Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To study the effect of isoflurane (Iso) or propofol (Prop) anesthesia on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) during transient hyperglycemia. METHODS: Thirty six rats were randomly assigned into six groups of six animals each: PHS (Sham-Prop=1mg.kg-1.min-1 + Hyperglycemia=2.5g.kg-1 of glucose solution administered intraperitoneally); HIS (Sham-Iso + Hyperglycemia); PHI (Prop + Hyperglycemia + Ischemia); IHI (Iso + Hyperglycemia + Ischemia); PI (Prop + Ischemia), and II (Iso + Ischemia). After 30 minutes of anesthesia induction, right nephrectomy was performed (all animals) and the left renal artery was clamped during 25 minutes (ischemia). The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and blood collection (to dose creatinine) and left kidney removal were performed for histological analysis, and flow cytometry (FCM): percentage of initial apoptosis (APTi) and viable cells (VC). RESULTS: Serum creatinine (mg/dL) was statistically different in groups PHI (3.60±0.40) and IHI (3.23±1.08), p<0.05. Histological analysis was statistically different in groups PHI (4.0[4.0;5.0]) and IHI (4.5[4.0;5.0]), p<0.05. APTi percentage was statistically different in groups PHI (73.2±7.1), and IHI (48.1±14). VC percentage was statistically different in groups PHI (25.8±6.9) and IHI (38.5±9.2), p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Propofol and isoflurane showed the same level of protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in the normoglycemic groups. Transient hyperglycemia is associated with an increase in IRI.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic genes in rat endothelial cells undergoing enteric ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R). METHODS: Thirty rats underwent clamping of the superior mesenteric vessels. Sham group (GS) laparotomy only; Ischemia (GI): intestinal ischemia (60 min); Ischemia and Reperfusion (GIR): ischemia (60 min) and reperfusion (120 min); Ischemia and intestinal ischemic preconditioning (GI + IPC) : 5 minutes of ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion before sustained ischemia (60 min) ischemia and reperfusion and IPC (GIR + IPC): 5 min ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion before sustained ischemia (60min) and reperfusion (120 min). Rat Endothelial Cell Biology (PCR array) to determine the expression of genes related to endothelial cell biology. RESULTS: Gene expression of pro-apoptotic markers (Casp1, Casp6, Cflar, Fas, and Pgl) was down regulated in GI+IPC and in GIR + IPC. In contrast, the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl2 and Naip2), was up-regulated in GI + IPC and in GIR + IPC. CONCLUSION: Ischemic preconditioning may protect against cell death caused by ischemia and reperfusion.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To assess ischemic preconditioning (IPC) effects in pulmonary lesion in intestinal and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury models using diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes (DM) was induced in 28 male Wistar rats by alloxan (42 mg/kg, IV). After 28 days, severe DM rats were submitted to intestinal or hepatic IR injury with or without IPC. Intestinal IR (30 min of mesenteric artery occlusion and 30 min of reperfusion; n=6) and IPC groups (10 min ischemia, 10 min reperfusion, followed by intestinal IR; n=6), and Hepatic IR (30 min of hepatic pedicle occlusion and 30 min of reperfusion; n=5) and IPC groups (10 min ischemia, 10 min reperfusion, followed by hepatic IR; n=5), were compared to DM rats group (n=6). Plasmatic lactate, glycemia were measured before and after IR injury. Histomorphology of lung was performed counting inflammatory cells. Data was expressed in mean± SE. P<0.05. RESULTS: Glycemia and lactate were similar among groups. IPC did not interfere in these parameters. On histological evaluation, IR increased inflammatory cells infiltration in pulmonary parenchyma compared to control in both IR injury models. IPC attenuated inflammatory infiltration in lungs. CONCLUSION: Ischemic preconditioning protects against remote ischemia-reperfusion injury in lung on intestinal or hepatic ischemia-reperfusion model with acute diabetes.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the potential beneficial effect of silibinin in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of skeletal muscle. METHODS: Under urethane anesthesia, four experimental groups were established in Balb/c mice: I) Sham-control, II) IRI (Tourniquet-induced) (2+1 h), III) IRI+ethanol (10%), and IV) IRI+silibinin (50 mg/kg/IP). The viability of muscle (left) was evaluated by the triphenyltetrazolium chloride dye method and calculated as the percentage of the contralateral control muscle (right). Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were measured in the gastrocnemius muscle via a spectrophotometer. RESULTS:The viability of gastrocnemius muscle in group II was significantly lower in comparison with that seen in group I. The administration of either ethanol or silibinin rendered the tissues to recover nearly to the baseline level. Additionally, malondialdehyde levels were higher in group II than those in group I. The application of silibinin prior to the reperfusion attenuated these to the control levels. However, malondialdehyde levels in the ethanol administrated group were reduced as well. The enhanced superoxide dismutase activity seen in the IRI group was not diminished in the animals treated with either silibinin or ethanol. Similarly, there were no differences between groups regarding the catalase activities. CONCLUSION: Ethanol seems to be effective in attenuating IRI in skeletal muscle and no definite conclusion can be made on silibinin effect.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the immunohistochemistry of the uterine cervix of 20 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) bearing the Walker 256 tumor, treated with copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis). METHODS: The animals were grouped into four subgroups, with five rats each: the GCT and GCopT received distilled water and topically copaiba, respectively, while the GCG and GCopG received distilled water and copaiba by gavage, respectively. The substances were administered for nine days. On the 12th day, after euthanasia, the tumor pieces were sent to the identification of T CD4+, T CD8+ and Natural Killer cells. RESULTS: It was found that the pattern of expression for specific markers of phenotypes of cells involved in tumor immune response was similar in all groups, regardless the administration way of copaiba oil (topical or gavage). CONCLUSION: Copaiba balsam, administered either topically or by gavage, did not alter the pattern of tumor immune response in rats bearing Walker 256 Tumor.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of primary tumorectomy on angiogenesis and pulmonary metastasis in osteosarcoma-bearing nude mice. METHODS: Osteosarcoma was introduced to nude mice via subcutaneous injection of MG-63 cells. One hundred and eighty osteosarcoma-bearing mice were used equally in 3 parallel experiments. The effect of tumorectomy (TR) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endostatin was investigated by ELISA. Meanwhile, the effect on angiogenesis was evaluated by Matrigel plug assay, and pulmonary metastasis assessed by calculating the metastatic foci. Sham-operation (SO) and untreated (UT) groups served as controls. RESULTS: The VEGF (TR: 79.55 ± 7.82 pg/mL vs. SO: 110.01 ± 5.69 pg/mL, UT: 123.50 ± 10.41 pg/mL; p < 0.01) and endostatin (TR: 47.09 ± 6.22 ng/mL vs. SO: 117.64 ± 7.39 ng/mL, UT: 126.73 ± 6.55 ng/mL; p<0.01) were down-regulated significantly after tumorectomy, and angiogenesis was significantly promoted simultaneously. The incidence of pulmonary metastatic foci was 80.0% in the TR group, 40.0% in the SO group and 35.0% in the UT group. CONCLUSION: Primary tumorectomy can down-regulate the expression of VEGF and endostatin and promote angiogenesis which leads to the acceleration of pulmonary metastasis. These findings imply that anti-angiogenic treatment can be considered after primary tumorectomy.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To study the bone viability of a vascularized galea and periosteum flap filled with bone fragments, as a substitute of the bone graft in facial reconstructive surgery. METHODS: Forty rabbits were studied, and divided in two groups. One had a simple galea and periosteum flap done and the other had the same flap done and filled with bone fragments of the calvaria. The bone formation was evaluated by radiographies, macroscopic and microscopic analysis. RESULTS: The bone neoformation in both groups with differences in bone morphology and structure especially at histological analysis. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated osseous formation in both groups of galea and periosteum flaps, with and without bone fragments.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius) ointment on skin wound healing in rats. METHODS: Adult male rats (n=20) were divided into four groups of five animals each, as follows: G4, G7, G14 and G21, which corresponds to 4th, 7th, 14th and 21th days postoperatively. Each animal were made two incisions on the skin, including the subcutaneous tissue, in the right and left sides of thoracic region, separated by a distance of two inches. The right lesion was treated with base ointment (vaseline, lanolin); the left one was treated with base ointment containing 5% of aroeira oil. At the end of each experimental period the lesions were evaluated for the contraction degree. Then held the collection of fragments that were fixed in 10% formalin and processed for paraffin embedding. In the histological sections (5μm) was evaluated the morphology and quantified the collagen and blood vessels. The data obtained were submitted to ANOVA test complemented by Tukey-Kramer test (p<0.05). RESULTS: The contraction of the lesions was higher in wounds treated with aroeira oil than in controls at 7th and 14th days (p<0.01), whereas in the 21st day all lesions were already completely healed. The morphology showed granulation tissue more developed, with fibroblasts more bulky and collagen fibers more arranged in the experimental group at 4th, 7th and 14th days. The morphometry showed a significant increase in the quantification of collagen fibers in the experimental group at 7th and 14th days (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The aroeira oil accelerates the healing process of wounds as a macroscopic, morphological and morphometrical analysis.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate if the ileum resection changes the functioning liver cell mass, the hepatic metabolism and the biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical in rats. METHODS: Twelve Wistar rats weighing 285g±34g were randomly divided into the ileum resection group (n = 6) and sham group rats (n = 6). After 30 days, they were anesthetized and 0.1mL of 99m-Tc-phytate (0.66MBq) was injected via femoral vein. After 30 minutes, blood samples were collected for red blood cells radioactive labeling and serum ALT, AST and gammaGT. Liver samples were used for 99m-Tc-phytate percentage of radioactivity/gram of tissue and histopathology. Student 's t test was used with significance 0.05. RESULTS: There was a higher uptake of 99m-Tc-phytate in the liver of sham rats, compared to the ileum resection group (p<0.05). GammaGT, ALT and AST were increased in ileum resection rats compared to sham (p<0.05). The he patocytes count was significantly lower in ileum resection group than in sham (p<0.05). Liver: body mass ratio was lower in experimental animals than in sham group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: These data support that the ileum has important role in liver function and liver mass regulation, and they have potential clinical implications regarding the pathogenesis of liver injury following lower bowel resection.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To describe a method to characterize the gelatinase activity of cultured human periodontal fibroblasts stimulated with Pam3Cys and E. coli LPS, ligands of TLR2 and TLR4 respectively, and by centrifugation of the cultures, simulating an orthodontic force. METHODS: To study MMP-2 activity, primary cultures of human periodontal fibroblasts were stimulated with the addition of TLRs 2 and 4 ligands and the application of mechanical force by centrifugation at 141 x g for 30 min. Supernatant media was collected 24 hours later to perform protein quantification and zymography. RESULTS: MMP-2 activity suffered an increase in cultures co-stimulated with TLRs 2 and 4 ligands alone or with the presence of mechanical force application compared to basal levels. CONCLUSION: Zymography, one of the several methods to study MMPs activities, is a simple, qualitative and efficient method based on electrophoresis of bis-acrylamide gels copolymerized with a protein substrate.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the interference of radiographic factors in the appearance of sensory deficit related to inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) after third molars (3Ms) removal. METHODS: A prospective, double-blind, observational, unicentric study was performed with 126 patients submitted to a surgical procedure of lower 3Ms removal in the period from March to October/2011. Collected data included gender, age, eruption stage of 3Ms, position/angle of 3Ms (Pell-Gregory and Winter classifications, respectively), presence/absence of radiographic signs of 3Ms proximity with the inferior alveolar canal and surgical technique. Occurrence evaluation of the IAN injury was performed on the seventh postoperative day through pin-prick, two-point discrimination and brush directional stroke tests. RESULTS: Predominant radiographic signs were: narrowing of the inferior alveolar canal (68.25%), darkening of root (46.82%) and diversion of the canal (31%). None of the patients presented sensory loss. Sixty-one (48.41%) of the cases had at least one or two radiographic signs of proximity with NAI. Forty-seven (37.3%) had 3 or more signs, and 18 (14.29%) did not have any radiographic signs of proximity to mandibular canal. CONCLUSION: There was not a positive correlation between presence of radiographic signs of 3Ms with IAN proximity and postoperative neurosensory disorders occurrence.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between lateralization of cerebral basal ganglia hemorrhage and handedness. METHODS: Medical records and computed tomography (CT) scans for 84 patients with primary hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in basal ganglia were reviewed. Data of gender, age, handedness, and location of basal ganglia hematoma were statistically analyzed. Data of age, gender, handedness, health condition, and mean blood flow velocity (BFV) in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) and anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs) on both sides of 114 healthy individuals were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: We found out that the patients with right basal ganglia hemorrhage were mostly left-handed, while patients with left basal ganglia hemorrhage were mostly right handed (p=0.021, r=0.251). And the mean BFV in the right MCAs of left-handed ones are relatively higher, the mean BFV in the left MCAs of right-handers are relatively higher (p=0.008, r=0.248). CONCLUSION: There 's a correlation between lateralization of cerebral basal ganglia hemorrhage and handedness.