Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of exogenous normal lymph (ENL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. METHODS: ALI was induced by the jugular vein injection of LPS (iv, 15 mg/kg) in rats of the LPS and LPS+ENL groups within 15 min, then, ENL without cell components (5 ml/kg) was infused at the speed of 0.5 ml per minute in the LPS+ENL group, the same amount of saline was administered in the LPS group. The rats in the sham group received the same surgical procedure and saline. The histomorphology and the levels of P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO) in pulmonary tissue were assessed. RESULTS: LPS induced pulmonary injury as well as increased the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) and the levels of P-selectin, ICAM-1, and MPO in pulmonary tissues. These deleterious effects of LPS were significantly ameliorated by ENL treatment. CONCLUSION: Exogenous normal lymph could markedly alleviate the acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide, and its effects might be related to lessening the adhesion molecules.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the testicular tissue of young male rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned to groups (10 rats/group).Control Group received subcutaneous saline solution; Group 1 received hCG 50UI/Kg/dose; and Group 2 received hCG 100UI/Kg/dose, daily for 15 days. Half was submitted to bilateral orchiectomy on the 16th day and the other half 45 days after the beginning of the hormone application. Testicles were weighed, measured and has their volumes determined. The diameter of the tubules and the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium were measured. RESULTS: Control Group presented the highest values of testicles volume and weight. Rats in the Control presented normal histology. In G1 and G2 atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, apoptosis of germ cells and multinucleated giant cells were observed. Comparing groups, in the first operation Control rats had higher diameter values. In the second operation, the Control was only different from G1. As for thickness, Control had higher values in both operations. Comparing the time of operation, the diameter values were higher in G1 and G2 in the second operation. For all groups, the thickness of the epithelium was higher in the second operation. CONCLUSIONS: Human chorionic gonadotropin is gonadotoxic in rats. This effect was temporary and can affect reproductive potential. The total recovery of testicular damage in the studied range could not be proved, and the effects were not dose-dependent.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To compare two rat ovary cryopreservation techniques (vitrification vs. slow freezing) and two postmenopausal stages (early vs. late) with regard to graft take. METHODS: Thirty-three Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral oophorectomy. One ovary was submitted to histological analysis while the other was cryopreserved by slow freezing or vitrification. The cryopreserved ovary was thawed and reimplanted in the greater omentum one week (early menopause) or one month (late menopause) after oophorectomy. One month after ovary reimplantation, the graft take was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. RESULTS: Six of the animals were used ascontrols and seven died. The histological findings of 20 animals included atretic follicles (n=4), primordial follicles (n=2), and corpus luteum with primordial follicles (n=3). No ovarian tissue was found in 11 animals. Vitrification resulted in a higher graft take rate than slow freezing (50% vs. 38.5%), but the difference was not statistically significant. However, the graft take rate was 9.3 times higher in the early than in the late postmenopausal stage (61.5% vs. 14.3%) (p=0.043). CONCLUSION: Vitrification was superior to slow freezing as ovarian cryopreservation technique, and grafting was significantly more successful when the ovary was reimplanted in the late postmenopausal stage.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To describe the hematologic values of male and female, young and adult, Swiss mice (Mus musculus). METHODS: Mus musculus (n=14) were randomly selected and separated by gender. The male and female, young and adult animals were sedation to obtain a blood sample, by intracardiac route at 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after birth. RESULTS: The Swiss mouse hemogram values obtained, in relation to total eosinophils, basophils, and number of platelets, there was no statistical differences according to the genders or the age of the animals. Regarding the erythrocyte, hemoglobin and hematocrit values obtained, these were higher in females. The RDW-CD and MPV values were higher in the females than in the males. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphocytes are the predominant cells in the peripheral blood. The collection of 800 µL of blood by intracardiac route, every 15 days, did not affect the health of the animals. Analyses of the blood samples contribute to the experimental models provided by the Central Animal Facility of UFMS and used by professors.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: Evaluate and compare two different experimental techniques of maxillary sinus ostium occlusion using N-butyl cyanoacrylate in developing chronic histological findings without the inoculation of pathogenic bacteria among rabbits. METHODS: In a randomized study, sixteen New Zealand rabbits were assigned for occlusion of the right maxillary sinus through a transmaxillary approach or through the roof of the nasal cavity. The contralateral sinus served as a control. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed for blinded histopathological analysis of the maxillary sinus mucosa. RESULTS: Histopathological changes consistent with CRS were found in eight (100%) of the maxillary sinuses approached transmaxillary and three of those through the roof of the nasal cavity (37.5%), p 0.008 and 0.250, respectively, comparing with the control side. Chronic mucosal changes were significantly better induced using the transmaxillary approach (p 0.026). CONCLUSION: It is possible to induce a model of chronic sinusitis among rabbits with transmaxillary sinus occlusion without bacterial inoculation. This model can be replicated for future cellular studies.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: The failure of small-caliber vascular grafts still means a serious problem. Concerning the early postoperative complications we aimed to investigate the hemostaseological and hemorheological aspects of this issue in a canine model. METHODS: In the Control group only anesthesia was induced. In the Grafted group under general anesthesia a 3.5-cm segment was resected unilaterally from the femoral artery and replaced with a PTFE graft (diameter: 3 mm). On the 1st-3rd-5th-7th and 14thpostoperative days the skin temperature of both hind limbs was measured, and blood sampling occurred for hematological, hemostaseological and hemorheological tests. RESULTS: The skin temperature of the operated versus intact limbs did not differ. In the Grafted group leukocyte count was elevated by the 1st postoperative day, while platelet count increased over the entire follow-up period. Fibrinogen concentration rose on the 1st-5th days, activated partial thromboplastin time increased on the 3rd-7th days. Erythrocyte aggregation was enhanced significantly on the 1st-5th days. In specimens taken on the 14thday, histologically we found matured thrombus narrowing the graft lumen. CONCLUSIONS: Small-caliber PTFE graft implantation into the femoral artery caused significant changes in several hemostaseological and hemorheological parameters. However, better clarifying the factors leading to early thrombosis of these grafts needs further studies.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate diclofenac topical gel as an alternative to reduce phlogistic signals and maintain quality of wound repair. METHODS: Fifteen Wistar rats were used in this study; four excisional wounds were performed on the dorsum of each animal. Once in a day, cranial wounds received topical diclofenac gel administration and caudal wounds were washed with isotonic saline. After seven, 14 and 21 postoperative days, five animals were randomly chosen for macroscopic and microscopic wound analysis. RESULTS: On the 7th day: diclofenac wounds showed significant higher scab formation, however showed less phlogistic signal; diclofenac wounds had larger area and had less neutrophil invasion. On the 14th day: No area difference was noted and diclofenac wounds showed less hyperemia and phlogistic signals; diclofenac wounds showed greater keratinocytes invasion. On the 21st day: Almost all wounds were closed and there were no difference regarding the type of scar formation; diclofenac wounds showed greater monocytes invasion and lower angiogenesis level. No difference was noted in any postoperative day regarding fibroblast invasion, collagen deposit quantity and quality. CONCLUSION: Diclofenac topical gel is capable of reducing phlogistic signals and do not cause fibroblast or keratinocyte downregulation thus do not lead to excisional wound healing impairment.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate amniotic membrane as a biological dressing in infected wound healing in rabbits. METHODS: The use of preserved amniotic membranes (AMs) was examined using 15 rabbits with experimentally induced wound infections on their backs. Healing was histologically evaluated during different phases including inflammation, granulation, epithelialization, and fibroplasia. The animals were distributed into three groups for histological study at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-wound induction. Group A did not receive treatment: the wound was left exposed and dry; Group B received a daily exposure treatment with collagenase; and Group C received one AM, which also remained exposed. RESULTS: A marked reduction of the inflammatory phase was observed in Group C at 21 days, and the granulation phase of this healing increased at 14 days. Epithelialization was similar among the three groups, and fibroplasia was more pronounced in Group C at 14 days. Furthermore, gradual collagen organization also began for the animals in Group B at 14 days. CONCLUSION: The amniotic membrane did not significantly alter the inflammation, epithelialization, or fibroplasia phases but did increase angiogenesis up to Day 14 compared with the dry dressing and collagenase treatments.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between C reactive protein levels and clinical and radiological parameters with delayed ischemic neurological deficits and outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: One hundred adult patients with aneurismal SAH were prospectively evaluated. Besides the baseline characteristics, daily C-reactive protein levels were prospectively measured until day 10 after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The primary end point was outcome assessed by Glasgow Outcome Scale, the secondary was the occurrence of delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DINDs). RESULTS: A progressive increase in the CRP levels from the admission to 3rd postictal day was observed, followed by a slow decrease until the 9th day. Hemodynamic changes in TCD were associated with higher serum CRP levels. Patients with lower GCS scores presented with increased CRP levels. Patients with higher Hunt and Hess grades on admission developed significantly higher CRP serum levels. Patients with higher admission Fisher grades showed increased levels of CRP. A statistically significant inverse correlation was established in our series between CRP serum levels and GOS on discharge and CRP levels. CONCLUSIONS: Higher C-reactive protein serum levels are associated with worse clinical outcome and the occurrence of delayed ischemic neurological deficits. Because C-reactive protein levels were significantly elevated in the early phase, they might be a useful parameter to monitor.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To re-evaluated the clinic efficacy of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on ureteral calculi with Cochrane systematic reviews in this paper. METHODS: We searched clinical randomized controlled trials and prospective controlled trials in databases such as Cochrane library, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, PubMed. Pooled estimate of risk ratios (RRs), standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as measure of effect sizes. Summary effect estimates were also stratified by sample size, study design and study region. The overall effect sizes were derived using a random-effects model or fixed-effects model when appreciated, and meta-analysis were conducted with software RewMan 5.0. RESULTS: The meta-analysis suggested that there were significant differences of post-treatment stone free rate, repeat treatment rate, patients' satisfaction, incidence of postoperative complications, operation time and hospital stays between ESWL treatment cases and URS treatment cases. But in the sample sizes analysis, there were no significant differences of the post-treatment stone free rate and repeat treatment rate when the sample sizes were less than 100. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the ureteroscopic lithotripsy treatment, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment provided a significantly lower post-treatment stone free rate, but it also obviously brought out less postoperative complications, shorter operation time and hospital stays.