Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of chronic experimental diabetes on skin allografts in rats as a simple model that could clarify some basic aspects and mechanisms involved in transplant rejection in diabetes compared to normal animals. METHODS: Skin grafting was performed with fragments of tail skin from sex matched non diabetic Wistar rats engrafted onto the thoracic area of diabetic and non diabetic recipients. Grafts were scored for rejection every other day and were removed on day 14. Skin grafts were graded according to the following itens: no rejection; or rejection including: acute, chronic and humoral and/or cellular rejection. Statistical analysis was performed using JMP 5.1 software with ANOVA test. Diabetes was induced with IV injection of alloxan 40 mg/kg. RESULTS: Inflammatory vascular infiltrate compromising the endothelium with areas of fibrinoid necrosis and thrombosis characteristics of acute humoral rejection and subendothelial lymphocyte infiltrate typical of acute cellular rejection were significantly (p<0.003) higher in diabetic than in non diabetic recipients as the inflammatory infiltrate in the epidermis (p<0.002). CONCLUSION: Skin transplant acute rejection from chronic alloxan diabetic rats to normal tissue was significantly more intense than the acute rejection between normal rats.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of aqueous ozone irrigation over bone healing in hyperglycemia-induced rats. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were allocated into Group H (hyperglycemic) or Group N (control). Monocortical bone wound were performed on femurs' anterolateral face. Wounds were treated with a trans-operatory single irrigation of 100ml of aqueous ozone [0.004mg/ml] whereas control groups received 100ml of pure water (Milli-Q®). Histomorphological and histomorphometrical analyses were accomplished after seven, 14 and 21 days. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests were applied for bone neoformation quantification and assessment. RESULTS: Aqueous ozone wounds irrigated revealed diffuse hemorrhage and increased neoformed of blood vessels number. There was no statistical significant difference in bone trabeculae neoformation. After seven and 14 days, the number of osteoclasts was higher in aqueous ozone groups than in those treated with pure water. CONCLUSION: Independently of blood glucose levels, aqueous ozone allowed an increase in blood vessels neoformation and osteoclast migration, without affect bone trabeculae neoformation.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the healing effect of carbon dioxide therapy on skin wounds induced on the back of rats. METHODS: Sixteen rats underwent excision of a round dermal-epidermal dorsal skin flap of 2.5 cm in diameter. The animals were divided into two groups, as follows: carbon dioxide group - subcutaneous injections of carbon dioxide on the day of operation and at three, six and nine days postoperatively; control group - no postoperative wound treatment. Wounds were photographed on the day of operation and at six and 14 days postoperatively for analysis of wound area and major diameter. All animals were euthanized on day 14 after surgery. The dorsal skin and the underlying muscle layer containing the wound were resected for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the percentage of wound closure, in histopathological findings, or in the reduction of wound area and major diameter at 14 days postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Under the experimental conditions in which this study was conducted, carbon dioxide therapy had no effects on the healing of acute skin wounds in rats.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II). Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of fatty acids-incorporated collagen-based dressing films on wound healing in rodents. METHODS: Therefore, surgical wounds were performed in the back of 80 Wistar rats, and dressed with collgane-based films (COL), and collagen-based films containing fatty acids (AGEF50 and AGEF100). Undressed wounds were regarded as controls (CTR). The animals were euthanized after three, seven, 14 and 21 days, and the macroscopic wound contraction rates (WRC) were assessed. The wounded area was also analyzed by conventional and polarized light microscope. RESULTS: No sign of abscess or hypertrophic scar formation was observed in none of the groups. At seven days, the WRR of AGEF50 was significantly higher than CTR (p<0.01), whereas at 14 days, both AGE 50 and AGE100 showed a significant increase of the WRR compared to CTR (p<0.001) and COL (p<0.01). Both films promoted increased influx of neutrophils at three days (p<0.01), but reduced significantly the mononuclear infiltrate at 14 days (p<0.05). It was also observed earlier maturation of the granulation tissue, full epithelization and cutaneous appendages development, as well as better collagenization, in AGEF50 and AGEF100. CONCLUSION: The application of AGEF50/100 as wound dressing improved wound healing in rodents.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate in vitro ability the of three different biomaterials - purified hydroxyapatite, demineralized bone matrix and castor oil-based polyurethane - as biocompatible 3D scaffolds for canine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) intending bone tissue engineering. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from canine bone marrow, characterized and cultivated for seven days with the biomaterials. Cell proliferation and adhesion to the biomaterial surface were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy while differentiation into osteogenic lineage was evaluated by Alizarin Red staining and Sp7/Osterix surface antibody marker. RESULTS: The biomaterials allowed cellular growth, attachment and proliferation. Osteogenic differentiation occurred in the presence of hydroxyapatite, and matrix deposition commenced in the presence of the castor oil-based polyurethane. CONCLUSION: All the tested biomaterials may be used as mesenchymal stem cell scaffolds in cell-based orthopedic reconstructive therapy.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate whether cilostazol has a protective effect on acute ischemia and reperfusion of hind limbs of rats through study of biochemical variables in blood and urine. METHODS: Forty six animals were randomized and divided into two groups. Group I received a solution of cilostazol (10 mg/Kg) and group II received saline solution 0.9% (SS) by orogastric tube after ligature of the abdominal aorta. After four hours of ischemia the animals were divided into four subgroups: group IA (Cilostazol): two hours of reperfusion. Group IIA (SS): two hours of reperfusion. Group IB (Cilostazol): six hours of reperfusion. Group IIB (SS) six hours of reperfusion. After the reperfusion period, was held to collect urine and blood for biochemical measurements. The biochemical parameters studied were: urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and myoglobin in blood and urea, creatinine, myoglobin in urine. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Cilostazol had no protective effect on ischemic acute reperfusion of hind limbs of rats in this model.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To determine the effect of probiotics on the development of chemically induced (1, 2-dimethylhydrazine) colonic preneoplastic lesions, in mice. METHODS: The animals were divided into five groups. The control group was injected with carcinogen alone and the other groups also received probiotics (1- Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV-H2b20; 2- Bifidobacterium animalis var. lactis Bb12; 3- L. delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 plus B. animalis var. lactis Bb12; and 4- Saccharomyces boulardii) administered orally in drinking water throughout fourteen weeks. RESULTS: Consumption of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria alone resulted in a significant reduction of the total number of aberrant crypt foci (55.7% and 45.1%, respectively). Significant reduction in the number of these small foci (<3 aberrant crypts) was only observed in the group treated with lactobacilli (52.2%) in comparison to control group. The number of larger foci (>3 aberrant crypts) crypts had no significant reduction. CONCLUSION: L. delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 and B. animalis var. lactis Bb12 administered alone protect colonic preneoplastic lesions in mice, while the combined treatment of these bacteria and the administration of S.boulardii were not effective in reducing such colonic lesions.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To analyze the clinicopathological features and outcome of patients with pathologically proven superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. METHODS: A total of 234 consecutive cases of esophageal carcinoma in a 15-year period were reviewed. RESULTS: Superficial esophageal cancer was found in five patients (2.1%). They were four men and one woman and the mean age was 52.5 years. Smoking and alcohol were the main risk factors. Achalasia due to Chagas disease occurred in one patient and a second primary tumor developed in the larynx in another patient. Four patients underwent esophagectomy and one patient received chemoradiotherapy. The histopathologic diagnosis was of squamous cell carcinoma in all cases. Intramucosal tumor (Tis) was identified in three cases and superficially invasive carcinoma in two cases. Four patients are free of disease with survival times of two, four, six and nine years. The patient who developed laryngeal cancer died six years after esophagectomy. CONCLUSION: Long-term survival in patients with esophageal cancer is related to early diagnosis. Therefore, a less aggressive surgical approach, such as endoscopic resection, may be a good option for these patients, if depth of tumor invasion can be accurately predicted by the new imaging tools.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate whether elastic fiber content in the corpus cavernosum (CC), corpus spongiosum (CS) and tunica albuginea (TA) of the rabbit penis undergoes modifications with age. METHODS: Rabbits were sacrificed, in groups of ten animals each, at 30, 120, 240, and 730 days of age. Histological sections were obtained from the penile middle shaft and were stained with Weigert's resorsin fuchsin. The content of elastic fibers was determined using stereological methods, and was expressed as volume fraction. RESULTS: At 730 days of age, elastic fiber content was increased by 54% (p<0.004), 78% (p<0.004), and 87% (p<0.004) in the TA, CC, and CS, respectively, compared with animals aged 30 days. After 30 days of age, the concentration gradually and significantly increased until 240 days of age. In 730-day old animals, the concentration, compared with the previous age group, was unchanged in the CC and decreased by 20% (p<0.004) in the TA. CONCLUSIONS: Elastic fiber contents in the rabbit penis correlate with properties of penile tissues. Although after one month of age there is a gradual increase in these concentrations, in two-year old animals this trend is interrupted, which suggests that this could be an early alteration due to senescence.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of sustained deep inspiration in the prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications, the hormonal and immunological responses in patients submitted to abdominal surgery. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial study included 75 patients submitted to abdominal surgery, of which 36 were randomly allocated in the experimental group and underwent sustained deep inspiration during five seconds, in three sets of ten repetitions per day. The others 39 patients were allocated in the control group and were not submitted to any breathing exercise. The following parameters were measured preoperatively, 24h and 48h postoperatively: chest x-ray, serum ACTH, cortisol, IL-4, IL-10, TNF-α, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow 25-75% (FEF 25-75), forced vital capacity (FVC), paO2 and paCO2. RESULTS: Mean serum cortisol in patients of the experimental and control groups before surgery were 12.8 mcg/dl (4.6-50) and 10.48 mcg/dl (1-29.1), respectively (p=0.414). The experimental group had significantly increase in serum cortisol levels, 23.6 mcg/dl (9.3-45.8), especially 24h postoperatively (p=0.049). CONCLUSION: Sustained deep inspiration in patients submitted to abdominal surgery determined important changes in serum cortisol, however, without significantly influence the postoperative pulmonary complications and the endocrine and immune responses
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate and correlate the amplitude of esophageal contractions triggered by swallowing water with dynamic extension and habitual, strong and weak sound intensity in total laryngectomees wearing a tracheoesophageal prosthesis. METHODS: Thirty total laryngectomees using tracheoesophageal voice with a phonatory prosthesis were evaluated by measuring the amplitude of contractions in the proximal, middle and distal esophagus and the pressure of the pharyngoesophageal transition by manometry. In order to measure vocal intensity the subject was asked to emit phonation of the vowel /a/ at habitual, strong and weak intensity which was captured with a sound pressure meter. Dynamic extension was calculated by subtracting strong intensity from weak intensity. RESULTS: A positive correlation was observed between contraction amplitude and dynamic extension in the proximal (rho: 0.45; p=0.01) and distal (rho: 0.41; p=0.02) esophagus There was no correlation with other parameters.. Total laryngectomees wearing a phonatory prosthesis with a dynamic extension above 21 dBNPS had greater contraction amplitude than laryngectomees with a dynamic extension below this value. CONCLUSIONS: There was a positive correlation between pressure amplitude in the proximal and distal esophagus and increased dynamic extension. The individuals with normal dynamic extension had greater contraction amplitude in the proximal esophagus than individuals with dynamic extension lower than the expected values for age.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To describe a technique to obtain guinea pigs cochlear fluids and measure nitric oxide (NO) concentration. METHODS: Six guinea pigs were used and sacrificed. The cochlear fluids collected for measurement of NO, performed by chemiluminescence (NOA 280). RESULTS: Through the chemiluminescence was possible to analyze the concentration of NO in cochlear fluids obtained. Average levels of nitric oxide from guinea pigs was 12.55 µM. CONCLUSION: It is possible to obtain nitric oxide cochlear fluids, with this technique and nitric oxide concentration measure by chemiluminescence, a quantitative and more precise method.