Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate of postoperative adhesion prevention and inflammatory response to polypropylene mesh, coated with reabsorbable hydrogel of polyethylene glycol (Coseal®) in contact with small bowel in an experimental model in rabbits. METHODS: Twenty female rabbits underwent laparotomy to implant two polypropylene meshes, 2x1cm, in the right and left flanks. The right mesh was protected with Coseal® spray (Group 1) and the left mesh received no treatment after implantation (Group 2). Thirty days after implantation, the rabbits underwent laparoscopy for adhesion analysis; the prosthesis were removed en bloc with the adjacent tissue for microscopic analysis of inflammation. Statistical analysis used the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: There was adhesion formation in five meshes (36%) from Group 1 and in 14 meshes (100%) from Group 2, with statistical significance (p<0.01). There were no differences in the inflammatory response, fibrosis, foreign body reaction, presence of collagen and type of inflammatory cells between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Polypropylene mesh coated with Coseal® showed a significantly lower rate of adhesion formation when compared with uncoated meshes, without interfering with inflammatory response.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To describe a new model to passive smoking for rodents. METHODS: Twenty rats were distributed into two study groups (N=10): control group (CG), that was not exposed to tobacco smoke and used as normal standard for biochemical and histological analysis; Experimental Group (EG), that Animals were exposed to the passive smoking; Euthanasia was performed after 14 days of exposure. The serum level of nicotine and histological analysis were performed. RESULTS: There was a statistical difference on the nicotine serum levels between Experimental and Control group, with level of 286 ±23 nanograma/mL in the EG and undetectable on CG (p<0.01). The histological study suggested the model efficacy producing alveolar destruction and emphysema in the EG compared with the insignificant lesions in the CG's lung. CONCLUSION: The model of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke for rodents induced easily the changes related to secondhand smoke.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the neovascularization after exposure of the external jugular venous endothelium in an experimental model. METHODS: The sample was composed of 60 male rats of Wistar OUT B breed provided by animal colony of the Medicine College of Juazeiro do Norte, weighing 250 to 350g, aged 90-120 days. Randomized study in OUT B Wistar rats, open, with 60 days duration. The animals were distributed into three groups of 20 specimens and were subjected to the following: Group 1: neck incision with dissection, ligation and section of the external jugular vein. Group 2: neck incision with dissection and ligation of the external jugular vein. Group 3: cervicotomy without dissection of the external jugular vein without ligation or section. The animals were sacrificed, half of them in 30 days and the other half within 60 days. The material in block harvested from the operated site were sectioned and stained for immunohistochemistry with CD34 marker. RESULTS: Neovascularization occurred with level of significance when compared group 1 to group 3 at 30 days (p=0.0076) and the same occurred at 60 days (p=0.0001) (Newman-Keuls test). CONCLUSION: The group with exposure of the venous endothelium showed a significant increase of neovascularization when compared with other groups.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To assess the viability of cultured epithelium and preserved by freezing for periods varying from one month to one year. METHODS: Samples of cultured epithelium were incubated in cryoprotectant medium (Group A), packed in aluminum envelopes and packed in polystyrene boxes. The boxes were subjected to a temperature of-70ºC. After freezing for a period of time ranging from one to 12 months, cultured epithelial samples were assessed for their viability by vital staining (Trypan blue) and metabolic analysis based on glucose consumption and lactate production. Samples of not frozen cultured epithelium (Group B) were also tested for viability and the results obtained were used as comparison parameter for the variation of viability. RESULTS: Statistical analysis between the group A and B indicate that the mean age of the donors (p=0.51) and the culture time (p=1.18) showed no statistical difference. In 30 days we obtained 37% of the original viability of cultured epithelium, 25% at six months and one year, less than 15%. This trend was confirmed statistically with a reduction of approximately 1.8% of the original viability epithelium cultured every 30 days of storage. In the analysis by lactate production, similar results were observed. In the analysis by the glucose consumption results were not significant. The viability indices show statistically significant difference between the group A and B (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Although cryopreserved cultured epithelium showed significant reduction of viability, all samples remained viable. It was also found that the viability of cryopreserved cultured epithelial decreased as a function of storage time.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To compare the incidence of endothelial injury after single-dose or continuous propofol infusion in conventional lipid-based emulsion (LE) versus microemulsion (ME). METHODS: Forty-two rabbits (2.5-4.5 Kg) were randomly allocated into seven groups of six animals each: SHAM- surgical treatment alone; Bolus Control Group - 3 mL-intravenous (IV) bolus of saline; Continuous Infusion Control Group - 3 mL- IV bolus of saline followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 ml/kg/min for 60 min; Bolus LE Propofol Group - IV bolus of LE propofol (3 mg/kg); Bolus ME Propofol Group - IV ME propofol bolus (3 mg/kg); Continuous LE Propofol Group - IV LE propofol bolus (3 mg/kg) followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 ml/kg/min for 60 min; Continuous ME Propofol Group - IV ME propofol bolus (3 mg/kg) followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 ml/kg/min for 60 min. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the studied groups in blood pressure, in central venous pressure and in the biochemical profile. No significant differences were found in inflammatory mediators and in tissue analysis between the two emulsions. CONCLUSION: Microemulsion and lipid-based emulsion propofol had similar inflammatory, biochemical and microscopy profiles. Thus, microemulsion propofol can be used as an alternative to lipid-based emulsion propofol.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the renal function in healthy dogs submitted to nonselective and preferential COX-2 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy. METHODS: Twenty four healthy dogs were distributed into four groups (G) (n=6): ketoprofenG - treated with ketoprofen; nimesulideG - treated with nimesulid; meloxicanG - treated with meloxican; and etodolacG - treated with etodolaco. All the dogs received the NSAIDs for 10 days by oral route. Physical examination and renal function (urinalysis, urinary sodium and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), serum urea, creatinine, potassium and sodium, and endogenous creatinine clearance) were evaluated before, after five and ten days (T0, T5 and T10) of the treatment in all groups. RESULTS: Changes were observed in urinalysis, with a significant increase in renal cells in the urine at T5 and T10 in nimesulideG. Significant reduction in urinary sodium in nimesulideG at T5 was observed. The clearance values were lower in ketoprofenG at T10. CONCLUSIONS: Meloxicam and etodolac were the drugs that have proven to be safer for short-term therapy in healthy dogs in relation to renal function. NSAIDs ketoprofen and nimesulide should be used judiciously in dogs with renal dysfunction, since there are promoted changes in renal function.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To determine the gene expressions profile related to the oxidative stress and the antioxidant response in the kidneys of mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Twelve inbred mice (C57BL/6) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the control group (CG) underwent anesthesia and was observed for 120 min and the ischemia/reperfusion group (IRG), animals were anesthetized and subjected to laparotomy and ischemia for 60 minutes followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. The expressions of 84 genes from the kidney were determined by the Reverse Transcription qualitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). All genes that were up regulated by more than threefold using the algorithm [2(ΔΔCt)] were considered statically significant (p<0.05). RESULTS: In the IRG group 29 (34.52%) of 84 genes, were up regulated by more than threefold. The genes that were differentially up regulated in the glutathione peroxidase cluster (10 genes): were Gpx2 and Gpx7. The genes that were up regulated in the peroxidase cluster (16 genes) were following: Duox1, Epx, Lpo, Mpo, Ptgs2, Rag2, Serpinb1b, Tmod1 and Tpo. The genes that up regulated in the reactive oxygen species cluster (16 genes): Il19, Il22, Nos2, Nox1, Noxa1, Noxo1, Recql4 and Sod2. The genes that were up regulated in the oxidative stress cluster (22 genes) were: Mpp4, Nudt15, Upc3 and Xpa. The genes that were up regulated in the oxygen carriers cluster (12 genes) were: Hbq1, Mb, Ngb, Slc38a1 and Xirp1. The peroxiredoxins genes (10) showed no consistent differential regulation. CONCLUSION: The genes related to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense showed increased expression in renal tissue trigged intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate bone healing in the extraction socket of the feline maxillary canine tooth after grafting. METHODS: Eighteen adult cats were submitted to unilateral extraction of maxillary canine tooth and divided into three groups. In group 1 (n=6), control, the extraction socket was left empty. In group 2 (n=6), the extraction socket was filled with autogenous cancellous bone from the iliac crest and in group 3 (n=6), with bioactive glass particulate material. Cats were euthanized at four weeks postoperative. RESULTS: The radiographic examinations performed four weeks after surgery showed that in all groups the healing process converged to a radiopacity similar to that observed in the surrounding bones. Histological examination showed formation of woven bone within the extraction socket. The percentage of newly formed bone within the extraction socket, measured by the histometry, showed no statistically significant difference among the values of the three groups (Kruskal-Wallis'test p>0.05) (group 1: 63.96 ± 5.85, group 2: 66.84 ± 11.67, group 3: 59.28 ± 15.50). CONCLUSION: The bone regeneration observed in the extraction sockets filled with autogenous cancellous bone or bioactive glass was similar to that observed in the control sites, given an observation period of four weeks after extraction of the maxillary canine tooth.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of copaiba oil ointment (Copaifera langsdorffii) on dorsal skin flaps in rats. METHODS: Adult male rats (n=30) were distributed into three groups of ten animals each, as follows: GC - control; GCA - absolute control and GT - treated with copaiba ointment. The rats were subjected to dorsal cutaneous skin flap surgery and the animals from the GC and GT received post-operative treatment for eight consecutive days. The animals from the GCA group did not receive treatment while the animals from the GC group received daily topical treatment of ointment without the active ingredient and the animals from the GT group were daily treated with 10% copaiba oil ointment. At the end of each experimental period the lesions were evaluated according to the percentage of necrotic area. Then, fragments from cranial, median and caudal parts were fixed in Boüin's solution and processed for paraffin embedding. The morphology of histological sections (5µm) was evaluated and the number of leucocytes, fibroblasts and blood vessels was also analyzed. The data obtained were submitted to ANOVA test complemented by Tukey-Kramer test (p<0.05). RESULTS: The necrotic area was lower in the group treated with copaiba ointment when compared to the control groups (GCA>GC and GT), while the morphology showed larger granulation tissue with bulky fibroblasts and collagen fibers more arranged in the GT group. The morphometry showed a significant higher number of blood vessels in the median and caudal parts (GT>GCA and GC), leucocytes in the cranial part (GT>GC>GCA), and also fibroblasts in the median (GT and GC> GCA) and caudal parts (GT>GC and GCA) (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The copaiba oil ointment favors angiogenesis and accelerates the viability of random skin flaps in rats.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Systematic reviews are criticized for frequently offering inconsistent evidences and absence of straightforward recommendations. Their value seems to be depreciated when the conclusions are uncertain. To describe an alternative approach of evaluating case series studies in health care when there is absence of clinical trials. METHODS: We provide illustrations from recent experiences. Proportional meta-analysis was performed on surgical outcomes: (a) case series studies, (b) use of cryoablation or radiofrequency ablation, and (c) patients with small renal cell carcinoma. The statistically significant difference between both interventions studied was defined if their combined 95% confidential interval (CI) did not overlap. RESULTS: As demonstrated by the example, this analysis is an alternative approach to provide some evidence of the intervention´s effects under evaluation and plotting all available case series in the absence of clinical trials for the health field. CONCLUSIONS: Although we are leading to a low level of evidence to determine efficacy, effectiveness and safety of interventions this alternative approach can help surgeons, physicians and health professionals for a provisionally decision in health care along with their clinical expertise and the patient´s wishes and circumstances in the absence of high-quality primary studies. It´s not a replacement for the gold standard randomized clinical trial, but an alternative analysis for clinical research.