Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To estimate the median lethal needle caliber (LC50) of a new experimental sepsis model and compare it to the LC50 of the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis model. METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats were studied (n=22). Animals were allocated into two study groups. In Group I, experimental sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. In Group II, experimental sepsis was induced by ascending colon ligation and cecal puncture. Up-and-down method was used to determinate the LC50. RESULTS: LC50 in Group I was 19 Gauge (Confidence Interval 17 to 22 Gauge). Determination of LC50 was not possible in Group II due to the death of all animals. CONCLUSION: LC50 in cecal ligation and puncture is 19 Gauge. The lethality of the new model tested in this trial is very high.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To study the possible potentiation of the carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet radiation associated with an organophosphate pesticide. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were assigned into four groups (n=10 each) randomized according to the procedures: group A received only UVR-B radiation; group B, UVR-B for eight weeks followed by a seven week period of pesticide exposure; group C, UVR-B + pesticide concomitantly: group D, only pesticide application. At the end of the fifth, tenth and fifteenth weeks the animals were photographed. Skin biopsy and histopathological study with Hematoxylin-Eosin were done on the fifteenth week. Statistical analysis with Fisher's and Sign (unilateral) tests, 5% value for significance. RESULTS: Macroscopic lesions in the group A evolved from the erythema to erythema + desquamation. The groups B and C, with the association of two carcinogens, and group D presented evolution to keratosis, with higher incidence in group D. The histology showed a significant increase in the severity of injuries when the UVR-B and the pesticide were applied simultaneously, leading to cellular atypia. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent association of UVR-B to organophosphate pesticide produced more severe lesions microscopically, although this has not been so apparent macroscopically. In daily practice the clinical evaluation should be complemented with laboratory evaluation.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy to adult male testis mice offspring. METHODS: Twenty pregnant mice were divided into control group (c) and caffeine group (cf). dams received daily saline or 20 mg/kg of caffeine subcutaneously. Male offspring were monitored daily until 13th week. The testis were used to evaluate both the proliferation (pcna) and apoptosis (bax); leptin receptor (ob-r); aromatase; follicle stimulating hormone (fshr), luteinizing hormone (lhr) and androgen receptors (ar); steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star); vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) and estrogen receptors (erα and erβ) by western blotting. Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol and leptin were measured. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in food intake and the body mass gain (p<0.05) in the cf ; pcna (p=0.01), fshr (p=0.02), star (p=0.0007), vegf (p=0.009), ar (p=0.03) in the cf. while an increase were note in bax (p=0.01), ob-r (p=0.02), lhr (p=0.04) and in the aromatase (p=0.03) in the cf. only erα and erβ were not changed by maternal caffeine. The serum testosterone levels in the cf offspring were 90% lower than in the c offspring (p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Maternal caffeine consumption has a role and alters the testis of the offspring in adulthood.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of acute administration of Sedum dendroideum on the gastric histopathology of rats after the administration of indomethacin. METHODS: Twenty four Wistar rats were randomized into three groups, submitted to feeding privation for 24 hours prior to the oral administration of 50 mg/Kg of indomethacin and during the experimental period of six hours. The control group (C) was giving distilled water, the extract group (E) was treated with the extract of Sedum dendroideum and the group Omeoprazole (O) received 20 mg/Kg of omeoprazole. All the treatments were carried out thirty minutes prior to the administration of indomethacin. After six hour, the stomach of the animals was extirpated for histopathological analysis, which took into account the presence of erosive gastritis, hyperemia and sub mucosa edema. RESULTS: In group C, eight out of eight animals presented that type of lesion, in group E, this number was the same and in group O, three out of the eight rats presented erosive gastritis. CONCLUSION:
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Mikania glomerata Spreng (Asteraceae) on the activity of Bothrops jararaca snake venom in Wistar rats. METHODS: Fifty four rats Wistar were divided into six groups of nine animals in each: control treated with saline; control treated with B. jararaca venom; control treated with M. glomerata extract; B. jararaca venom incubated with M. glomerata extract at proportions of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4. RESULTS: Histopathological and morphometric analysis showed that intradermal administration of snake venom incubated with the hydroalcoholic extract at proportions of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4 promoted a significant reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and a marked decrease in edema after the third hour. There was also a significant reduction in the intensity of the hemorrhagic halo in animals receiving the snake venom incubated with the extract, with the observation of a progressive and parallel inhibition with increasing proportion of M. glomerata. CONCLUSION: The Mikania glomerata hydroalcoholic extract exerted effective anti-inflammatory and antihemorrhagic activity against the effects induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To measure the change in the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (EtISO) associated with epidural nalbuphine and the postoperative analgesic requirements in dogs after ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Twenty four healthy female dogs were randomly assigned to receive saline or nalbuphine at 0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg (n=8 for each group) administered via lumbosacral epidural catheter introduced cranially into the epidural canal. Changes in heart and respiratory rates and arterial blood pressure during surgery were recorded along with the corresponding EtISO. Immediately after tracheal extubation, analgesia, sedation, heart rate, respiratory rate, and arterial blood pressure were measured at predetermined intervals and every 60 min thereafter until the first rescue analgesic. RESULTS: A significant decrease in EtISO was associated with epidural nalbuphine at 0.3 mg/kg (26.3%) and 0.6 mg/kg (38.4%) but not with saline in ovariohysterectomized dogs. In the postoperative period, VAS and Colorado analgesic scores were lower for the dogs that received the higher nalbuphine dose, which only required supplemental analgesia 10 h following its administration, compared with dogs that received the lower dose. CONCLUSION: Epidural nalbuphine significantly reduces the intra-operative isoflurane requirement and provides prolonged postoperative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy in dogs.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the sedative and clinical effects of the pharmacopuncture with xylazine, compared to the conventional dose of a intramuscular injection in dogs. METHODS: Twelve dogs were randomly distributed in two groups of six animals and treated as follows: control group (X-IM): 1mg kg-1 of xylazine given intramuscularly (IM); pharmacopuncture group (X-Yintang): 0.1mg kg-1 of xylazine diluted to 0.5 mL of saline injected into the Yin Tang acupoint. Heart rate, cardiac rhythm (ECG), systolic arterial blood pressure (SABP), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), blood glucose concentration, degree of sedation and adverse effects were evaluated. RESULTS: Sedative effect was observed in both groups. The degree of sedation was greater in X-IM only at 15 min when compared with X-Yintang group. Cardiovascular established was observed in X-Yintang group, while marked reduction in the HR and increased incidence of ECG abnormalities were detected in X-IM. In both treatment groups, minimal changes were observed in relation to SABP, RR, RT and blood glucose. High incidence (66%) of vomiting was observed in X-IM, while this adverse effect was absent in X-Yintang. CONCLUSION: Pharmacopuncture with xylazine induced clinically relevant sedative effects in dogs, with the advantage of reduction of undesirable side effects associated with α2-agonists, including bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, and emesis.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of chronic cerebral hypoxia on memory of rats submitted to bilateral common carotid artery ligation (BCCL). METHODS: Every each week, for 16 weeks, 31 rats were tested for memory using a water and land mazes and compared with 30 normal rats (control group A). The variables were expressed by their mean and standard error of the mean (SEM). p<0.05 was used for rejecting the null hypothesis. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee for animal investigation. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the latency time, in the survival water and land mazes, after four weeks (study group B) follow-up. However, without any medication or therapeutically induced measures, after 16 weeks (study group C) follow-up the latency mean times tend to be similar to control group (A) in the neurocognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: Neurocognitive deficits after 16 weeks post-operative follow-up of rats that underwent bilateral common carotid artery ligation is a natural adaptive phenomenon. Thus, is not realistic to allow translational information from this animal model for therapeutically approaches aiming at to prevent, or to improve brain damage in human beings suffering from chronic deprivation of adequate blood supply.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) and beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), alone or in combination, on bone regeneration in pig tibial defects. METHODS: Four standardized defects were prepared in both tibias of three adult male pigs. The first defect was left unfilled as a control; the others were grafted with either PRF, β-TCP or PRF mixed with β-TCP. All animals were sacrificed on the 12th postoperative week and the tibial bones were removed, histologic sections were prepared and the experimental sites were examined microscopically and stereologically. RESULTS: Histologic and stereologic examination revealed more new bone formation in the defects filled with PRF mixed β-TCP than in the defects grafted with either β-TCP or PRF alone. CONCLUSION: The platelet rich fibrin and beta tricalcium phosphate combination effectively induces new bone formation.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate a saddle anesthesia with different doses of chloroprocaine in perianal surgery. METHODS: Total 60 Patients aged 18-75 years (Anesthesiologists grade I or II) scheduled to receive perianal surgery. Patients using saddle anesthesia were randomized to group A, group B and group C with the same concentration (0.5%) chloroprocaine with different doses 1.0 mL, 0.8 mL and 0.6 mL, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR) and the sensory and motor block were recorded to evaluate the anesthesia effect of chloroprocaine in each group. RESULTS: The duration of sensory block of group C is shorter than those of group A and B. The maximum degree of motor block is observed (group C: 0 level, group A: III level; and group B: I level) after 15 minutes. Besides, there was a better anesthetic effect in group B than group A and group C, such as walking after saddle anesthesia. However, there is also no significant difference of blood pressure decreasing in these three groups. CONCLUSION: It's worth to employ a saddle anesthesia with appropriate doses of chloroprocaine in clinical perianal surgery.