Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of kefir and banana pulp and skin flours on the serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triacylglycerols in rats fed cholesterol-rich diet. METHODS: Thirty Male Wistar rats were used. In the first 21 days, the animals were fed purified hypercholesterolemic diets, except the standard group. In the next 21 days, the animals were given modified diets: Group GC: standard diet AIN-93G; Group HIP: hypercholesterolemic diet; Group F: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% of banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour; Group Q: hypercholesterolemic diet plus kefir suspension by oral infusion (1.5 ml/animal); Group FQ: hypercholesterolemic diet added of 1% banana skin flour and 7% of banana pulp flour plus kefir suspension (1.5 ml/animal). RESULTS: In spite of the high fiber content, the addition of banana pulp (7%) and skin (1%) flour did not alter the plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-c and LDL-c. However, they reduced the TG levels in 22%. Already fermented kefir reduced significantly the levels of VLDL, LDL-c and triacylglycerols, in addition to having increased HDL-c. However, it was not possible to verify the symbiotic effect between both. CONCLUSION: The results reinforce the beneficial effects of kefir in reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of pedicle occlusion on the viable area of a skin island flap. METHODS: An epigastric skin island flap was performed in 160 Wistar rats. The animals were randomly divided into four groups: G-1: occlusion of inferior epigastric artery; G-2: inferior epigastric vein; G-3: inferior epigastric vessels (artery/vein). At varying times postoperatively (2,3,4,5th day), animals from each group were randomly selected, and the pedicle was occluded. On the 10th. postop. day, the skin flaps were evaluated by templates to determine the percentage of surviving skin. The computer HP™ 9830A captured the photographs and the mean flap necrosis area was assessed. RESULTS: An increasing area of flap survived with less area of necrosis with increased time of days intervals. In the G-1, the mean area of necrosis observed (two to five days) were 95.2, 60.8, 31 and 3.7 % respectively. In the G-2 were 95.5, 57.6, 19.5 and 5.6 % respectively. In the G-3, a 100, 80, 32.4 and 14.9 % of mean area was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The arterial suppy/venous drainage is important for flap circulation up to five days following pedicle occlusion. After this period, the pedicle can be interrupted once the circulation through the flap margins has already been established.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide and helium on renal function and morphology in a rat model. METHODS: Twenty four rats were randomized into three groups (n=8): gasless insufflation ('open', Pressure=0 mmHg), carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum at 12 mmHg, and helium pneumoperitoneum at 12 mmHg; all lasting 90 minutes.. A cystostomy was performed and the bladder was emptied. At the end of the experiment, the urine produced, a blood sample and the left kidney of each animal were collected. The following variables were obtained: serum sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine, urine volume and creatinine. The creatinine clearance was estimated for each animal. The kidneys were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and evaluated by a pathologist blinded to the groups. RESULTS: The CO2 and Helium groups did not differ in the variables evaluated. Both developed oliguria (p<0.001 vs. gasless). The CO2 group presented hyperkalemia compared to gasless (p=0.05), which did not attain significance in the helium group. Histopathological analysis revealed mild hydropic degeneration and congestion in the three groups, with no significant difference among them. CONCLUSIONS: The type of gas resulted in no difference in the variables of renal function and morphology assessed. The increase in serum potassium was only observed with CO2 insufflation suggests a combined effect of elevated intra-abdominal pressure and metabolic effects of pneumoperitoneum.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate nephrocalcinosis due to hyperoxaluria induced by two different inducing agents in rats. METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly distributed into four groups: Group1 (Clinical control, n = 10); Group 2 (0.5% Ethylene Glycol + Vitamin D3, n = 10); Group 3 (1.25% Ethylene Glycol, n = 10); and Group 4 (5%Hydroxy L-proline, n = 10). Five animals from each group were euthanized after one week of follow-up (M1 Moment) and the remaining, after four weeks (M2 Moment). All animals underwent 24h urine dosages of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, citrate and serum creatinine. Histology and histomorphometric analyses were performed using Image J program in the hematoxylin-eosin stains. Calcium deposits in the renal parenchyma were quantified by PIXE technique (Proton Induced X-Ray Emission). RESULTS: 24h urinary parameters did not show any significant variations after 28 days of experiment except by hyperoxaluria that was significantly higher in Group 3. Histomorphometric analyses showed a significantly higher nephrocalcinosis in Group 2 (p<0.01). The calcium deposits in the renal parenchyma were 10 and 100 times higher in Group 2 in comparison to other groups in the M1 and M2 moments, respectively. CONCLUSION: The Group 2 (vitamin D3+Ethylene Glycol 0.5%) was the best model to induce nephrocalcinosis in rats after 28 days.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate whether Diabetes mellitus chemically induced by alloxan is capable of changing, in the long term, the oxidative balance in the liver tissue of rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 250-280g, were randomly distributed into two experimental groups: NG - 30 non-diabetic control rats; DG - 30 alloxan- induced diabetic rats without any treatment for the disease. Each group was further divided into three subgroups containing ten rats each, which were sacrificed after one, three and six months of follow-up, respectively. Blood glucose, urinary glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin were determined in the plasma of all animals at the beginning of the experiment and prior to all sacrifice periods. The concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides (HP) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also measured in the liver tissue of all animals. RESULTS: Rats from the DG group showed high levels of blood glucose, urinary glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin, with significantly lower plasma insulin levels than those observed in NG rats (p<0.001). Diabetic animals also showed increased concentration of HP free radicals in the liver tissue as compared to those shown by NG animals after one, three and six months of follow-up. In contrast, the antioxidant activity of the enzymes SOD, CAT and GSH-Px was significantly reduced in all follow-up periods (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes determines oxidative stress in the liver, which is characterized by increased concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tissue and significant reduction in their antioxidant defenses. Such oxidative unbalance in the liver cells may play a relevant role in the genesis of the diabetic chronic liver disease, including the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its occasional progression to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To compare sciatic nerve regeneration between non-diabetic (control) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. METHODS:Four subgroups were evaluated. CN: Non-diabetic rats submitted to neurorrhaphy (n=9); DN: Diabetic rats submitted to neurorrhaphy (n=9); CG: Non-diabetic rats submitted to nerve grafting (n=10); DG: Diabetic rats submitted to nerve grafting (n=9). The nerve regeneration was evaluated by walking track analysis (sciatic functional index), electrophysiological test, histomorphometric analysis and triceps surae muscle weight. RESULTS:At 60 days post-surgery, functional recovery of DN was similar to that of the non-diabetic rats (CN, CG), but DG didn't achieve the same. Evoked potential amplitudes showed no statistically significant differences among subgroups. Triceps surae muscle was heavier in CN. No statistically significant differences were observed between the control and diabetes subgroups with respect to histomorphometric analysis. CONCLUSION: After 60 days, DN had a functionally similar recovery to that of the control animals, whereas nerve grafting in diabetic rats didn't allow the same. The muscle atrophy was lower in CN. In the rest of evaluations, as electrophysiological and histomorphometric, diabetic rats were not different from control ones.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of FAS ligand (FASL) in ipsilateral and contralateral testicles of rats submitted to ischemia/reperfusion. METHODS: Wistar rats (n=21) distributed into groups control (GC), n=5, testicular exposure; ischemia (GI), (n=8), Torsion in the left testicular Cord (TCT) for three hours followed by orchiectomy without distortion and orchietomy of the contralateral testicle after 24 hours; and reperfusion (GR), (n=8), left TCT for 3 hours and distortion and repositioning on the scrotum and bilateral orchiectomy after 24 hours. Quantification of the FASL expression by immune-histochemistry. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed similarity between GC and GI (p>0.05), differences detected are concentrated on the GR (p<0.05), increase in immunoexpression of FASL in the subgroups Right GR (406.8+-61.5) and Left GR (135.3 +-28.9) with significant predominance in the GR subgroup. CONCLUSION: Ischemia/reperfusion increased the FASL expression significantly in contralateral testicles in GR, in rats.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of copaiba oil on the hepatic damage induced by paracetamol. METHODS: Thirty six rats were distributed into six study groups (N=6): control group, that didn't receive the acetaminophen; Acetaminophen Group, that only received the acetaminophen; Prophylactic Copaiba Group 1, that received copaiba oil two hours before the acetaminophen; Prophylactic Copaiba Group 7, that received copaiba oil seven days, once by day, before the acetaminophen; Therapy Copaiba Group, that received the copaiba oil two hours afther the acetaminophen; and N-Acetyl-Cysteine Group, , that received the N-Acetyl-Cysteine two hours afther the acetaminophen. Euthanasia was performed after 24 hours. The serum levels of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, <img border=0 width=14 height=16 src="../img/a08img01.jpg" align=absmiddle>GT, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin and histological analisis were analized. RESULTS: The prophylactic copaiba group 7, therapy copaiba group and N-Acetyl-Cysteine Group showed amounts of AST and ALT similar to the control group; and the prophylactic copaiba group 1 showed similar levels to the acetaminophen group. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding the amount of alkaline phosphatase and <img border=0 width=14 height=16 src="../img/a08img01.jpg" align=absmiddle>GT (p>0.05). The therapy copaiba group showed the highest levels of bilirubin and was statistically different from the other groups (p<0.01) and this increased the costs of direct bilirubin. Regarding histopathology, the oil of copaiba administered prophylactic or therapeutic form for 7 days could decrease the amount of necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate. CONCLUSION: Copaiba oil administered prophylactically for seven days, and therapeutic could reduce liver damage caused by paracetamol similarly N-Acetyl-Cysteine, however, when treated with copaiba therapeutically showed increases in bilirubin, costs increasing fraction indirect.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To compare the cardiopulmonary effects and the quality of anesthesia of the extradural lidocaine in combination with fentanyl or morphine in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Sixteen female dogs, were sedated with intramuscular acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1), followed by anesthetic induction with intravenous propofol (4mg kg-1), to perform the lumbosacral puncture. The animals were randomly assigned to two treatments: T-F (n=8) extradural administration of fentanyl (5µg kg-1), T-M (n=8) extradural administration of methadone (0.3mg kg-1). In both treatment groups, opioids were combined with lidocaine, in order to make up a final volume of 0.4mL kg-1. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic arterial blood pressure (SABP), intra-operative anesthetic supplementation, blood gases and adverse effects were investigated. RESULTS: HR, arterial pH and blood gases did not differ between treatments at any time point. RR and SABP decreased after epidural anesthesia, but the values were in terms of the physiological range of dogs. Intra-operative anesthetic supplementation was required in 50% and 62.5% of the fentanyl and methadone treated dogs, respectively. CONCLUSION: The extradural lidocaine in combination with fentanyl or morphine allowed cardiopulmonary stability, however sufficient sensitive blockade was not provided in 100% of the dogs.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the role of protein kinase G (PKG) in blocking post-shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) return ameliorating the calcium sensitivity in hemorrhagic shock rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, shock, shock+ligation (shock plus mesenteric lymph duct ligation (MLDL)), shock+drainage (shock plus PSML drainage) groups. After shock (hypotension 40mmHg) for three hours or corresponding times, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was taken out for detecting the PKG and phospho PKG (p-PKG) contents, and the vascular rings of SMA were prepared for assaying the calcium sensitivity using an isolated organ perfusion system. RESULTS: The PKG and p-PKG contents of SMA in shock group were significantly increased than that of sham group, and MLDL or PSML drainage reducing the levels of PKG and p-PKG. Meanwhile, the vascular calcium sensitivity in shock group was significantly lower than that of sham group, MLDL or PSML drainage enhanced the calcium sensitivity. After incubating with PKG regulators in shock+ligation and shock+drainage groups, the PKG agonist 8Br-cGMP reduced the contractility of vascular rings to gradient calcium ions and Emax and the PKG inhibitor agonist KT5823 elevated the calcium sensitivity significantly. CONCLUSION: Protein kinase G plays an important role in post-shock mesenteric lymph blockage improving vascular calcium sensitivity.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of bipolar epicardial atrial pacing using an active fixation bipolar endocardial lead implanted on the atrial surface in an experimental model. METHODS: A total of ten Large White adult pigs underwent pacemaker implantation under general anesthesia. Atrial pacing and sensing parameters were obtained at the procedure, immediate postoperative period and on the 7th and the 30th postoperative in unipolar and bipolar configurations. RESULTS: All procedures were successfully performed. There were no perioperative complications and no early deaths. Atrial pacing and sensing parameters for both unipolar and bipolar modes remained stable throughout the study. We observed a progressive increase in atrial thresholds, ranging from 0.49 ± 0.35 (at implantation) to 1.86 ± 1.31 volts (30th postoperative day), in unipolar mode. Atrial impedance measurements decreased slightly over time, ranging from 486.80 ± 126.35 Ohms (at implantation) to 385.0 ± 80.52 Ohms (30th postoperative day). Atrial sensing measures remained stable from the immediate postoperative period until the end of the study. CONCLUSION: The bipolar active fixation endocardial lead implanted epicardially can provide stable conditions of pacing and sensing parameters throughout the postoperative follow-up.