Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of ileal exclusion on hepatic and renal morphology in extra-hepatic cholestasis. METHODS: Twenty four rats were distributed into three groups. Group 1 (control) underwent laparotomy and laparorrhaphy. The animals in groups 2 and 3 underwent hepatic duct ligature and kept in cholestasis for four weeks. After this period, the rats in groups 2 and 3 underwent internal biliary derivation. In Group 3, the last ten centimeters of the terminal ileum were by passed and excluded. Four weeks later, histological and biochemical analysis were performed in all animals of the three groups. RESULTS: In Group 1, no abnormalities regarding hepatic morphology were observed. All animals from groups 2 and 3 presented hepatic fibrosis. No difference was observed between the two groups. No morphological differences in renal histology could be identified among the three groups. There were differences in AST (p<0.05), ALT (p<0.05), direct bilirubin (p<0.05), ƔGT (p<0.05), urea (p<0.05) and creatinine (p<0.05) in Group 3 compared to control. CONCLUSION: The distal ileum exclusion had no influence upon the hepatic and renal morphological alterations, and biochemical liver and kidney tests have worsened.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To determine the role of mesenteric lymph reperfusion (MLR) on endotoxin translocation in brain to discuss the mechanism of brain injury subjected to superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) shock. METHODS: Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to MLR, SMAO, MLR+SMAO and sham groups. MLR was performed by clamping the mesenteric lymph duct (MLD) for 1 h and then allowing reperfusion for 2 h in the MLR group; SMAO involved clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h in the SMAO group; occlusion of both the SMA and MLD for 1 h was followed by reperfusion for 2 h in the MLR+SMAO group rats. RESULTS: SMAO shock induced severe increased levels of the endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide receptor, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Concurrently, MLR after SMAO shock further aggravates these deleterious effects. CONCLUSION: Mesenteric lymph reperfusion exacerbated the endotoxin translocation in brain; thereby increased inflammatory response occurred, suggesting that the intestinal lymph pathway plays an important role in the brain injury after superior mesenteric artery occlusion shock.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the relative gene expression (RGE) of cytosolic (MDH1) and mitochondrial (MDH2) malate dehydrogenases enzymes in partially hepatectomized rats after glutamine (GLN) or ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) suplementation. METHODS: One-hundred and eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n=18): CCaL, GLNL and OKGL and fed calcium caseinate (CCa), GLN and OKG, 0.5g/Kg by gavage, 30 minutes before laparotomy. CCaH, GLNH and OKGH groups were likewise fed 30 minutes before 70% partial hepatectomy. Blood and liver samples were collected three, seven and 14 days after laparotomy/hepatectomy for quantification of MDH1/MDH2 enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology. Relative enzymes expression was calculated by the 2-ΔΔC T method using the threshold cycle (CT) value for normalization. RESULTS: MDH1/MDH2 RGE was not different in hepatectomized rats treated with OKG compared to rats treated with CCa. However, MDH1/MDH2 RGE was greater on days 3 (321:1/26.48:1) and 7 (2.12:1/2.48:1) while MDH2 RGE was greater on day 14 (7.79:1) in hepatectomized rats treated with GLN compared to control animals. CONCLUSION: Glutamine has beneficial effects in liver regeneration in rats by promoting an up-regulation of the MDH1 and MDH2 relative gene expression.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the antioxidant and antiperoxidative effects of oil mixes of high ratio Omega-9:Omega-6 and low ratio Omega-6:Omega-3 in the third day after tooth extraction in rats. METHODS: Thirty-two male Wistar rats (270-310g) were randomly distributed in two groups: Control (n=24) and Test (n=8). Control group was divided into three subgroups (n=8): G1: Sham-Saline; G2: Saline; G3: Isolipid. G1 and G2 animals received NaCl 0.9% while G3 rats were treated with an isolipid mixture (alpha-linolenic acid - ALA) containing -6/-3 oils (8:1 ratio) and-9/-6 (0.4:1 ratio). Test group animals (G4) received oily mixtures (alpha-linolenic acid - ALA, docosahexaenoic acid - DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA) of -6/-3 (1.4:1 ratio) and -9/-6 (3.4:1 ratio). Saline and oils were administered by gavage during four days before and three days after first mandibular molar extraction. Following, samples (arterial blood and alveolar mucosa) were collected for glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. RESULTS: Oil mixes induced a significant decrease in GSH and TBARS tissue and plasma concentrations in the third day post-surgery. CONCLUSION: Gavage administration of oil mixes of high ratio Omega-9:Omega-6 and low ratio Omega-6:Omega-3 after molar extraction in rats induces a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the early bone response to a nanotextured dental implant treated with sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), using a rabbit model. METHODS: Twelve animals were randomly divided into group 1 (Control) - machined implants and group 2 (Test) - nanotextured implants. Extra-oral incision was performed to provide access to intended surgical site where the dental implant was inserted immediately after the extraction of the mandibular first premolar. Implant surface characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy attached to energy dispersive spectroscopy and interferometry. Three weeks after surgery, the animals were induced to death and undecalcified sections of the samples were prepared for histological and histomorphometrical analysis. RESULTS: Surface characterization of the implant demonstrated enhanced surface area of anodized group compared to Control group with 19.2% ± 6.2 versus 1.6 ± 0.7, respectively. Histological evaluation demonstrated new bone formation starting from the buccal and lingual cortical walls on both groups. After three weeks, significant higher bone contact of 27% (p<0.05) was observed to nanotextured compared to machined implants (Control group). CONCLUSION: The anodization with sodium sulfate nanostructures to the implant surface that resulted in faster osseointegration.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To determine the minimum volume of methylene blue (MB) to completely color the brachial plexus (BP) nerves, simulating an effective anesthetic block in cats. METHODS: Fifteen adult male cat cadavers were injected through subscapular approach with volumes of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ml in both forelimbs, for a total of 30 brachial plexus blocks (BPB). After infusions, the specimens were carefully dissected preserving each nervous branch. The measurement of the effective area was indicated by the impregnation of MB. Nerves were divided into four segments from the origin at the spinal level until the insertion into the thoracic limb muscles. The blocks were considered effective only when all the nerves were strongly or totally colored. RESULTS: Volumes of 2, 3 and 4 ml were considered insufficient suggesting a failed block, however, volumes of 5 and 6 ml were associated with a successful block. CONCLUSIONS: The injection of methylene blue, in a volume of 6 ml, completely colored the brachial plexus. At volumes of 5 and 6 ml the brachial plexus blocks were considered a successful regional block, however, volumes of 2, 3 and 4 ml were considered a failed regional block.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To analyze the epidemiological features of patients with esophageal cancer according to the histopathological types: squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with esophageal cancer, being 50 squamous cell carcinomas and 50 adenocarcinomas were analyzed for demographics, nutritional factors, lifestyle habits, benign pathological conditions associated, like Barrett's esophagus and megaesophagus, tumor stage and survival rates. The nutritional factors evaluated included body mass index, percent weight loss, hemoglobin and albumin serum levels. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer occurred more often in men over 50 years-old in both histological groups. No significant differences on age and gender were found between the histological groups. Squamous cell carcinoma was significantly more frequent in blacks than adenocarcinoma. Alcohol consumption and smoking were significantly associated with squamous cell carcinoma. Higher values of body mass index were seen in patients with adenocarcinoma. Barrett's esophagus was found in nine patients (18%) with adenocarcinoma, and megaesophagus in two patients (4%) with squamous cell carcinoma. The majority of patients were on stages III and IV in both histological groups. The mean survival rates were 7.7 ± 9.5 months for patients with squamous cell carcinoma and 8.0 ± 10.9 months for patients with adenocarcinoma. No significant differences on tumor stage and survival rates were detected between the histological groups. CONCLUSION: Epidemiological features are distinct for the histopathological types of esophageal cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with black race, alcohol and smoking, while adenocarcinoma is related to higher body mass index, white race and Barrett's esophagus.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To analyze the changes in both respiratory function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests results in patients subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Fifty patients were evaluated (76% women) and the average age was 47.8±14.2 years. All individuals underwent the measurement of spirometry, manovacuometry, 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and stair-climbing test (SCT). All tests were performed at the first (PO1), fifth (PO5) and thirtieth (PO30) postoperative days. RESULTS: BMI average was 28.8±4.8 kg/m2. Sample comprised 68% non-smokers, 20% current smokers, and 12% former smokers. There was no incidence of postoperative complication whatsoever. There was a significant decrease in spirometric values at PO1, but values were similar to the ones of PRE at PO30. Manovacuometry showed alterations at PO1 displaying values that were similar to the ones of PRE at PO30. 6MWT was significantly shorter at until PO5, but at PO30 values were similar to ones of PRE. As for SCT, values were significantly compromised at PO5 and PO30 since they were similar to the ones of PRE. CONCLUSION: Patients submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy present a decrease in cardiorespiratory function on the first postoperative moments but there is a rapid return to preoperative conditions.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of combined clinical therapy and nutritional guidance on the recurrence of urolithiasis. METHODS: From our registry of patients with recurrent urolithiasis we selected 57 who had at least 5-years of follow-up. We collected 24h urine samples in order to analyze Ca, Na, uric acid, citrate, oxalate, and Mg concentrations and to assess urine volume. Patients filled out a clinical questionnaire before treatment, and abdominal radiographs and/or ultrasound were performed both before treatment and during the follow-up period. During follow-up, specific and individualized dietary advice was given based on the individual's metabolic disorders. Patients also received specific pharmacological treatment for their metabolic alterations. Outcome measures were metabolites in urine and the urolith recurrence rate. Pre- and post- intervention values were compared using tests as appropriate. RESULTS: Fifty six of the patients were male and the majority of patients were overweight. The mean BMI was 27 kg/m2. Urinary excretion of calcium, uric acid and sodium decreased significantly over the five year follow-up period. The number of uroliths that formed during the 5-year follow-up also decreased significantly compared to pre-treatment values. CONCLUSION: Individualized dietary advice combined with pharmacological treatment significantly reduces long-term urolithiasis recurrence.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: This paper proposes a practical model of microneurosurgical training using a nonliving swine head. METHODS: Fresh porcine heads were obtained from butchery and dissected at our Laboratory of Microsurgery. Brain and skull base surgery were trained under microscopic magnification. RESULTS: Several neurosurgical procedures could be simulated in the nonliving pig model, including transcallosal approach to the lateral ventricle, lateral sulcus and middle fossa dissection, and posterior fossa surgery. CONCLUSION: The swine model perfectly simulates standard microneurosurgical procedures, and is a useful tool for developing and refining surgical skills.