Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate experimental cranial vault reconstructions, by combining bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (BMP-2) and different matrices. METHODS: Fourty-nine animals were initially included (seven per group). We designed an experimental, open, prospective and comparative study, divided in seven groups: 1 - BMP-2+calcium phosphate (BT); 2 - BMP-2+acellular dermal matrix (BM); 3 - BMP-2+calcium alginate (BA); 4 - TCP; 5 - MDM; 6 - ALG; 7 - Bone autograft (BAG). A bone failure was created in left parietal bone of adult male mice. At the same procedure reconstruction was performed. After five weeks, animals were sacrificed, and reconstruction area was removed to histological analysis. After exclusion due to death or infection, thirty-eight animals were evaluated (BT=5; BM=6; BA=6; TCP=7; MDM=3; ALG=6; BAG=5). RESULTS: A higher incidence of infection has occurred in MDM group (57%, P=0.037). In cortical fusion, groups BAG, TCP, and BMP-2+TCP (BT) obtained the best scores, comparing to the others (P=0.00846). In new bone formation, groups BT, BAG, and TCP have presented the best scores (P=0.00835). When neovascularization was considered, best groups were BMP-2+MDM (BM), BMP-2+ALG (BA), TCP, and MDM (P=0.001695). BAG group was the best in bone marrow formation, followed by groups BT and TCP (P=0.008317). CONCLUSIONS: Bone morphogenetic protein type 2 increased bone regeneration in experimental skull reconstruction, especially when combined to calcium phosphate. Such association was even comparable to bone autograft, the gold-standard treatment, in some histological criteria.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To assess pain in the immediate postoperative period in cats submitted into two different celiotomy techniques for ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Fourteen healthy female cats up to three years old with a mean weight 2.75kg, without breed specification, were used in this double blind experiment. The animals were randomly assigned to two treatments: I- ovariohysterectomy by lateral approach (LA) or II - by midline approach (MA). The anesthesia consisted of acepromazine (0.1 mg.kg-1) and midazolam (0.25mg.kg-1)followed isoflurane vaporization to induce and maintain hypnosis. A bolus of fentanyl (5μg.kg-1) was administered intravenously to provide intraoperative analgesia. After surgery, pain scores were assessed through a multidimensional composite pain scale at four different times. RESULTS: Generally all factors related to psychomotor changes and pain expression showed higher scores in cats neutered by LA, but only psychomotor changes and total pain score presented statistical differences (p<0.05). The animals that underwent lateral celiotomy showed higher pain scores, at 1, 4 and 6 hours after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Multidimensional analgesic scales were highly reliable. There was a tendency for the cats neutered by lateral approach to suffer more postoperative pain, including requiring a large number of analgesic rescues.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of Ecballium elaterium (EE), Elaterium officinarum, in postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions in rats. METHODS: Thirty rats were divided into three groups and underwent midline laparotomy under 35 mg/kg ketamine and 5 mg/kg xylazine anaesthesia. In group 1 (n=10), the sham operation group, the abdominal walls were closed without any process. In group 2 (n=10), the control group, the antimesenteric border of the ceacum and the corresponding parietal peritoneum were abraded with dry sterile gauze. In group 3 (n=10), the EE group, 2.5 mg/kg dose of EE was administered as intraperitoneally to the rats after abrasion. All rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 15. Samples were obtained RESULTS: The adhesion score was significantly decreased in the EE group (p=0.001) in comparison with the control group. Microscopically, the EE and sham groups were significantly lower than that of the control group (p<0.001 and p=0.000, respectively). Furthermore, the measurement of tissue levels of hydroxyproline was significantly lower in the sham and EE groups compared to the control group (sham group: 47.6 ± 10.6, EE group: 62.9 ± 9.7, Control group: 84.2 ± 22.1 mg /L/g-tissue). CONCLUSION: The grade and severity of abdominal adhesion could be significantly reduced through administered Ecballium elaterium and therefore be a suitable anti-inflammatory agent for the prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesion in the future.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the alterations of two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)s, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK), in the testes of male rats with experimental diabetes. METHODS: Twenty males Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=8) and a diabetes group (administration of 40 mg/kg/day streptozotocin (STZ) for five sequential days, n=12). After six weeks, testicular biopsy samples were obtained for light microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: The PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) index was significantly decreased in the diabetes group (p=0.004) when compared to the control group. Both total (t)-ERK and phosphor (p)-ERK immunoreactivities were significantly decreased in the diabetes group (p=0.004, p<0.001, respectively). The t-JNK immunoreactivity was unchanged in both groups (p=0.125), while p-JNK immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the diabetic group (p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The decrease of androgen levels in the course of diabetes may contribute to the decrease of the immunoreactivities of t-ERK and p-ERK. JNK may be activated due to the changes in various cytokines and chemochines that participate in the oxidative stress process of diabetes. Therefore, testicular apoptosis may occur and lead to infertility associated with diabetes.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To establish a model of chronic kidney disease in White New Zealand rabbits, using an exclusive unilateral technique of renal ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty males White New Zealand rabbits were used. All animals were subjected to the following: pre-surgical blood collection (1st collection) for creatinine and urea serum analysis, left renal ischemia and reperfusion surgery technique, another blood sample was collected after 6 weeks post surgery (2nd collection), the last blood sample (3rd collection) blood sample was taken 11 weeks post surgery (pre-euthanasia), euthanasia and withdrawal of right and left kidney for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: The creatinine levels after surgery was statistically significant higher in the 3rd collection, regarding the 1st and 2ndcollection (p<0.05). A significant statistic increase for urea was showed only in the 2nd collection (p<0.05) when compared to the 1stand 3rd collections. Histopathological analysis showed bilateral lesions in the renal tissue, consistent to the process of ischemia and reperfusion. CONCLUSION: This exclusive unilateral technique of renal ischemia and reperfusion without nephrectomy in White New Zealand rabbits, showed effectiveness in getting an animal model of chronic kidney disease
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate microscopic behavior and viability of dental pulp stem cells under glucose and glutamine deprivation. METHODS: Human tooth tissues were minced in isolated pieces and cultured until the desired cellular proliferation for experimental phases. Cells were cultured under variations of glucose and glutamine in both serum presence and absence, and then those cells were evaluated according to number and viability by MTT assay. The confocal microscopy analyzed cytoskeleton, nucleus, and mitochondria integrity. RESULTS: A low concentration of glucose favored cellular viability and microscopic behavior; the presence of glutamine in culture medium was favorable only when associated with glucose. The cellular biological potential in culture could be preserved in serum absence if nutritional requirements are adequate. CONCLUSION: Cell microscopic behavior and viability have demonstrated better patterns on serum-free low glucose culture medium with glutamine deprivation.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate E-cadherin immunoexpression during cervical carcinogenesis. METHODS: We assessed the immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin in squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL - 52 cases), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix (23 cases) and also in eight cases of cervicitis. RESULTS: The results show very different E-cadherin membrane expression levels when cervicitis (88%), SILs (73%) and SCC (17%) were compared. In SILs, higher E-cadherin loss was seen in less differentiated cells in the basal third of the epithelium. This study suggests that the absence of E-cadherin expression in the membrane is a molecular event that is observed more often in SCC of the uterine cervix than in SILs or cervicitis. CONCLUSIONS: E-cadherin is an essential molecule during the process of cervical carcinogenesis and in this context exhibits a different expression pattern according to the epithelial thickness layer.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the pain on injection of propofol via different combinations of fentanyl, sufentanil or remifentanil in gastrointestinal endoscopy. METHODS: Total 439 patients were randomly allocated into 6 groups. Propofol & fentanil (PF) group received 1 μg/kg fentanyl, propofol & sufentanil (PS) group received 0.1 μg/kg sufentanil and propofol & remifentanyl (PR) group received 1 μg/kg remifentanyl prior to administration of 1-2 mg/kg of propofol. The propofol & half-fentanil (Pf) group, propofol & half-sufentanil (Ps) group and propofol & half-remifentanyl (Pr) group were given 0.5 μg/kg fentanyl, 0.05 μg/kg sufentanil and 0.5 μg/kg remifentanyl, respectively and later administrated 1-2 mg/kg propofol. All patients were monitored for the blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and oxygen saturation (SpO2). Additionally, the pain intensity was assessed using a 4-point verbal rating scale (VRS) by professional doctors. RESULTS: The incidence of pain due to propofol injection in Ps group (33.8%) was significantly lower than other 5 groups. The heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were maintained within the normal limits in all six groups and there was no hypotension or bradycardia encountered during the study period. CONCLUSION: Propofol and sufentanil group was the most suitable program for painless gastroscopy.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the morphological aspects of brain and eyes in newborn rats whose mother underwent autogenously fecal peritonitis. METHODS: Four pregnant rats that underwent fecal peritonitis, with a 10% fecal suspension in dose of 4 ml per kilogram received two antimicrobial treatments: 1. intraperitoneal moxifloxacin and dexamethazone; and 2. Intravenous meropenem. After head inspection, the brain consistencies and the eyes belonging to all offspring were analyzed. RESULTS: The brains of newborn from rats that received 4 ml/kg of 10% suspension of feces showed, significantly smaller and less than the firm consistency of those in the control group. Congenital cataract was observed in 9 (34.6%). No cataract was observed in the 20 newborn rats from the mothers that received the combination of moxifloxacin and dexamethasone. Cataract could be observed in three (13.6%) offspring from mothers that received meropenem. CONCLUSIONS: Peritonitis can produce brain damage and congenital cataract in rats. The translation to humans is that intra abdominal infection in pregnant women may be associated with damage in brain and eye structures of their concepts. This can be averting using the adequate early therapeutically approach.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To compare breast measurements performed using the software packages ImageTool(r), AutoCAD(r) and Adobe Photoshop(r) with direct anthropometric measurements. METHODS: Points were marked on the breasts and arms of 40 volunteer women aged between 18 and 60 years. When connecting the points, seven linear segments and one angular measurement on each half of the body, and one medial segment common to both body halves were defined. The volunteers were photographed in a standardized manner. Photogrammetric measurements were performed by three independent observers using the three software packages and compared to direct anthropometric measurements made with calipers and a protractor. RESULTS: Measurements obtained with AutoCAD(r) were the most reproducible and those made with ImageTool(r) were the most similar to direct anthropometry, while measurements with Adobe Photoshop(r) showed the largest differences. Except for angular measurements, significant differences were found between measurements of line segments made using the three software packages and those obtained by direct anthropometry. CONCLUSION: AutoCAD(r) provided the highest precision and intermediate accuracy; ImageTool(r) had the highest accuracy and lowest precision; and Adobe Photoshop(r) showed intermediate precision and the worst accuracy among the three software packages.