Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the female sterilization by occlusion of the ovarian blood flow, using the rat as experimental model. METHODS: Fifty-five females rats were divided into four groups: I (n=10), bilateral ovariectomy, euthanized at 60 or 90 days; II (n=5), opening the abdominal cavity, euthanized at 90 days; III (n=20), bilateral occlusion of the ovarian blood supply using titanium clips, euthanized at 60 or 90 days; and IV (n=20), bilateral occlusion of the ovarian blood supply using nylon thread, euthanized at 60 or 90 days. The estrous cycle was monitored by vaginal cytology. After euthanasia, the reproductive tissues were evaluated histologically. RESULTS: Ovarian atresia was identified macroscopically at 60 days after surgery in the rats in groups III and IV; however, most of the rats in group III maintained cyclicity. Histology of the tissues from group IV revealed that the ovarian tissue was replaced by dense fibrous connective tissue that was slightly vascularized and that intact follicles were absent by 90 days. CONCLUSION: Ovarian blood vessels occluded caused ischemia, leading to progressive tissue necrosis, and bilateral occlusion using a nylon ligature is a viable method for surgical sterilization.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the subcutaneous injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) on neuropeptides Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) and Substance P (SP) secretion in rat skin. METHODS: Fifty-six Wistar-EPM rats were distributed in two groups: one for CGRP analysis, the other for SP analysis. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups: control (Cont), control with needle (ContNd), CO2 injection (CO2Inj) and atmospheric air injection (AirInj) - with seven animals each. Sample analyses of partial skin were conducted by Western Blotting (WB). RESULTS: In SP group, there was a decrease in the amount of neuropeptides in subgroups CO2Inj and AirInj. Similarly, in CGRP group, there was a decrease in the amount of pro-CGRP neuropeptides (15 kDa) in subgroups CO2Inj and AirInj; Nevertheless, there was no decrease in the amount of CGRP (5 kDa) in any subgroups. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous injection of CO2 and atmospheric air decreased the amount of Substance P and pro-Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (15 kDa) neuropeptides in rat skin.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of acute inflammation, like aphthous ulcers, in oral cavity of rabbits, and also, to evaluate the results of the application of a polysaccharide spongy film of molasses from sugar cane as assist treatment in the healing process. METHODS: Twenty adult rabbits weighting between 2.5 kg and 3.9 kg were divided into two groups: experimental and control infected ulcers were induced on the jugal mucosa by surgical excision. They were treated at the experimental group by curettage and dressing with spongy film of cellulosic polysaccharide film, whereas saline solution was used in the control group. Temporal evolution of the healing area, histopathology and bacteriological analysis were used to evaluate the healing process on the 3rd (D3), 7th (D7) and 11th days (D11). RESULTS: The healing time and bacteriological study showed no statistical differences on the group means. Analyzing the histopathology of the experimental group we verified epithelial hyperplasia from D3 to D11, instead in the control group there was a greater clutter of the epithelial cells from the D3 to D11. CONCLUSION: The experimental model used caused aphthous ulcers and the polysaccharide sponge film can be used as an aid in the symptomatic treatment and healing of the ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To observe the effect of cholecystectomy on the changes of motion pattern of Beagle dogs' sphincter of Oddi (SO), and investigate the modulatory role of nitric oxide (NO) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the regulation of SO. METHODS: Pressure of common bile duct, SO motility, response to bolus injections of cholecystokinin (CCK, 20 ng/kg and 100 ng/kg), basal pressure (BP) and phasic contraction amplitude (PCA) were measured respectively by manometry in six Beagle dogs before and after cholecystectomy. RESULTS: After cholecystectomy, the pressure and diameter of common bile ducts (CBD) was significantly increased (p<0.01); BP and phasic contraction frequency (PCF) were also increased, however, no significant differences were found between the two groups; the SO motilities was not significantly changed. The relaxation responded to physiological dose of CCK (20ng/kg) was decreased, while bolus-dose of CCK (100ng/kg) induced rapid contractions and decreased PCA after cholecystectomy. The regulation pattern of SO pressure modulated by NO and its inhibitor had changed after cholecystectomy. CONCLUSION: After cholecystectomy in Beagle dogs, no obviously change of motion pattern of SO was observed through self-compensation, but these compensations may lead to some changes of regulation pattern of CCK and NO on SO.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of lidocaine, morphine and lidocaine plus morphine administered by constant rate infusion (CRI) and analyzing their effects on opioid requirements after orthopedic surgery in dogs. METHODS: Twenty-four dogs underwent fracture repairs were premedicated with IM acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) combined with morphine (0.3mg/kg). Anesthesia was induced with IV propofol (4 to 5 mg/ kg) and maintained with isoflurane. The dogs were randomly assigned to 3 groups and administered a CRI IV of lidocaine (T-L), morphine (T-M) or lidocaine plus morphine (T-LM) at the same doses. Postoperative analgesia was assessed for 24 hours using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (GCPS). Rescue analgesia was performed if the evaluation score exceeded 50% of the VAS and/or 33% of the GCPS. RESULTS: The pain score and postoperative opioid requirements did not differ among the treatments. Rescue analgesia was administered to 1/8 dogs in the T-M and T-LM, and to 3/8 dogs in the T-L. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine, morphine or lidocaine/morphine CRI may be efficacious techniques for pain management in the first 24 hours post-surgery. However, the two drugs administered together did not reduce the postoperative opioid requirement in dogs undergoing fracture repair. Key words: Anesthesia. Analgesics. Analgesics, Opioid. Lidocaine. Morphine. Dogs.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To construct a new biomaterial-small intestinal submucosa coated with gelatin hydrogel incorporating basic fibroblast growth factor, and to evaluate the new biomaterials for the reconstruction of abdominal wall defects. METHODS: Thirty six Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the animal experiments and randomly divided into three groups. The new biomaterial was constructed by combining small intestinal submucosa with gelatin hydrogel for basic fibroblast growth factor release. Abdominal wall defects were created in rats, and repaired using the new biomaterials (group B), compared with small intestinal submucosa (group S) and ULTRAPROTM mesh (group P). Six rats in each group were sacrificed at three and eight weeks postoperatively to examine the gross effects, inflammatory responses, collagen deposition and neovascularization. RESULTS: After implantation, mild adhesion was caused in groups B and S. Group B promoted more neovascularization than group S at three weeks after implantation, and induced significantly more amount of collagen deposition and better collagen organization than groups S and P at eight weeks after implantation. CONCLUSION: Small intestinal submucosa coated with gelatin hydrogel incorporating basic fibroblast growth factor could promote better regeneration and remodeling of host tissues for the reconstruction of abdominal wall defects.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To study the repair of pericranium-cutaneous flaps fixed with suture anchored in a skull bone tunnel or N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive in Wistar rats with emphasis on the cellular inflammatory response and the production of types I and III collagen. METHODS: The operated region in the cephalic region of Wistar rats was removed minutes before euthanasia, fixed in formalin, and subjected to histological preparation. Slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Picrosirius. Standardized counts of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages were performed, and the percentages of types I and III collagen were determined. Data collection occurred on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 45 postoperatively. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Quantitative analysis of the data showed more fibroblasts in the surgical adhesive group than in the nylon monofilament thread groups (p=0.0211). Qualitative analysis showed higher reactivity in the adhesive group, with a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells from days 3-45 and macrophages from days 3-7. The amount of type I collagen exceeded 80% in the treated and control groups at the end of the experiment. CONCLUSIONS: Subperiosteal detachment triggers a cellular inflammatory response that is amplified using soft tissue fixation methods. The adhesive n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate was more reactive than the nylon monofilament thread anchored in the skull bone tunnel.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the neuroprotective effects of Sulindac on the hippocampal complex after global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. METHODS: Thirty one Sprague-Dawley rats were used, distributed into group I (sham) n:7 were used as control. For group II (n:8), III (n:8) and IV (n:8) rats, cerebral ischemia was performed via the occlusion of bilateral internal carotid artery for 45 minutes and continued with reperfusion process. 0.3 mL/kg/h 0.9 % sodium chloride was infused intraperitoneally to the Group II rats before ischemia, 5μg/kg/h/0.3 ml sulindac was infused intraperitoneally to the Group III rats before ischemia and 5μg/kg/h/0.3 ml sulindac was infused intraperitoneally to the Group IV rats after ischemia and before reperfusion process. The levels of MDA, GSH and MPO activity were measured in the left hippocampus tissue. The hippocampal tissue of all group members were taken for histopathological study. RESULTS: The MDA and MPO levels increased from group I (control) to group II (I/R) (P<0.05) and decreased from group II (I/R) to group III (presulindac + I/R) and IV (postsulindac + I/R) (P<0.05). Beside these, the GSH levels decreased from group I (control) to group II (I/R) (P<0.05) and increased from group II (I/R) to group III (presulindac + I/R) and IV (postsulindac + I/R) (P<0.05).The number of apoptotic neurons increased from group I (control) to group II (I/R) (P<0.05) and decreased from group II (I/R) to group III (presulindac + I/R) and IV (postsulindac + I/R) (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The Sulindac may have neuroprotective effects on ischemic neural tissue to prevent the reperfusion injury after ischemia.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus and of sildenafil citrate on female urethral function. METHODS: Twenty nine female rats were divided into four groups: G1 - (n=9), normal rats; G2 - (n=6), normal rats treated with sildenafil citrate; G3 - (n=9) rats with alloxan-induced diabetes; G4 - (n=5) rats with alloxan-induced diabetes treated with sildenafil citrate. Under anesthesia, urodynamic evaluation was performed by cystometry and urethral pressure simultaneously. RESULTS: A significant increase in urethral pressure was observed during micturition. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil citrate can partially reduced urethral pressure in diabetic female rats.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases on genetic material and antioxidant status in professionals during their medical residency. METHODS: The study group consisted of 15 medical residents from Anesthesiology and Surgery areas, of both genders, mainly exposed to isoflurane and to a lesser degree to sevoflurane and nitrous oxide; the control group consisted of 15 young adults not exposed to anesthetics. Blood samples were drawn from professionals during medical residency (eight, 16 and 22 months of exposure to waste anesthetic gases). DNA damage was evaluated by comet assay, and antioxidant defense was assessed by total thiols and the enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). RESULTS: When comparing the two groups, DNA damage was significantly increased at all time points evaluated in the exposed group; plasma thiols increased at 22 months of exposure and GPX was higher at 16 and 22 months of exposure. CONCLUSION: Young professionals exposed to waste anesthetic gases in operating rooms without adequate scavenging system have increased DNA damage and changes in redox status during medical residency. There is a need to minimize exposure to inhalation anesthetics and to provide better work conditions.