Cardioprotective effect of preconditioning is more efficient than postconditioning in rats submitted to cardiac ischemia and reperfusion1 1 Research performed at Laboratory of Autonomic and Cardiovascular Pharmacology (LabFAC), Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Brazil. Part of PhD degree thesis, Postgraduate Program in Pharmacology, UNIFESP. Tutor: Prof. Dr. Afonso Caricati-Neto.

José Gustavo Padrão Tavares Paolo Ruggero Errante Tânia Carmem Peñaranda Govato Ênio Rodrigues Vasques Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz Murched Omar Taha Francisco Sandro Menezes-Rodrigues Afonso Caricati-Neto About the authors

Abstract

Purpose:

To investigate the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning (preIC) and postconditioning (postIC) in animal model of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion.

Methods:

Adult rats were submitted to protocol of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and randomized into three experimental groups: cardiac I/R (n=33), preCI + cardiac I/R (n=7) and postCI + cardiac I/R (n=8). After this I/R protocol, the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA), atrioventricular block (AVB) and lethality (LET) was evaluated using the electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis.

Results:

After reestablishment of coronary blood flow, we observed variations of the ECG trace with increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA) (85%), atrioventricular block (AVB) (79%), and increase of lethality (70%) in cardiac I/R group. The comparison between I/R + preIC group with I/R group demonstrated significant reduction in VA incidence to 28%, AVB to 0% and lethality to 14%. The comparison of I/R + postIC group with I/R group was observed significance reduction in AVB incidence to 25% and lethality to 25%.

Conclusion:

The preconditioning strategies produce cardioprotection more efficient that postconditioning against myocardial dysfunctions and lethality by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion.

Key words:
Myocardial Infarction; Myocardial Reperfusion Injury; Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial; Ischemic Postconditioning; Rats

Introduction

The coronary reperfusion therapy constitutes the major therapeutic strategy to salvage the myocardium from tissue injury following prolonged ischemia in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients11 Rutledge T, Reis VA, Linke SE, Greenberg BH, Mills PJ. Depression in heart failure a meta-analytic review of prevalence, intervention effects, and associations with clinical outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48(8):1527-537. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2006.06.055.
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2 Pantazi E, Bejaoui M, Folch-Puy E, Adam R, Roselló-Catafau J. Advances in treatment strategies for ischemia reperfusion injury. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2016;8:1-11. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2016.1115015.
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-33 Frank A, Bonney M, Bonney S, Weitzel L, Koeppen M, Eckle T. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury: From basic science to clinical bedside. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2012;16:123-32. doi: 10.1177/1089253211436350.
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. However, the beneficial effect of this therapy is compromise by myocardial injuries caused during coronary reperfusion that subsequently lead to cardiac dysfunctions, including arrhythmias, caused by bioenergetic and electrochemical misbalance caused mainly by reduction of ATP production by mitochondria and cytosolic Ca2+ overload in cardiomyocytes44 Bers DM. Calcium cycling and signaling in cardiac myocytes. Ann Rev Physiol. 2008;70:23-49. doi: 10.1146/annurev.physiol.70.113006.100455.
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,55 Xie LH, Weiss JN. Arrhythmogenic consequences of intracellular calcium waves. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297(3):H997-1002. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00390.2009.
https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00390.2...
.

Strategies to limit myocardial damage in acute myocardial infarction include, in addition to early reperfusion, the improvement of the endogenous resistance of cardiac cells to blood deprivation, which can be obtained by stimulating its survival mechanisms that function as a molecular adaptation to ischemic stress22 Pantazi E, Bejaoui M, Folch-Puy E, Adam R, Roselló-Catafau J. Advances in treatment strategies for ischemia reperfusion injury. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2016;8:1-11. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2016.1115015.
https://doi.org/10.1517/14656566.2016.11...
. Among these phenomena, we can mention the stunned and the hibernation of the myocardium. Stunned is defined as a prolonged and reversible ischemic heart dysfunction, which persists after reperfusion, despite normalization of blood flow66 Canty JM Jr, Suzuki G. Myocardial perfusion and contraction in acute ischemia and chronic ischemic heart disease. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;52(4):822-31. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2011.08.019.
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The hibernating myocardium represents a condition in which a prolonged sub-acute or chronic state of myocardial ischemia results in a new equilibrium in which myocardial necrosis does not settle because the metabolism and function are reduce proportionally to the concomitant reduction of coronary flow77 Holley CT, Long EK, Lindsey ME, McFalls EO, Kelly RF. Recovery ofhibernatingmyocardium: what is the role of surgical revascularization? J Card Surg. 2015;30(2):224-31. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12477.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jocs.12477...
. Other phenomena described are myocardial pre and postconditioning88 Kelle I, Akkoç H, Uyar E, Erdinç M, Evliyaoglu O, Saribas S, Tunik S, Özogul C. The combined effect of rosuvastatin and ischemicpre- or postconditioning on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat heart. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015;19(13):2468-76. PMID: 26214784.. Ischemic preconditioning (preCI) describes the protection afforded by brief period (or periods) of ischemia against a later ischemic episode of longer duration. This protection is typically measure as prevention against arrhythmias, reduction in myocardial infarction size or better recovery of the electrical and contractile function of the heart99 Wever KE, Hooijmans CR, Riksen NP, Sterenborg TB, Sena ES, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Warlé MC.Determinants of the efficacy ofcardiacischemicpreconditioning: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies. PLoS One. 2015;18;10(11):e0142021. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142021.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.014...
.

The main advantages of preCI are in fact this can be inducing by ischemia or directly in heart, can be programme in case of surgery or angioplasty, situations where heart function is compromise. The preCI has cardioprotective efficacy of two periods with different characteristics: the first window of protection (preCI early) is more effective in reducing the extent of infarct size, and the second window of protection (preCI late) is most effective against myocardial stunning1010 Staat P, Rioufol G, Piot C, Cottin Y, Cung TT, L'Huillier I, Aupetit JF, Bonnefoy E, Finet G, André-Fouët X, Ovize M. Postconditioning the human heart. Circulation. 2005;112(14):2143-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.558122.
https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.1...
. Ischemic postconditioning consists of alternating brief periods of reperfusion and brief reocclusions applied in the initial minutes of reperfusion1111 Frohlich GM, Meier P, White SK, Yellon DM, Hausenloy DJ. Myocardial reperfusion injury: looking beyond primary PCI. Eur Heart J. 2013;34:1714-24. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht090.
https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/eht090...
. In ischemic postconditioning (postCI), is necessary to make brief mechanical interruptions of reperfusion early in process. The mechanisms by which postCI confers cardioprotection in cardiac I/R resemble those of preCI, and adenosine has been implicate in the cardioprotective effect conferred by postCI, since inhibitors of the action of adenosine inhibit this effect1212 Vinten-Johansen J, Shi W. Perconditioning and postconditioning: current knowledge, knowledge gaps, barriers to adoption, and future directions. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2011;16(3-4):260-6. doi: 10.1177/1074248411415270.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1074248411415270...
. PostCI that is more clinically applicable than preconditioning, once your application occurs before an ischemic episode, but at the time of reperfusion. In this study aims to characterize the ECG changes caused by I/R cardiac process and quantify the incidence of lethality in animals subjected to I/R and evaluate the effectiveness of preCI and postCI.

Methods

All experimental procedures were approved by Ethical Committee, UNIFESP (#1130/11).

Forty eight adult (14 - 16 week-old, 300 to 340 g) male Wistar rats were maintained under standard conditions of nutrition, hydration, temperature, humidity and light/dark cycle. Rats were submitted to cardiac I/R and randomized into three groups: cardiac I/R (n=33), preCI + cardiac I/R (n=7) and postCI + cardiac I/R (n=8).

Protocol of cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R)

All experimental procedures used to induce cardiac I/R in this study were previously described in other studies published by our lab1313 Tavares JG, Vasques ER, Arida RM, Cavalheiro EA, Cabral FR, Torres LB, Menezes-Rodrigues FS, Jurkiewicz A, Caricati-Neto A, Godoy CM, Gomes da Silva S. Epilepsy-induced electrocardiographic alterations following cardiac ischemia and reperfusion in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2015;48(2):140-5. doi: 10.1590/1414-431X20144311.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1414-431X2014431...
,1414 Tavares JG, Menezes-Rodrigues FS, Vasques ER, Maia-Reis MC, Paula L, Luna-Filho B, Errante PR, Caricati-Neto A, Bergantin LB. A simple and efficient methodology for the study of cardioprotective drugs in animal model of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion. J Mol Imag Dyn. 2017;7:1. doi: 10.4172/2155-9937.1000133.
https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9937.100013...
. After anesthesia with urethane (1.25 g/kg), rats were submitted to orotracheal intubation and adapted in mechanical ventilator apparatus (Insight, model EFF 312, Brazil) with room air (volume of 10 mL/kg and 70 breaths/min). The body temperature was maintained at 37.5ºC with a heated operating platform and appropriate heating lamps, and was evaluated routinely via a rectal thermometer. After this procedure, the chest was opened with a left thoracotomy between fourth and fifth intercostal space to exteriorization of heart using mechanical pressure on the abdomen. To induce ischemia, surgical tourniquet (Mononylon Ethilon 5.0, Atramac, Mexico) attached to a 10-mm micro point reverse-cutting needle was placed around the left anterior descending coronary artery (about 2 mm from its origin). The two ends of nylon silk yarn were passed inside a cylindrical tube of polypropylene to perform a surgical tourniquet. After stabilization for 15 min, this tourniquet was tied for mechanical occlusion of coronary (ischemia). After 10 min of occlusion, the nylon tourniquet was removed to allow coronary recirculation (reperfusion) during 120 min.

ECG analysis

To evaluate cardiac electrical activity, the ECG system was adapted in rats submitted to cardiac I/R. Cardiac electrical activity were measured during 10 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion1313 Tavares JG, Vasques ER, Arida RM, Cavalheiro EA, Cabral FR, Torres LB, Menezes-Rodrigues FS, Jurkiewicz A, Caricati-Neto A, Godoy CM, Gomes da Silva S. Epilepsy-induced electrocardiographic alterations following cardiac ischemia and reperfusion in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2015;48(2):140-5. doi: 10.1590/1414-431X20144311.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1414-431X2014431...
,1414 Tavares JG, Menezes-Rodrigues FS, Vasques ER, Maia-Reis MC, Paula L, Luna-Filho B, Errante PR, Caricati-Neto A, Bergantin LB. A simple and efficient methodology for the study of cardioprotective drugs in animal model of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion. J Mol Imag Dyn. 2017;7:1. doi: 10.4172/2155-9937.1000133.
https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9937.100013...
. The ECG was recorded from the beginning of the stabilization period using a data acquisition system (AqDados 7.02; Lynx Tecnologia Ltda, Brazil). The recorded raw data was analysed using the computer program (AqDAnalysis 7, Lynx Tecnologia Ltda, Brazil). Incidence of VA, AVB, and LET in response to cardiac I/R were evaluated by ECG analysis. To simplify the presentation of the results, ventricular fibrillation, torsades de pointes, and ventricular tachycardia parameters were considered only as VA. ECG measurements were evaluated according to Lambeth conventions1313 Tavares JG, Vasques ER, Arida RM, Cavalheiro EA, Cabral FR, Torres LB, Menezes-Rodrigues FS, Jurkiewicz A, Caricati-Neto A, Godoy CM, Gomes da Silva S. Epilepsy-induced electrocardiographic alterations following cardiac ischemia and reperfusion in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2015;48(2):140-5. doi: 10.1590/1414-431X20144311.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1414-431X2014431...
,1414 Tavares JG, Menezes-Rodrigues FS, Vasques ER, Maia-Reis MC, Paula L, Luna-Filho B, Errante PR, Caricati-Neto A, Bergantin LB. A simple and efficient methodology for the study of cardioprotective drugs in animal model of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion. J Mol Imag Dyn. 2017;7:1. doi: 10.4172/2155-9937.1000133.
https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9937.100013...
.

Protocol of preconditioning and posconditioning

The cardiac I/R group (n = 33) was proposed to analyze and establish the amendments ECG and mortality of animals submitted to I/R. In the preCI + I/R was studied the effect of 3 short cycles of ischemia lasting 3 min and 5 min intervals between I/R cycles, applied before performing longer duration of ischemia (10 min). In the cardiac I/R group treated with postCI + I/R, ischemia held 3 cycles of 1 min interspersed with 3 cycles of 3 min of reperfusion.

Statistical analysis

The incidence of VA, AVB, and LET was compared by the Fisher’s exact test. Values were considered significant to p<0.05. Statistical analyses were performed by Prism 5.0 software (GraphPad, USA), and data were expressed as means ± SE.

Results

Cardiac I/R group showed changes in the ECG tracing from the 5 minutes of first ischemic arrhythmias corresponded to VA (ventricular extra systoles, ventricular tachycardia and torsade de pointes) and AVB in most animals tested occurred, and the rest of animals tested showed no arrhythmias during ischemia. Very few animals died because of arrhythmias during cardiac ischemia (data not showed).

After reestablishment of coronary blood flow by removing wire Nylon variations of ECG trace, with increased incidence of VA (85%), AVB (79%) and mortality (70%) were observed (Figure 1). In animals that had no arrhythmias during ischemia, the arrhythmic events began to occur during reperfusion; no deaths were observed during first four minutes of reperfusion, but between 5th and 20th minutes of reperfusion.

Figure 1
Histograms representing percentages of VA, BVA and mortality incidence in groups I/R and I/R + preCI. Statistical analysis were performed from Fisher’s exact test (*p<0.05, ***p<0.0005).

The Figure 1 also shows that the preCI significantly reduced the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias (VA and AVB) and mortality. The comparison of group I/R + preCI with I/R group showed significant reduction in VA incidence to 28%, AVB to 0% and mortality to 14%.

Figure 2 shows that the postCI significantly reduced incidence of AVB and mortality but not VA. The comparison of group I/R + postCI with I/R group showed significant reduction in incidence of AVB and mortality for 25%.

Figure 2
Histograms representing percentages of incidence of VA and BVA and mortality in I/R and I/R + postCI groups. Statistical analysis were performed from Fisher’s exact test (*p<0.05, **p<0.005).

Discussion

The results obtained in this study showed that the incidence of VA and AVB and mortality in animals submitted to cardiac I/R was reduce when animals were subjected to preCI, and postCI. The preCI significantly reducing the incidence of AVB and mortality in animals submitted to cardiac I/R when compared with postCI.

Ischemic preconditioning (preCI) describes the protection afforded by brief periods (or periods) of ischemia against a subsequent longer lasting ischemic episode. This protection is typically measured as prevention against arrhythmias, reduction in the size of myocardial infarction or better recovery of the electrical and contractile function of the heart.

The preCI stimulates increased production of NO by myocardial cells, which in response activates intracellular signaling cascade that inhibits opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), resulting in production of ATP and homeostasis of Ca2+ and Na+15. The K+ATP-dependent mitochondrial (mKATP) channels present in the inner mitochondrial membrane are activate during preCI, increasing volume of mitochondrial matrix and oxidation of fatty acids1616 Grover GJ, Garlid KD. ATP-sensitive potassium channels: a review of their cardioprotective pharmacology. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000;32:677-95. doi: 10.1006/jmcc.2000.1111.
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with production of oxigen-reactive species (ROS)1717 Garlid KD. Opening mitochondrial KATP channel in the heart-what happens, and what does not happen. Basic Res Cardiol. 2000;95:275-9. PMID: 11005581..

The opening these channels involves the epsilon isoform of protein kinase C (PKCε)1818 Ohnuma Y, Miura T, Miki T, Tanno M, Kuno A, Tsuchida A, Shimamoto K. Opening of mitochondrial KATP channel occurs downstream of PKC-e activation in the mechanism of preconditioning. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;283:H440-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00434.2001.
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, preventing hyperpolarization of electrical potential of mitochondrial membrane1919 Koretsune Y, Marban E. Mechanism of ischemic contracture in ferret hearts: relative roles of [Ca(2+)]i elevation and ATP depletion. Am J Physiol. 1990;258:H9-C16. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.1990.258.1.H9.
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avoiding accumulation of mitochondrial Ca2+, prolonged opening of MPTP, release of cytochrome c and apoptosis2020 Wang L, Cherednichenko G, Hernandez L, Halow J, Camacho SA, Figueredo V, Schaefer S. Preconditioning limits mitochondrial Ca(2+) during ischemia in rat hearts: role of K(ATP) channels. Am J Physiol. 2001;280:H2321-8. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.2001.280.5.H2321.
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The cardioprotection afforded by preCI is mediate by combination of multiple endogenous mechanisms involving adrenergic receptors (α1 e β3), opioid receptor, bradykinin B2 receptor and adenosine receptor2222 Abete P, Cacciatore F, Testa G, Della-Morte D, Galizia SD, Calabrese C, Cioppa A, Ferrara N, Rengo F. Ischemic preconditioning in the aging heart: from bench to bedside. Ageing Res Rev. 2010;9:53-162. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2009.07.001.
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. Found in our study that ischemic preCI reduce the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and mortality by I/R. The preCI confers cardioprotection reducing the incidence of arrhythmias induced by I/R2323 Xie LH, Weiss JN. Arrhythmogenic consequences of intracellular calcium waves. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297(3):H997-1002. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00390.2009.
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in cardiomyocytes cultured and isolated hearts in different animal species2424 Kolettis TM, Vilaeti AD, Tsalikakis DG, Zoga A, Valenti M, Tzallas AT, Papalois A, Iliodromitis EK. Effects of pre- and postconditioning on arrhythmogenesis in the in vivo rat model. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2013;18(4):376-85. doi: 10.1177/1074248413482183.
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. Prior exposure for 1 to 2 cycles of ischemia (5 min) and reperfusion (10 min) reduced the incidence of ventricular fibrillation from 42% to 17% with 2 cycles and completely abolished this type of arrhythmia with 1 cycle in isolated hearts rabbits subjected to ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 45 min2525 Lukas A, Botsford MW. Cardioprotection induced by ischemic preconditioning in the mammalian heart: effects on arrhythmogenesis. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997;75(4):316-25. PMID: 9196858..

Prior exposure of isolated hearts in male Wistar rats to one cycle of ischemia (5 min) and reperfusion (5 min) reduced the number of premature ventricular beats, the incidence and duration of ventricular tachycardia in isolated hearts subjected to 30 min ischemia2626 Matejíková J, Ravingerová T, Pancza D, Carnická S, Kolár F. Mitochondrial KATP opening confers protection against lethal myocardial injury and ischaemia-induced arrhythmias in the rat heart via PI3K/Akt-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;87(12):1055-62. doi: 10.1139/Y09-100.
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. Kolettis et al.2424 Kolettis TM, Vilaeti AD, Tsalikakis DG, Zoga A, Valenti M, Tzallas AT, Papalois A, Iliodromitis EK. Effects of pre- and postconditioning on arrhythmogenesis in the in vivo rat model. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2013;18(4):376-85. doi: 10.1177/1074248413482183.
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showed that prior exposure to 2 cycles of ischemia (5 min), reperfusion (5 min) in Wistar rats undergoing cardiac ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 24 hours significantly reduced the incidence of VA, mortality and myocardial lesion size2424 Kolettis TM, Vilaeti AD, Tsalikakis DG, Zoga A, Valenti M, Tzallas AT, Papalois A, Iliodromitis EK. Effects of pre- and postconditioning on arrhythmogenesis in the in vivo rat model. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2013;18(4):376-85. doi: 10.1177/1074248413482183.
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Experimental studies in different models of I/R have shown that inhibitor of NO biosynthesis L-NAME, reduce cardioprotective response stimulated by preCI, suggesting involvement of cellular signaling via NO/cGMP/PKG response2727 Schulz R, Ferdinandy P. Does nitric oxide signaling differ in pre- and postconditioning? Importance of S-nitrosylation vs. protein kinase G activation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;54:113-5. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.10.547
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. The signaling via NO/cGMP/PKG pathway has a crucial role in excitation-contraction coupling and cellular Ca2+ homeostasis during I/R. This increase in NO/cGMP/PKG system activity is mediate by increased NOS activity induced by preCI2828 Zaugg M, Schaub MC. Signaling and cellular mechanisms in cardiac protection by ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning. J Mus Res Cell Motil. 2003;24:219-49. PMID: 14609033..

The increase in PKG activity stimulates opening of mKATP, decreasing mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, ROS production and prolonged opening of MPTP to maintain ATP production2929 Schultz JE, Qian YZ, Gross GJ, Kukreja RC.The ischemia-selective KATP channel antagonist, 5-hydroxydecanoate, blocks ischemic preconditioning in the rat heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1997;29(3):1055-60. doi: 10.1006/jmcc.1996.0358.
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. As well as its application in the myocardium, ischemic preconditioning can also be induced by brief interruptions of blood flow to other organs, particularly skeletal muscle. Transient ischemia induced noninvasively by inflating a cuff on a limb, followed by reperfusion, helps reduce the damage caused to the myocardium by interruption of the coronary circulation. Remote ischemic preconditioning involves activation of humoral and/or neural pathways that open mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the myocardium and close mitochondrial permeability transition pores, making cardiomyocytes less vulnerable to ischemia-induced cell death3333 Costa JF, Fontes-Carvalho R, Leite-Moreira A. Pré-condicionamento isquémico remoto do miocárdio: dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos à aplicação na prática clínica. Rev Port Cardiol. 2013;32(11):893-904. doi: 10.1016/j.repc.2013.02.012.
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This cardioprotective mechanism is now being translated into clinical practice, with positive results in several clinical trials in coronary artery bypass surgery, surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms, valve replacement surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention3434 Succi JE, Gerola LR, Succi GM, Almeida RACF, Novais LSR, Rocha B.Ischemic preconditioning influence ventricular function in off-pump revascularization surgery. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;94(3):339-44. doi:doi.org/10.1590/S0066-782X2010000300010.
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37 Lotfi AS, Eftekhari H, Atreya AR, Kashikar A, Sivalingam SK, Giannoni M, Visintainer P, Engelman D.Randomized controlled trial of remote ischemicpreconditioning and atrial fibrillation in patients undergoingcardiac surgery. World J Cardiol.2016;26;8(10):615-22. doi: 10.4103/2045-9912.191358.
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38 Garcia S, Rector TS, Zakharova M, Herrmann RR, Adabag S, Bertog S, Sandoval Y, Santilli S, Brilakis ES, McFalls EO. Cardiac remote ischemic preconditioning prior to elective vascular surgery (CRIPES): A prospective, randomized, sham-controlled phase II clinical trial. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(10).pii: e003916. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.116.003916.
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In our study postCI reduce the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and mortality caused by I/R. This procedure has been proposed as an important non-pharmacological experimental strategy to reduce area of injury produced by I/R4141 Vinten-Johansen J, Zhao ZQ, Zatta AJ, KinH, Halkos ME, Kerendi F. Postconditioning -A new link in nature's armor against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Basic Res Cardiol. 2005;100(4):295-310. doi: 10.1007/s00395-005-0523-x.
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The postCI reduces incidence of arrhythmia and mortality in animal models of cardiac I/R4242 Pena C, Mancardi D, Raimondo S, Geuna S, Pagliaro P. The paradigm of postconditioning to protect the heart. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12(2):435-58. doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2007.00210.x.
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. The postCI reversed sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia and ventricular fibrillation preventing mortality of animals subjected to I/R4343 Galagudza M, Kurapeev D, Minasian S, Valen G, Vage J. Ischemic postconditioning: brief ischemia during reperfusion converts persistent ventricular fibrillation into regular rhythm. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004;25(6):1006-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcts.2004.02.003.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcts.2004.02....
, and the application of 4 cycles of I/R (20s each) immediately after regional ischemia for 5 min decreased the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias compared to control animals4444 loner RA, Dow J, Bhandari A. Postconditioning markedly attenuates ventricular arrhythmias after ischemia-reperfusion. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2006;11(1):55-63. doi: 10.1177/107424840601100105.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1074248406011001...
.

Improvement of electrocardiographic parameters and myocardial perfusion through ischemic postCI (2 cycles of 90s separated by 3 and 5 min) in 17 patients who had suffered MI who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention PCI was observed for reperfusion therapy standard4545 Laskey WK. Brief repetitive balloon occlusions enhance reperfusion during percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction: a pilot study. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2005;65(3):361-7. doi: 10.1002/ccd.20397
https://doi.org/10.1002/ccd.20397...
.

In a study in which 30 patients admitted for coronary angioplasty for AMI underwent post-CI (4 cycles of I/R 1min each), there was reduction in release of creatine kinase, improves microvascular circulation and reduction of infarct size1010 Staat P, Rioufol G, Piot C, Cottin Y, Cung TT, L'Huillier I, Aupetit JF, Bonnefoy E, Finet G, André-Fouët X, Ovize M. Postconditioning the human heart. Circulation. 2005;112(14):2143-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.558122.
https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.1...
.

In postCI interruption of reperfusion after 1 hour of coronary artery occlusion in canine model (3 cycles of 30 s reperfusion followed by 30 s ischemia) followed by reperfusion for 3h reduced the size of cardiac infracted tissue4646 Zhao ZQ, Corvera JS, Halkos ME, Kerendi F,Wang NP,Guyton RA, Vinten-Johansen J. Inhibition of myocardial injury by ischemic post conditioning during reperfusion: comparison with ischemic preconditioning. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H579-88. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.01064.2002.
https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.01064.2...
,4747 Halkos ME, Kerendi F, Corvera JS, Wang NP, Kin H, Payne CS, Sun HY, Guyton RA, Vinten-Johansen J, Zhao ZQ. Myocardial protection with postconditioning is not enhanced by ischemic preconditioning. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78:961-9. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2004.03.033.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.200...
. Reducing size of infarcted area afforded by postCI has been observe in different species, including pigs, dogs, rabbits, mice and rats4141 Vinten-Johansen J, Zhao ZQ, Zatta AJ, KinH, Halkos ME, Kerendi F. Postconditioning -A new link in nature's armor against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Basic Res Cardiol. 2005;100(4):295-310. doi: 10.1007/s00395-005-0523-x.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00395-005-0523-...
.

The postCI performed within approximately less than 1h of serious ischemia followed by reperfusions and occlusions of the coronary artery significantly reduced the QT dispersion and ventricular fibrillation associated with acute cardiac ischemia4848 Okishige K, Kanda S, Shimura T, Kurabayashi M, Ueshima D, Miwa N, Sugiyama K, Aoyagi H, Yoshimura K, Yanagi H, Azegami K. Clinical study of the electrophysiological effects of ischemic postconditioning in patients with acute myocardial infarctions. J Cardiology. 2011;58:137-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2011.05.002.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2011.05.0...
.

Short periods of ischemia applied in early minutes of reperfusion reduced infarct size, endothelial dysfunction, accumulation of neutrophils, ROS generation and activated different signaling pathways for cell survival, including ERK1/2 (extracellular signal regulated protein kinase), PI3K-Akt (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)4141 Vinten-Johansen J, Zhao ZQ, Zatta AJ, KinH, Halkos ME, Kerendi F. Postconditioning -A new link in nature's armor against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Basic Res Cardiol. 2005;100(4):295-310. doi: 10.1007/s00395-005-0523-x.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00395-005-0523-...
neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)4949 Hu L, Wang J, Zhu H, Wu X, Zhou L, Song Y, Zhu S, Hao M, Liu C, Fan Y, Wang Y, Li Q. Ischemic postconditioning protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury via neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Cell Death and Disease. 2016;7:e2222. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2016.108.
https://doi.org/10.1038/cddis.2016.108...
or preventing prolonged opening MPTP5050 Tsang A, Hausenloy DJ, Mocanu MM, Yellon DM. Postconditioning: a form of "modified reperfusion" protects the myocardium by activating the phosphatidilinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway. Circ Res. 2004;95:230-2. doi: 10.1161/01.RES.0000138303.76488.fe.
https://doi.org/10.1161/01.RES.000013830...
.

Conclusion

The cardiac preconditioning is more efficient than postconditioning to reduce the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and mortality resulting from cardiac ischemia and reperfusion, conferring cardioprotection.

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    Tsang A, Hausenloy DJ, Mocanu MM, Yellon DM. Postconditioning: a form of "modified reperfusion" protects the myocardium by activating the phosphatidilinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway. Circ Res. 2004;95:230-2. doi: 10.1161/01.RES.0000138303.76488.fe.
    » https://doi.org/10.1161/01.RES.0000138303.76488.fe

  • Financial sources:

    CNPq, FAPESP, and CAPES

  • 1
    Research performed at Laboratory of Autonomic and Cardiovascular Pharmacology (LabFAC), Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Brazil. Part of PhD degree thesis, Postgraduate Program in Pharmacology, UNIFESP. Tutor: Prof. Dr. Afonso Caricati-Neto.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    July 2018

History

  • Received
    23 Mar 2018
  • Reviewed
    25 May 2018
  • Accepted
    24 June 2018
Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Al. Rio Claro, 179/141, 01332-010 São Paulo SP Brazil, Tel./Fax: +55 11 3287-8814 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: sgolden@terra.com.br