduce synovitis and pain in KOA rats. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2020;14:3015–27. https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S261216
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.

Few studies have suggested that cartilage degradation markers such as C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1 and MMP-3) have a role in the progression and propagation of OA disease33 Luo Y, Li J, Wang B, Zhang Q, Bian Y, Wang R. Protective effect of glycyrrhizin on osteoarthritis cartilage degeneration and inflammation response in a rat model. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2021;53:285–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09889-1
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,99 Nam DE, Kim OK, Shim TJ, Kim JH, Lee J. Effect of Boswellia serrata extracts on degenerative osteoarthritis in vitro and in vivo models. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr. 2014;43:631–40. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.5.631
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. Moreover, the alteration of cartilage degradation marker induces the dysfunction of cartilage matrix related enzymes, which results in cartilage degradation in the joint1010 Woo YJ, Joo Y Bin, Jung YO. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract ameliorates monosodium iodoacetate induced osteoarthritis. Exp Mol Med. 2011;43:561–70. https://doi.org/10.3858/emm.2011.43.10.062
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,1111 Chun JM, Lee AY, Kim JS, Choi G, Kim SH. Protective effects of peucedanum japonicum extract against osteoarthritis in an animal model using a combined systems approach for compound-target prediction. Nutrients. 2018;10(6):754. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060754
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.

Various factors involved in the expansion of OA disease. MMPs play a crucial role in the degradation of cartilage. MMP role is not restricted to the collage type II, which is made up of 90% cartilage matrix proteins, collage type IV, collage type IX, and proteoglycan1212 Lu J, Zhang T, Sun H, Wang S, Liu M. Protective effects of dioscin against cartilage destruction in a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-indcued osteoarthritis rat model. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;108:1029–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.09.075. According to a previous study, low-grade joint inflammation plays an important role in the course of OA disease. Nuclear factor-B (NF-κB) is an important mediator of inflammation that has a function in the pathogenesis of OA disease1212 Lu J, Zhang T, Sun H, Wang S, Liu M. Protective effects of dioscin against cartilage destruction in a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-indcued osteoarthritis rat model. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;108:1029–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.09.075. Recent report suggests that the NF-κB pathway activation increases the level of cytokines, which induces the articular joint destruction, leading the onset and expansion of OA disease1313 Choi MC, Jo J, Park J, Kang HK, Park Y. NF-κb signaling pathways in osteoarthritic cartilage destruction. Cells. 2019;8(7):734. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8070734
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,1414 Rigoglou S, Papavassiliou AG. The NF-κB signalling pathway in osteoarthritis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013;45(11):2580–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2013.08.018
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. The activation of inflammatory reactions, apoptosis, and MMPs is influenced by oxidative stress and its products. It is also triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can disrupt and oxidize cartilage homeostasis, while also promoting catabolism by triggering cell death22 Chun JM, Lee AY, Nam JY. Effects of Dipsacus asperoides Extract on Monosodium Iodoacetate–Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats Based on Gene Expression Profiling. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:615157. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.615157
https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.61515...
,1515 Kalff KM, El Mouedden M, van Egmond J. Pre-treatment with capsaicin in a rat osteoarthritis model reduces the symptoms of pain and bone damage induced by monosodium iodoacetate. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;641(2-3):108–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.05.022
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. Due to the role of the inflammatory response in the OA disease, the researcher chooses the inflammatory drug for the treatment of OA disease. Various plant extracts and its phytoconstituents show the pharmacological effect for the treatment of OA rat model.

Currently available treatment for OA disease is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like paracetamol (acetaminophen) and aspirin, but both the drugs have limitations due to side effects and effective only relieving the osteoarthritis pain33 Luo Y, Li J, Wang B, Zhang Q, Bian Y, Wang R. Protective effect of glycyrrhizin on osteoarthritis cartilage degeneration and inflammation response in a rat model. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2021;53:285–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09889-1
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09889...
. However, recently intra-articular corticosteroids are recommended for the treatment of OA, but they induce the local and systemic side effects33 Luo Y, Li J, Wang B, Zhang Q, Bian Y, Wang R. Protective effect of glycyrrhizin on osteoarthritis cartilage degeneration and inflammation response in a rat model. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2021;53:285–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09889-1
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09889...
. Furthermore, meta-analysis showed that the various OA supplements such as chondroitin, avocado and glucosamine are used for the OA therapy, but the mechanism is inconclusive1616 Liu X, Machado GC, Eyles JP, Ravi V, Hunter DJ. Dietary supplements for treating osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-Analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52:167–75. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-097333
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.

Due to lack of the effect treatment for the OA disease, the end stage OA condition that time available option is arthroplasty or joint replacement55 Pang KL, Ghafar NA, Soelaiman IN, Chin KY. Protective effects of annatto tocotrienol and palm tocotrienol-rich fraction on chondrocytes exposed to monosodium iodoacetate. Appl Sci. 2021;11(20):9643. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209643
https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209643...
, but arthroplasty is a costly procedure, and there is the chance to develop the infection, periprosthetic fractures, and loosening of prosthetics1717 Gui Q, Zhang X, Liu L, Zhao F, Cheng W, Zhang Y. Cost-utility analysis of total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis in a regional medical center in China. Health Econ Rev. 2019;9(1):15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13561-019-0231-0
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13561-019-0231-...
. Due to the costly procedure, it is urgent more protective drugs with less cost, and no side effects against the OA disease.

Sinomenine is an alkaloid compound isolated from the Sinomenium acutum plant native from Japan and China1818 Geng P, Xu X, Gao Z. Sinomenine suppress the vitamin D3 and high fat induced atherosclerosis in rats via suppress of oxidative stress and inflammation. J Oleo Sci. 2021;70(12):1815–28. https://doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess21255
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,1919 Li XM, Li MT, Jiang N. Network pharmacology-based approach to investigate the molecular targets of sinomenine for treating breast cancer. Cancer Manag Res. 2021;13:1189–204. https://doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S282684
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. It exhibits the anti-inflammatory potential against the various immune related diseases in the animal model2020 Wang Q, Li XK. Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities of sinomenine. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11(3):373–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2010.11.018
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. Li et al. exhibited the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of sinomenine against gestational diabetes mellitus in female rats2121 Li Y, Xie H, Zhang H. Protective effect of sinomenine against inflammation and oxidative stress in gestational diabetes mellitus in female rats via TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. J Food Biochem. 2021;45(11):e13952. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13952
https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13952...
. Sinomenine also exhibited anti-inflammatory effect against the complete freund’s adjuvant (CFA) induced chronic inflammatory pain in rats2222 Yang H, Jiang C, Chen X, He K, Hu Y. Protective effects of sinomenine against LPS-induced inflammation in piglets. Microb Pathog. 2017;110:573–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2017.07.044. We investigated the anti-osteoarthritic effect of sinomenine against monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA in rats in this experimental study, because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

Methods

Animal

Swiss Wistar rats (sex-male; weight 250–280 g; 10–12 weeks old) were obtained from the animal housing and placed in a polyethylene cage (two rats each). The rats were kept in the departmental animal house for adopting in laboratory conditions for one week for acclimatization. The entire animal experiment was conducted in accordance with the institution’s animal protocols. The whole animal study was approved by the institutional ethical committee (approval number: 20210004531).

Osteoarthritis induction

In order to induce OA in rats, the animals were sedated with isoflurane, and articular cartilage damage was caused using an intra-articular injection of MIA. MIA (3 mg/50 μL) was produced in saline via the right knee’s infrapatellar ligament. The rats were given time to recover from anesthesia and monitored until they resumed normal activity11 Xu Q, Zhang ZF, Sun WX. Effect of naringin on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis pain in rats. Med Sci Monit. 2017;23:3746–51. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.902396
https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.902396...
.

Experimental group

The rats were put into five groups.

  • Group I: normal;

  • Group II: MIA control;

  • Group III: MIA + sinomenine (2.5 mg/kg);

  • Group IV: MIA + sinomenine (5 mg/kg);

  • Group V: MIA + sinomenine (7.5 mg/kg).

For four weeks, the rats were subjected to the treatment already described. The tested group received a freshly made suspension that was dissolved in carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and administered to the animal by oral gavage, with the dose of sinomenine chosen based on previously published research2323 Zhang J, Hu R, Xia ZK. Protective effects of sinomenine against doxorubicin-induced nephrosis in rats. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2012;14(7):678–87. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2012.685070
https://doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2012.68...
. After four weeks, the rats were euthanized. Before being euthanized, the rats were fasted overnight (12 h), and the blood samples of all group rats were collected via cardiac puncturing. The blood samples were centrifuged at 5,000 rpm for 5 min to separate the serum. The serum sample was stored at -20°C. The rats were euthanized at the end of the study, and different organs, like heart, spleen and kidney, were removed and weighted.

Nitric oxide production

The nitric oxide level was estimated using a previously described method. Griess reaction was used for the determination of nitric oxide. Briefly, serum sample (100 μL) was mixed with the Griess reagent A (50 μL) and equal quantity of Griess reagent B and incubated at room temperature (37°C) for 15 min. Finally, the optical density at 540 nm was estimated.

Antioxidant parameters

Glutathione (GSH) was estimated using the 5,5-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) model, which resulted in a yellow product2424 Ellman GL. Tissue Sulhydryl Groups. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1959;82(1):70–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(59)90090-6
https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(59)900...
. The final absorbance was estimated at 405 nm using the commercially available kits (Biodiagnostic kit, Egypt). The level of malonaldehyde (MDA) (MBS7727872) was estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (MyBioSource Ltd., San Diego, United States of America). The superoxide dismutase (SOD) (MBS8819950) level was estimated using the ELISA kits (MyBioSource Ltd., San Diego, United States of America), following the manufacture’s protocol.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

The cartilage degrading marker such as MMP-1 (MBS7720142), 2 (MBS7727654), 3 (MBS7720097), 9 (MBS8124027), 13 (MBS7726087); inflammatory parameters PGE2 (MBS7727909), cyclooxygenase-2 (MBS7721379), inducible Nitric oxide synthase (MBS9460915), CTX-II (MBS2533577), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) (MBS697344), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (MBS7720303), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) (MBS730728), aggrecan (MBS262707), and cytokines like tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (MBS508481), interleukin (IL)-1β (MBS697369) and IL-6 (MBS8123859) were estimated according the manufacture’s protocol (MyBioSource Ltd., San Diego, United States of America).

Statistical analysis

GraphPad Prism 7 software (GraphPad Prism, St. Louis, United States of America) was used for the statistical analysis. The data in this study was given as mean standard error means (SEM) for all the variables. Multiple comparisons were made using one-way and two-way analysis of variance. P was chosen as the significant number.

Result

Body and organ weight

During the OA, disease suppressed the body weight. OA disease group rats displayed the reduced body weight due to expansion of the disease, and sinomenine treated group rats exhibited the improvement of the body weight. Sinomenine (7.5 mg/kg) treated rats revealed the maximum enhancement of the body weight. It reached the body weight almost near to the normal group rats (Fig. 1a).

Figure 1
The effect of SM on the body and organ weight of MIA induced OA group rats. (a) body weight, (b) heart weight, (c) spleen weight and (d) kidney weight. All the results are presented as mean ± SD (n = 10 for each group) from three independent experiments.

OA control group rats showed the increased heart weight, which was significantly (P < 0.001) repressed by the sinomenine treatment. Sinomenine (7.5 mg/kg) treated group rats demonstrated the heart weight almost near the normal group rats (Fig. 1b). We also estimated the spleen and kidney weight in all group rats. The weight of the spleen (Fig. 1c) and kidney (Fig. 1d) in all groups of rats did not differ statistically.

Nitric oxide

On the comparison between the groups, OA group rats showed the boosted level of nitric oxide, which was reduced by the sinomenine treatment. Sinomenine treated group rats significantly (P < 0.001) suppressed the level of nitric oxide, and maximum reduction was observed in the sinomenine (7.5 mg/kg) treated group rats (Fig. 2).

Figure 2
Effect of SM on the nitric oxide of MIA induced OA group rats. All the results are presented as mean ± SD (n = 10 for each group) from three independent experiments.

Aggrecan and glycosaminoglycans

The levels of aggrecan and GAGs in the various groups of rats are shown in Fig. 3. OA-induced group rats had lower levels of aggrecan (Fig. 3a) and GAGs (Fig. 3b), while sinomenine-treated rats had considerably higher levels. Sinomenine (7.5 mg/kg) increased the levels of aggrecan and GAG.

Figure 3
Effect of SN on the aggrecan and GAGs of MIA induced OA group rats. (a) aggrecan and (b) GAGs. All the results are presented as mean ± SD (n = 10 for each group) from three independent experiments.

IFN-γ and MCP-1

OA group rats displayed the repressed level of IFN-γ (Fig. 4a) and enhanced level of MCP-1 (Fig. 4b) as compared to normal group rats. Sinomenine treated group rats significantly (P<0.001) improved the level of IFN-γ and reduced the level of MCP-1.

Figure 4
Effect of SM on the INF-γ and MCP-1 of MIA induced OA group rats. (a) INF-γ and (b) MCP-1. All the results are presented as mean ± SD (n=10 for each group) from three independent experiments.

Antioxidant parameters

Various diseases, such as osteoporosis, arthritis, cancer, and other ones, are accelerated by oxidative stress. The OA control group rats showed a similar result, with lower levels of GSH, SOD, and higher levels of MDA. Sinomenine treatment significantly (P<0.001) boosted the level of GSH (fig. 5a), SOD (fig. 5b) and downregulated the MDA level (fig. 5c).

Figure 5
Effect of SM on the antioxidant parameters of MIA induced OA group rats. (a) GSH, (b) SOD and (c) MDA. All the results are presented as mean ± SD (n = 10 for each group) from three independent experiments.

Inflammatory cytokines

The inflammatory reaction is important in the progression of OA disease. In this study, OA group rats displayed the augmented level of TNF-α (Fig. 6a), IL-1β (Fig. 6b), IL-6 (Fig. 6c) and suppressed the level of IL-10 (Fig. 6d). Sinomenine treated group rats significantly (P < 0.001) altered the level of inflammatory cytokines.

Figure 6
Effect of SM on the inflammatory cytokines of MIA induced OA group rats. (a) TNF-α, (b) IL-1β, (c) IL-6 and (d) IL-10. All the results are presented as mean ± SD (n = 10 for each group) from three independent experiments.

Inflammatory parameters

OA induced group rats displayed the boosted level of CTX-II (Fig. 7a), PGE2 (Fig. 7b), COX-2 (Fig. 7c) and iNOS (Fig. 7d). Sinomenine treated group rats significantly (P < 0.001) suppressed the level of inflammatory parameters. Sinomenine (7.5 mg/kg) treated group rats displayed the maximum suppression of inflammatory parameters and reached near to the normal control.

Figure 7
Effect of SM on the inflammatory parameters of MIA induced OA group rats. (a) CTX-II, (b) PGE2, (c) COX-2 and (d) iNOS. All the results are presented as mean ± SD (n = 10 for each group) from three independent experiments.

Matrix metalloproteinases

MMPs are important in the propagation and progression of OA disease. OA induced group rats displayed the boosted level of MMP-1 (Fig. 8a), MMP-2 (Fig. 8b), MMP-3 (Fig. 8c), MMP-9 (Fig. 8d), and MMP-13 (Fig. 8e). Sinomenine treatment remarkably repressed the level of MMPs. Sinomenine (7.5 mg/kg) treated group rats showed the maximum suppression in the level of MMPs.

Figure 8
Effect of sinomenine on the MMPs parameters of MIA induced OA group rats. (a) MMP-1, (b) MMP-2, (c) MMP-3, (d) MMP-9 and (e) MMP-13. All the results are presented as mean ± SD (n = 10 for each group) from three independent experiments.

Discussion

The OA disease is categorized via progression of articular cartilage loss and the growth of bone osteophytes at the joint borders2525 Hunter DJ, Bierma-Zeinstra S. Osteoarthritis. Lancet. 2019;393(10182):1745–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30417-9
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30...
. The available treatments for OA disease are surgical procedure, medical and non-medical therapy, which are more focus on the symptom therapies such as reducing pain and enhancing the overall function2626 Tanideh N, Ashkani-Esfahani S, Sadeghi F. The protective effects of grape seed oil on induced osteoarthritis of the knee in male rat models. J Orthop Surg Res. 2020;15(1):400. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-020-01932-y
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-020-01932...
. However, due to limitations, the researcher focuses their research to scrutinize the more protective drug from the natural source.

The reduction in the body weight is commonly observed during the OA disease. The body weight reduced due to loss or deformation of bone structures22 Chun JM, Lee AY, Nam JY. Effects of Dipsacus asperoides Extract on Monosodium Iodoacetate–Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats Based on Gene Expression Profiling. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:615157. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.615157
https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.61515...
,66 Qiao YQ, Jiang PF, Gao YZ. Lutein prevents osteoarthritis through Nrf2 activation and downregulation of inflammation. Arch Med Sci. 2018;14(3):617–24. https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2016.59871
https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2016.59871...
. Rats in the OA control group had a similar result. No difference was observed in the spleen and kidney weight, but heart weight increased in the OA control group rats due to increase protein synthesis like IL-6, TNF, MMP-1 at the cellular level and Sinomenine treatment effectively suppressed the level of cytokines and MMP, which suggested the suppression of protein synthesis and reduced the heart weight.

Joint swelling is induced via synovial infiltration and inflammatory reaction, after the MIA injection2727 Abdel Jaleel GA, Saleh DO, Al-Awdan SW, Hassan A, Asaad GF. Impact of type III collagen on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Heliyon. 2020;6(6):e04083. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04083
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e...
. Hyperplasia with fibrosis of the synovial membrane, resorption of the articular cartilage surface, and edema with inflammatory cell infiltration in the surrounding cartilage with congested blood vessels were all seen during the OA disease. This experimental investigation also found a similar effect, indicating that OA disease is progressing and spreading. OA rodent model either naturally, chemically or surgically widely accepted to scrutinize the cartilage degeneration pathology and potentially therapeutic alteration of disease33 Luo Y, Li J, Wang B, Zhang Q, Bian Y, Wang R. Protective effect of glycyrrhizin on osteoarthritis cartilage degeneration and inflammation response in a rat model. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2021;53:285–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09889-1
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09889...
,2828 McCoy AM. Animal Models of Osteoarthritis: Comparisons and Key Considerations. Vet Pathol. 2015;52(5):803–18. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985815588611
https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985815588611...
.

Previous report suggests that the chemically induced OA disease similarly occurs in human beings with age. Moreover, the OA disease is a long-time period chronic disease and it needs a long time to scrutinize the protective effect of tested drug in rodent. MIA induced OA group rats exhibited the prominent knee joint swelling due to increase the joint volume as compared to the normal group rats. The joint swelling reached maximum seven days and remained persistent at the end of the experimental study. In this experimental study, we selected the rodent model (MIA induced OA disease) to scrutinize the protective effect of tested drugs.

In this experimental study, we used the injection of MIA to induce the OA. The administration of MIA disrupts the metabolism of chondrocyte due the suppression of glycolysis and inducing the deterioration of cartilage2727 Abdel Jaleel GA, Saleh DO, Al-Awdan SW, Hassan A, Asaad GF. Impact of type III collagen on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Heliyon. 2020;6(6):e04083. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04083
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e...
. The collapsing joint’s histology closely resembles that of a human joint, which is the model’s principal benefit2929 Joo IH, Min GY, Choi HJ. Effects of chondroitin sulfate on modulation of MMPs and TIMP-1 in a monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis model. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2018;11(10):10749–57.. Finally, the MIA exposed to the subchondral bone, injured the synovium, and induced the pain in the joint2727 Abdel Jaleel GA, Saleh DO, Al-Awdan SW, Hassan A, Asaad GF. Impact of type III collagen on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Heliyon. 2020;6(6):e04083. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04083
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e...
. Due to induction of OA in the rodent similarly to the human, this model gets popularity day by day to scrutinize the therapeutic and preventive effect of tested drug.

It is well known that ROS induces the DNA injury. This injury may be attributed to enhanced the production of inflammatory cytokines2727 Abdel Jaleel GA, Saleh DO, Al-Awdan SW, Hassan A, Asaad GF. Impact of type III collagen on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Heliyon. 2020;6(6):e04083. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04083
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e...
. The level of ROS boosted during the degradation cartilage injury, which was confirmed via estimation of lipid peroxidation in the both circulation and cartilage area3030 Huang TC, Chang WT, Hu YC. Zinc protects articular chondrocytes through changes in Nrf2-mediated antioxidants, cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Nutrients. 2018;10(4):471. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040471
https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040471...
,3131 Yamada EF, Bobinski F, Martins DF, Palandi J, Folmer V, da Silva MD. Photobiomodulation therapy in knee osteoarthritis reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in rats. J Biophotonics. 2020;13(1):e201900204. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201900204
https://doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201900204...
. The level of GSH suppressed during the OA disease due to crucial role of nitrosative and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of OA disease3232 Wang ZM, Chen YC, Wang DP. Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant, protects monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritic pain in rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;83:763–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2016.06.050
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2016.06...
.

It is well known that matrix turnover depends on the chondrocytes, which starts the production of inflammatory cytokines in rodent, as well as human3333 Melchiorri C, Meliconi R, Frizziero L. Enhanced and coordinated in vivo expression of inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide synthase by chondrocytes from patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41(12):2165–74. https://doi.org/10.1002/1529-0131(199812)41:12%3C2165::aid-art11%3E3.0.co;2-o
https://doi.org/10.1002/1529-0131(199812...
. Several cytokines such as IL-1, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-17 and increased level of MMPs play a considerable role in the degradation of cartilage3434 Kim JK, Park SW, Kang JW. Effect of GCSB-5, a herbal formulation, on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Evidence-based Complement Altern Med. 2012;2012:730907. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/730907
https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/730907...
. OA induced group rats exhibited the alter level of cytokines, which was modulated by the sinomenine.

It is well known that the degradation of cartilage starts during the OA disease, and it is considered as the biomarker of the disease2525 Hunter DJ, Bierma-Zeinstra S. Osteoarthritis. Lancet. 2019;393(10182):1745–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30417-9
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30...
. The deterioration of cartilage begins during OA disease due to inductions of cartilage matrix products such as MMPs, which leads to collagen network dysfunction3535 Singh P, Marcu KB, Goldring MB, Otero M. Phenotypic instability of chondrocytes in osteoarthritis: on a path to hypertrophy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2019;1442(1):17–34. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13930
https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13930...
,3636 Berenbaum F. Osteoarthritis as an inflammatory disease (osteoarthritis is not osteoarthrosis!). Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2013;21(1):16–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2012.11.012
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2012.11.0...
. MMPs are the proteinases family member that can degrade the all-extracellular matrix components3434 Kim JK, Park SW, Kang JW. Effect of GCSB-5, a herbal formulation, on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Evidence-based Complement Altern Med. 2012;2012:730907. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/730907
https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/730907...
. Gelatinases (type IV collagenases) are the member of MMP family and divided into different subclasses such as MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B), which are responsible for the degrading types collagens IV, collagen V, gelatin and elastin3737 Kusano K, Miyaura C, Inada M. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2,-3,-9, and -13) by interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 in mouse calvaria: Association of MMP induction with bone resorption. Endocrinology. 1998;139(3):1338–45. https://doi.org/10.1210/endo.139.3.5818
https://doi.org/10.1210/endo.139.3.5818...
. MMP-2 is known to be generated via osteoblasts and tissue structural cells such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. MMP-9 generated via inflammatory cells include eosinophils, macrophages, and neutrophils3838 Mehana ESE, Khafaga AF, El-Blehi SS. The role of matrix metalloproteinases in osteoarthritis pathogenesis: An updated review. Life Sci. 2019;234:116786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116786
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.11678...
,3939 Wang CC, Guo L, Tian FD. Naringenin regulates production of matrix metalloproteinases in the knee-joint and primary cultured articular chondrocytes and alleviates pain in rat osteoarthritis model. Brazilian J Med Biol Res. 2017;50(4):e5714. https://doi.org/10.1590/1414-431X20165714
https://doi.org/10.1590/1414-431X2016571...
. MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) are latent precursors that can be triggered with restricted proteolysis.

During the OA decease, the level of MMP-9 increased, which reflected the inflammatory reaction in the joints and exhibited the positive correlation between the rapid destruction of hip joint and MMP3434 Kim JK, Park SW, Kang JW. Effect of GCSB-5, a herbal formulation, on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats. Evidence-based Complement Altern Med. 2012;2012:730907. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/730907
https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/730907...
. Another biomarker of OA disease is CTX-II, widely used for the estimation the status of degradation of cartilage33 Luo Y, Li J, Wang B, Zhang Q, Bian Y, Wang R. Protective effect of glycyrrhizin on osteoarthritis cartilage degeneration and inflammation response in a rat model. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2021;53:285–93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09889-1
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09889...
. PGE2 is an enzyme commonly used to identify the suppression of the proteoglycan synthesis and boost the cartilage matrix degradation4040 Vilá S. Inflammation in osteoarthritis. P R Health Sci J. 2017;36(3):123–9. ,4141 Momcheva I, Kazmin I, Hristova S, Madgova V. The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Rheumatol. 2021;29:56–60. . MMP-1, MMP-3, PGE2, and CTX-II levels were substantially higher in the OA group rats, indicating the development of cartilage network dysfunction, while sinomenine treatment significantly reduced the level, indicating cartilage protection.

Conclusion

Our data showed that the sinomenine remarkably improved the body weight and reduced the weight of heart tissue. Sinomenine considerably altered the level of antioxidant enzymes and repressed the level of NO, MCP-1 and boosted the level of aggrecan, GAGs, IFN-γ. Sinomenine remarkably modulated the level of inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory mediators and MMPs. Consequently, sinomenine treatment can be proposed to be a protective anti-osteoarthritic drug. More molecular study must be done to identify the exact mechanism for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Acknowledgements

Not applicable.

  • Research performed at Affiliated Hospital of Yunnan University, Bone and Traumatic Surgery, Kunming, China.
  • Funding

    Not applicable.

Data availability statement

The data will be available upon request

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    05 Feb 2024
  • Date of issue
    2024

History

  • Received
    22 July 2023
  • Accepted
    11 Sept 2023
Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia https://actacirbras.com.br/ - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
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