Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira, Volume: 29, Issue: 12, Published: 2014
  • Effects of oxygen in lungs of rats Original Articles

    Pereira, Alexandre Luiz Albuquerque; Ferreira, Márcia Raissa Aragão; Santos, Orlando José dos; Sauaia Filho, Euler Nicolau; Paiva, Antônio Ernandes Macedo; Santos, Rayan Haquim Pinheiro; Santos, Rennan Abud Pinheiro

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To analyze microscopically the effects of different concentrations of oxygen in the lungs of rats. METHODS: There were 20 rats distributed in three experimental groups (concentration of oxygen to 40%, 70% and 100%) and a control group. The animals were exposed to the oxygen in a chamber of acrylic during three days and after exposition, the animals were submitted to median thoracotomia to remove the lungs. The lung tissue of all of the animals was analyzed as regards presence of acute and chronic inflammation, capillary congestion, alveolar walls thick, interstitial and alveolar edema, alveolar hemorrhage, denudation capillary and alveolar endothelium areas and atelectasis. RESULTS: The analysis histopathologic revealed significant statistics difference for acute and chronic inflammation, capillary congestion, alveolar walls thick, interstitial and alveolar edema, alveolar hemorrhage, denudation capillary and alveolar epithelium areas. CONCLUSIONS: Exposition to the oxygen during 72 hours in the concentration of 40% does not produce significant histopathologic alterations in the lung tissue; in the concentration of 70%, can promotes the alveolar walls thick and capillary congestion and in the concentration of 100% can cause death and originate diffuse pulmonary lesion.
  • Attenuation of copaiba oil in hepatic damage in rats Original Articles

    Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Costa, Felipe D'Almeida; Vasconcelos, Diego Matos de; Costa, Lauro Augusto Veloso; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To investigate the copaiba oil on the hepatic damage induced by acetaminophen, comparing against corn oil. METHODS: Fifty four rats were distributed into nine study groups (N=6): control group, that didn't receive the acetaminophen; Acetaminophen Group, that only received the acetaminophen; Prophylactic Copaiba Group 1, that received copaiba oil two hours before the acetaminophen; Prophylactic Copaiba Group 7, that received copaiba oil seven days, once by day, before the acetaminophen; Therapy Copaiba Group, that received the copaiba oil two hours after the acetaminophen, the corn's groups were similar than copaiba oil groups; and N-Acetyl-Cysteine Group, that received the N-Acetyl-Cysteine two hours after the acetaminophen. Euthanasia was performed after 24 hours. The serum levels transaminases, bilirubin and canalicular enzymes were analyzed. RESULTS: The prophylactic copaiba group 7, therapy copaiba group and N-Acetyl-Cysteine Group showed amounts of AST and ALT similar to the control group; and the prophylactic copaiba group 1 and corn's groups showed similar levels to the acetaminophen group. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding the amount of alkaline phosphatase and ɤ GT (p>0.05). The therapy copaiba group showed the highest levels of total bilirubin and was statistically different from the other groups (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Copaiba oil administered prophylactically for seven days and therapeutically 2 hours after the acetaminophen acute intoxication offered a potential hepato protection against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage, normalizing the biochemical parameters similarly to N-Acetyl-Cysteine, and the treatment with corn oil shows no effect on the liver damage.
  • Phagocytic function of lower spleen pole and autogenous splenic implants in rats Original Articles

    Borjaili, Andréa Saade Daher; Cerqueira, Brunela Silva; Silbermann, Julio Roitman; Rezende, Caroline Ferraz; Freire Júnior, David Domingos; Castello, Jane Sant'Ana; Lenz, Dominik; Paulo, Danilo Nagib Salomão; Nunes, Tarcizo Afonso

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether there are differences between the phagocytic function of the remaining lower spleen pole after subtotal splenectomy and autogenous splenic implants. METHODS: Thirty-six male Wistar rats, weighting 364 ± 60g were used. They were subjected to subtotal splenectomy preserving the lower spleen pole and to autogenous splenic implant in the greater omentum. Its viability was assessed microscopically. Phagocytic function was assessed by splenic uptake of the radioisotope-labeled colloid and by macrophages counting. RESULTS: The viability of the autogenous splenic implant and of the lower spleen pole was found in 33 animals, with no difference between them. The weight of the implants was higher than the lower pole of animals from groups G1, G7, G30, G60 and G120. The implants phagocytic function by radioisotope uptake was higher than the lower pole in G7 and G120 groups and it did not differ from the other groups. The number of macrophages was higher in G1, G60, G90 and G120 and did not differ from the other groups. CONCLUSION: Until the 16th week, the phagocytic function was more pronounced in autogenous splenic implants when compared with the lower spleen pole, but it became similar thereafter.
  • Electroacupuncture ameliorates experimental colitis induced by TNBS through activation of interleukin-10 and inhibition of iNOS in mice Original Articles

    Goes, Annya Costa Araujo de Macedo; Pinto, Francisco Maxwell Martins; Fernandes, Guilherme Cardoso; Barbosa, Jessica Sales; Correia, Emanuela Santos; Ribeiro, Ronaldo Albuquerque; Guimaraes, Sergio Botelho; Lima Júnior, Roberto Cesar Pereira; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To study the anti-inflammatory actions of electroacupuncture (EAc) on an experimental colitis model in mice. METHODS: Thirty-eight male Swiss mice, divided in five groups, were subjected to induction of colitis by TNBS in 50% ethanol. Saline (SAL) and ethanol (ETNL) groups served as controls. TNBS+EAc and TNBS+ dexamethasone subgroups were treated with EAc 100Hz and dexamethasone (DEXA) 1 mg/Kg/day, respectively. After three days, a colon segment was obtained for quantification of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, immunohistochemistry for iNOS, malondialdehyde (MDA) and cytokines (IL-1β and IL-10). RESULTS: Neutrophilic activity, assayed as MPO activity, was significantly higher in the TNBS colitis group than that in the saline control group. TNBS+EAc group showed suppression of IL-10 in the colon. EAc treatment significantly reduced the concentration of MDA and the expression of iNOS, as compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture 100Hz applied to acupoint ST-36 promotes an anti-inflammatory action on the TNBS-induced colitis, mediated by increase of IL-10 and decrease of iNOS expression.
  • Tomographic imaging of fragmented cortical bone heteroimplant and methylmethacrylate in segmental bone defect of rabbit tibia Original Articles

    Freitas, Silvio Henrique de; Dória, Renata Gebara Sampaio; Mendonça, Fábio de Souza; Santos, Marcelo Diniz dos; Engrácia Filho, Jair Rodini; Vidane, Atanásio Serafim; Marques, Alessandro Tadeu Corrêa; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of composites consisting of fragmented cortical bone heteroimplant in association with methylmethacrylate preserved in 98% glycerin, in segmental bone defect of rabbit tibia medial metaphysis. METHODS: In this study were used twelve adult New Zealand rabbits, divided into three groups of four animals each: G30 (30 days), G60 (60 days) and G90 (90 days). The bone defects previously created in the tibia were filled with composites and both were evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography, immediately after surgery and after 30, 60, and 90 days. RESULTS: The composites fulfilled and remained in the sites of bone defects in all cases and were not registered signals of infection, migration or rejection. CONCLUSIONS: The implanted composites promoted the bone defects repair without signals of infection and/or rejection. The composites are one more option for bone defects repair.
  • Effects of a continuous rate infusion of butorphanol in isoflurane-anesthetized horses on cardiorespiratory parameters, recovery quality, gastrointestinal motility and serum cortisol concentrations Original Articles

    Dias, Bianca Paludeto; Araújo, Marcelo Augusto de; Deschk, Maurício; Trein, Thomas Alexander; Pinheiro, Nirmem Carlos; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturolli; Rodrigues, Celso Antônio; Santos, Paulo Sergio Patto dos

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To assess the cardiorespiratory parametes, recovery, gastrointestinal motility and serum cortisol concentrations in horses anesthetized with isoflurane with or without a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of butorphanol for orchiectomy. METHODS: Twelve adult, intact, male horses weighing 332 ± 55 kg were included in the study. Xilazine was administered as premedication. Anesthesia was induced with ketamine and midazolam and maintained with isoflurane. Butorphanol (0.025 mg kg-1 bolus) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9%) was given intravenously followed by a CRI of butorphanol (BG) (13 µg kg-1 hour-1) or saline (CG). Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded before (T0) and every 15 minutes for 75 minutes after the start of infusion. Serum cortisol concentration was measured at T0 and 60 minutes, and 30 minutes and 19 hours after the horse stood up. Recovery from anesthesia was evaluated using a scoring system. Gastrointestinal motility was evaluated before anesthesia and during 24 hours after recovery. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in cardiopulmonary variables, or recovery scores or serum cortisol concentrations. A reduction in gastrointestinal motility was recorded for 60 minutes in BG. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous rate infusion of butorphanol in horses anesthetized with isoflurane did not adversely affect the cardiopulmonary variables monitored, or recovery scores. A small but statistically significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility occurred in the butorphanol group.
  • Comparison of effects of sugammadex and neostigmine on QTc prolongation in rabbits under general anesthesia Original Articles

    Erbaş, Mesut; Toman, Hüseyin; Şahin, Hasan; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Barutcu, Ahmet; Simsek, Tuncer; Yener, Ali Umit; Uzun, Metehan; Altınışık, Uğur

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine, used to antagonize the effects of rocuronium, on the QTc interval. METHODS: This study used 10 adult New Zealand white rabbits of 2.5-3.5 kg randomly divided into two groups: sugammadex group (Group S, n:5) and neostigmine group (Group N, n:5). For general anesthesia administering 2 mg/kg iv propofol and 1 mcg/kg iv fentanyl, 0.6 mg/kg iv rocuronium was given. Later to provide reliable airway for all experimental animals V-Gel Rabbit was inserted. The rabbits were manually ventilated by the same anesthetist. After the V-Gel Rabbit was inserted at 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 40 minutes measurements were repeated and recorded. At 25 minutes after induction Group N rabbits were given 0.05 mg/kg iv neostigmine + 0.01 mg/kg iv atropine. Group S were administered 2 mg/kg iv sugammadex. RESULTS: Comparing the QTc interval in the rabbits in Group S and Group N, in the 25th, 27th and 30th minute after muscle relaxant antagonist was administered the QTc interval in the neostigmine group rabbits was significantly increased (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: While sugammadex, administered to antagonize the effect of rocuronium, did not significantly affect the QTc interval, neostigmine+atropine proloned the QTc interval.
  • Acute hyperglycemia prevents dexmedetomidine-induced preconditioning against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury Original Articles

    Wang, Huaxin; Chen, Hui; Wang, Lei; Liu, Lin; Wang, Min; Liu, Xiuheng

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of acute hyperglycemia on dexmedetomidine-induced preconditioning against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly arranged to the normoglycemic (NG) or hyperglycemic group (HG), with each group further divided into sham (no I/R injury), I/R (ischemia-reperfusion) and dex (given by dexmedetomidine) groups. Acute hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 25% glucose (3 g/kg) 45 min before ischemia. Dexmedetomidine (50 μg/kg, i.p.) was administrated 30 min before induction of ischemia. Renal function, histology, apoptosis, expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) were detected. RESULTS: I/R insult significantly increased the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, apoptotic tubular epithelial cells, expression of Bax and p-AKT, but decreased Bcl-2 expression. All these changes were further enhanced by hyperglycemia (p<0.05). In hyperglycemic condition, there was no statistically difference between the I/R group and Dex group in all the aforementioned detection indexes (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Acute hyperglycemia attenuates dexmedetomidine-induced preconditioning against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in non-diabetic rats.
  • Preemptive analgesia effects of Ketamine in patients undergoing surgery. A meta-analysis Original Articles

    Yang, Liqiao; Zhang, Jianwei; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Chengmi; Zhao, Di; Li, Jingjie

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the preemptive analgesia effects of ketamine for postoperative pain. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involved in ketamine for preemptive analgesic up to March 2013. The relative risk (RR) or mean difference (MD) as well as the confounding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by the Revman 5.0 software. RESULTS: A total of five studies including 266 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, ketamine could reduce the postoperative morphine consumption and significantly prolong the time to first analgesic (p < 0.00001, MD = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.26). However, there was no significant difference in indicators of nausea and vomiting (p = 0.87, RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.67 to 1.60), surgical time (p = 0.41, MD = -2.13, 95% CI: -7.21 to 2.95) and anesthetic time (p = 0.53, MD = -1.54, 95% CI: -6.34 to -3.26) between ketamine and control group. CONCLUSIONS: Ketamine was able to accomplish some preemptive analgesic effects of reducing postoperative morphine consumption and prolonging the time to first analgesic. Meanwhile, ketamine was as safe as physiological saline in side effects of nausea and vomiting.
  • Single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy versus conventional laparoscopy in adults. A systematic review Original Articles

    Concha, Javier Alejandro Moraga; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Delgado, Carlos Manterola

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To determine the best treatment option for not complicated acute appendicitis (AA) in adult patients, between single incision laparoscopy (SIL) and conventional laparoscopy (CL), measured by morbidity associated with disease. METHODS: Systematic review. Articles of adults diagnosed with AA treated by SIL or CL were analyzed. Databases included: MEDLINE, LILACS, IBECS, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane, using MeSH terms and free words. The studies were analyzed using the MINCIR methodology. Variables included: conversion rate, morbidity, hospital stay, surgery duration, and methodological quality (MQ) of primary studies. Averages, medians and weighted averages were calculated. RESULTS: Thirteen articles were analyzed. For SIL and CL the conversion rate were 3.4% and 0.7 %, the morbidity were 8% and 6.5%, the hospital stay were 2.5 and 2.8 days, the surgery duration were 53.4 and 53.8 minutes, and the MQ were 14.3±6.6 and 16.0±6.9 points, respectively. CONCLUSION: With the exception of the conversion rate, there are no differences between single incision laparoscopy and conventional laparoscopy for the treatment of acute appendicitis in adults.
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