Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is a major complication after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) induced by the rupture of intracranial aneurysms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of cervical sympathetic block on cerebral vasospasm of the rabbits after SAH. METHODS: After successful modeling of cervical sympathetic block, 18 healthy male white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (n=6), ie, sham operation group (Group A), SAH group (Group B) and SAH with cervical sympathetic block group (Group C). Models of delayed CVS were established by puncturing cisterna magna twice with an injection of autologous arterial blood in Groups B and C. A sham injection of blood through cisterna magna was made in Group A. 0.5 ml saline was injected each time through a catheter for cervical sympathetic block after the first injection of blood three times a day for 3 d in Group B (bilateral alternating). 0.5 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine was injected each time through a catheter for cervical sympathetic block after the first injection of blood three times a day for 7 d in Group B. 2 ml venous blood and cerebrospinal fluid were obtained before (T1), 30 min (T2) and 7 d (T3) after the first injection of blood, respectively, and conserved in a low temperature refrigerator. Basilar artery value at T1, T2 and T3 was measured via cerebral angiography. The degree of damage to nervous system at T1 and T3 was recorded. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in diameter of basilar artery at T1 among three groups. The diameters of basilar artery at T2 and T3 of Groups B and C were all smaller than that in Group A, which was smaller than Group C, with a significant difference. There was no significant difference in NO and NOS in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid among three groups. The NO and NOS contents at T2 and T3 of Groups B and C were all lower than Group A; Group C was higher than Group B, with a significant difference. The nerve function at T3 of Groups B and C were all lower than Group A and that of Group C higher than Group B, with a significant difference. CONCLUSION: Cervical sympathetic block can relieve cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage and increase NO content and NOS activity in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid to promote neural functional recovery.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To compare the degree of neural regeneration in rats upon interposition of autologous nerve graft, autogenous vein, glycerol-preserved autogenous vein, and glycerol-preserved allogeneic vein using qualitative and quantitative histological analyses as well as functional assessments. METHODS: Peroneal nerves were reconstructed differently in four groups of animals. Functional assessments were performed pre- and postoperatively for a period of six weeks. After six weeks, the animals were sacrificed and histological evaluations were performed. RESULTS: Histological patterns of autogenous veins without preservation showed pronounced neoangiogenesis and extensive axonal rarefaction, as confirmed by axonal counting and functional assessments. Glycerol-preserved veins had results similar to the control. CONCLUSIONS: Glycerol-preserved autogenous or allogeneic veins showed similar results to autograft results. The autogenous vein (without preservation in glycerol) presented histological and functional outcomes statistically lower than other groups.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia on memory and learning survival of rats submitted to permanent bilateral carotid ligation (PBCL). METHODS: Twenty-four survivors of PBCL were evaluated after 30 days with regard to memory and learning using a water survival maze. Twenty-three healthy rats were used as control group. The results were expressed by their means and standard error of the mean (SEM). p<0.05 was used for rejecting the null hypothesis. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee for animal investigation. RESULTS: The mortality rate for the surgery was 44.4%. The latency time to find the survival platform was higher in rats that underwent PBCL (Normal: 10.24 ± 1.85s - Study: 25.30 ± 4.69s - Mann - Whitney p=0.0388). Additionally, the type of swimming and the spatial stability of the studied rats on the survival platform were compromised in these animals. CONCLUSION: The permanent bilateral carotid ligation induces change in the learning and survival memory.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate hemodynamic effects of mannitol infusion in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: Thirty patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage were enrolled. Transcranial doppler was used to detect variables of bilateral middle cerebral arteria (MCA) including mean velocity (Vm) and pulsitility index (PI) before and after125ml and 250ml mannitol infusion (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 min). RESULTS: When 125ml or 250ml mannitol was infused in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage, Vm of bilateral MCA elevated, and reached the top at 30min, and then decreased. PI decreased in the affected MCA (250ml) and in the unaffected MCA (125ml and 250ml). CONCLUSION: Mannitol infusion in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage can improve cerebral blood flow in bilateral hemispheres and decrease intracranial pressure in the hemorrhagic hemisphere (250ml) and in the nonhemorrhagic hemisphere (125ml and 250ml).
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage in the basal ganglia is a potentially life-threatening cerebrovascular disease with high mortality. Surgical evacuation is an important treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage. However, little is reported about the comparison on the efficacy of various approaches on the prognosis. METHODS: Clinical data of 80 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage which surgically treated via transsylvian-transinsular approach or transcortical-transtemporal approach were collected. The proportion of post-surgery tracheostomy, incidence of digestive tract hemorrhage, revision surgery, the average length of hospital stay, and the six-month efficacy (defined by an ADL score) rate between these two groups were compared. RESULTS: The six-month efficacy rates were 75% and 50% in patients receiving transsylvian-transinsular and transcortical-transtemporal surgery, respectively (p<0.05). Compared to the transcortical-transtemporal group, the proportion of revision surgery was statistically significantly lower in the transsylvian-transinsular group, (p<0.05). The proportion of post-surgery tracheostomy, the incidence of digestive tract hemorrhage, and the average length of hospital stay were lower in the transsylvian-transinsular group, compared to the transcortical-transtemporal group, but no statistically significant differences were noted in them between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The transsylvian-transinsular approach for evacuation of intracerebral hematoma demonstrates limited complications, shorter length of hospital stay, and improved long-term efficacy and prognosis. These findings suggest this operative approach has potential for wider application.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To assess the effect of a program of singing training on the voice of total laryngectomees wearing tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis, considering the quality of alaryngeal phonation, vocal extension and the musical elements of tunning and legato. METHODS: Five laryngectomees wearing tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis completed the singing training program over a period of three months, with exploration of the strengthening of the respiratory muscles and vocalization and with evaluation of perceptive-auditory and singing voice being performed before and after 12 sessions of singing therapy. RESULTS: After the program of singing voice training, the quality of tracheoesophageal voice showed improvement or the persistence of the general degree of dysphonia for the emitted vowels and for the parameters of roughness and breathiness. For the vowel "a", the pitch was displaced to grave in two participants and to acute in one, and remained adequate in the others. A similar situation was observed also for the vowel "i". After the singing program, all participants presented tunning and most of them showed a greater presence of legato. The vocal extension improved in all participants. CONCLUSION: Singing training seems to have a favorable effect on the quality of tracheoesophageal phonation and on singing voice.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the consequences of the association between hyperbaric oxygen therapy and hepatic ischemia / reperfusion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: SHAM, rats submitted to surgical stress and anesthetic but not hepatic ischemia or reperfusion, I / R, rats submitted to total hepatic pedicle ischemia for 30 min, followed by 5 min of reperfusion; HBO120, rats submitted to 120 min of hyperbaric oxygen therapy at two absolute atmospheres and immediately after submitted to the experimental protocol of ischemia and reperfusion. The preservation of the hepatic function was evaluated by determining mitochondrial swelling and malondialdehyde tissue level, as well as alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotranferase serum levels. The results were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and differences were considered significant for p<0.05. RESULTS: There were significant differences in values: mitochondrial swelling of the I / R group compared to SHAM and HBO120; malondialdehyde between SHAM vs. I / R, SHAM vs HBO120, and I / R vs HBO120, alanine aminotransferase between SHAM vs. I / R . There was no significant difference between groups in aspartate aminotransferase serum levels. CONCLUSION: The association between hyperbaric oxygen therapy and hepatic ischemia and reperfusion process was positive.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of copaiba oil on the correction of abdominal defect treated with the use of polypropylene/polyglecaprone mesh in rats. METHODS: A defect in the abdominal wall was created and corrected with polypropylene/polyglecaprone mesh in 36 rats. They were randomly distributed into three groups: control, copaiba by oral administration (gavage) and copaiba oil dip in the mesh. Euthanasia was performed after seven, 14 and 21 post-operative days. The healing process was analyzed regarding the meshes and macroscopic and microscopic aspects. RESULTS: All animals had abdominal adhesions, which were smaller in the copaiba (gavage) group (p<0.05). In microscopy, all animals had an acute inflammation stage and the inflammatory response was best characterized by foreign body-type granulomas around the mesh fragments, which was not found in the mesh fragments within the copaiba dip group. There was a greater area of necrosis and fibrosis in the copaiba dip group compared to the control group (p<0.05). The copaiba (gavage) group had a greater quantity of collagen fibers compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Copaiba oil administered by gavage decreased the amount of abdominal adhesions, besides accelerating the process of collagen fibers formation, without damages within the early stages of healing. However, when used by dip directly on the mesh, it had corrosive effects compromising the healing process of the abdominal wall.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the topical effects of mitomycin C (MMC) in rats, with or without esophageal dilation, in different moments after esophageal caustic injury with NaOH10%. METHODS: Forty eight Wistar rats were divided into six groups: "GS" infusion of 0.9% saline solution in the esophagus; "CG" infusion of 0.9% saline solution in the esophagus, with temporary ligation of the organ; "NTG" induction of a caustic lesion without treatment; "GmmcD0" MMC applied immediately after the caustic injury; "GmmcD14" MMC applied 14 days after the caustic injury; "Gdil+mmcD14" esophageal dilation and application of MMC 14 days after caustic injury. We performed contrast esophagograms of four animals from each group, seven and 21 days after the caustic injury. On day 28, all animals were sacrificed, and histopathological analyses were performed on the esophageal specimens. RESULTS: The contrast images showed total stenosis in NTG and GmmcD0, improving to partial stenosis in GmmcD0. In GmmcD14 and Gdil+mmcD14, two animals of each group improved to partial stenosis. By histopathological analysis, NTG and GmmcD14 presented intermediate damage and GmmcD0 and Gdil+mmcD14 severe damage. CONCLUSION: The use of mitomycin C had beneficial effects specially when applied immediately after the induction of esophageal lesions.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To develop a mouse model to study the influence of hypoxia in breast cancer progression and metastasis. METHODS: The 4T1 cell line was used to engraft the kidneys of female BALB/c mice. Placing an aneurysm clip on the kidney hilum, hypoxia can be directed to tumor site. Histological evaluation was used to analyze the morphological changes induced by ischemia in kidney cortex, and to verify the metastatic potential. RESULTS: 4T1 cells can be engrafted into the renal cortex and the renal ischemia caused by using a clip to clamp the renal hilum induces hypoxia at the tumor site. This procedure maintains the ability of 4T1 cells to metastasize. In fact, our preliminary results showed that tumor hypoxia precipitates the metastatic dissemination of tumor cells. After 14 days of engraftment, lung metastases were observed only in mice that were subjected to tumor hypoxia. CONCLUSION: This model can help us to understand how low oxygen tension mediates hypoxia-induced proteomic and genomic changes in breast cancer.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To explore an efficient and safe protocol for the preparation of infertile male rabbits from which bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) could be isolated and cultured. METHODS: Autologous BMSCs could be used for intratesticular transplantation and male infertility research. For this model, various doses (e.g., 6, 8, 10, or 12 Gy) of electron beam irradiation from a linear accelerator were locally applied to the scrotum of 5-month-old male New Zealand white rabbits. The effects of irradiation were compared between treatment groups, and with age-matched normal controls. Both morphology and hollow ratios of seminiferous tubules (HRST) were examined two, four, six, eight and 12-weeks post-irradiation. RESULTS: The seminiferous epithelium showed varying degrees of damage in all treatment groups compared with unirradiated controls, yet Sertoli and Leydig cells appeared unaffected. A dose-dependent response in spermatogenesis was also observed. BMSCs that were isolated and cultured from rabbits of the normal control group and the 12 Gy treatment group were compared with respect to morphology and growth. Starting at 6 weeks, HRST of the 12 Gy-treatment group were stable, and were the highest among all the groups. BMSCs from rabbits treated with 12 Gy also exhibited similar growth as the control group. CONCLUSION: Local dose of 12 Gy to the testes of 5-month-old male New Zealand rabbits is a protocol with which to obtain autologous bone marrow stem cells.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effects of pentoxifylline against lung injury observed after dorsal scald in aged animals. METHODS: Adult (eight months old) and aged (20 months old) rats were subjected to thermal injury or sham procedure. The six hours post-trauma animals received pentoxifylline and after 24 hours were euthanatized and lung tissue samples collectedted. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was evaluated for total protein content and tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytokine. Malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activety in the lung homogenate were measured and a histological lung examination was undertaken. RESULTS: Burn injury induced oxidative stress in lung homogenate was higher in elderly-burned rats compared to adult-burned rats (p<0.001). Total protein and cytokine in bronchoalveolar lavage increased in the elderly-burned group when compared to the adult-burned group (p<0.001). All parameters decreased in bolth groups treated with pentoxifylline (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The injury was augmented in elderly rats when compared to adult rats. Damage was reduced with the use of pentoxifylline, however further studies are needed to evaluate the dose-response of the drug.