Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To demonstrate an experimental model of up to four hours a week of independent study that allows relearning in microvascular sutures. METHODS: Wistar rats between 200 and 500 grams surplus research experiments were used. Femoral vessels are covered on one or both sides through a groin incision obliquely along the inguinal ligament. Femoral artery and vein are isolated and measured being clamped and cut. The individual performs in microvascular anastomosis complexity arterial and venous terminoterminal sequence. terminolateral and venous and arterial grafts in vessels. Permeability is evaluated by testing vascular patency after creation of microvascular anastomosis. RESULTS: In the first specimen, only arterial and venous vascular anastomosis are performed terminoterminal. The average diameter of the femoral veins varies from 0.8 to 2 mm between rodents (artery, between 0.6 and 1.4 mm, between 0.8 and 2 mm vein). The superficiality of the vessels allows faster dissection, may also be held in other inguinal region. CONCLUSION: The model of individual retraining allows learning microvascular suture in individuals of permanent staff.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of the adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) in the viability of random skin flap in rats. METHODS: Thirty five adult male Wistar rats (weight 250-300 g) were used. ADSC were isolated from adult male rats (n=5). ADSC were separated, cultured and then analyzed. A dorsal skin flap measuring 10x4 cm was raised and a plastic barrier was placed between the flap and its bed. After the surgical procedure, the animals were randomized into two groups (n=15 each group), group control and group ADSC. In all groups the procedures were performed immediately after the surgery. The percentage of flap necrosis was measured on the seventh postoperative day. RESULTS: The ADSC were able to replicate in our culture conditions. We also induced their adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, verifying their mesenchymal stem cells potentiality in vitro. The results were statistically significant showing that the ADSC decreased the area of necrosis (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The cells demonstrated adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential in vitro. The administration of adipose-derived stem cells was effective to increase the viability of the random skin flaps in rats.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the antitumor and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit cultivated in southeastern Brazil. METHODS: Preparation ethanolic extract of the fruit of Morinda citrifoliaL. Culture of melanoma cells B16-F10 for treatment with ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit to determine cell viability by MTT and determination temporal effect of ethanolic extract fruit on the cell growth B16-F10 for 8 days. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract fruit against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit (10mg/mL) decreased cellular activity and inhibited 45% the rate of cell proliferation of B16-F10 melanoma treated during period studied. The ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit demonstrated antimicrobial activity inhibiting the growth of both microorganisms studied. Staphylococcus aureus was less resistant to ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit than Escherichia coli, 1 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSION: What these results indicate that the ethanolic extract of the fruit of Morinda citrifolia L. showed antitumor activity with inhibition of viability and growth of B16-F10 cells and also showed antibacterial activity as induced inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To propose an experimental burn model in NIH-3T3 cell line. METHODS: Induction of thermal injury in cultures of mouse fibroblast - NIH-3T3- cell line and determination of cell viability by MTT and imunofluorescence. RESULTS: The heating of the Petri dish increased proportionally to the temperature of the base and the time of exposure to microwave. In this in vitro burn model, using the cell line NIH-3T3 was observed drastic cellular injury with significant changes in cell viability and activity. It showed drastically modified cell morphology with altered membrane, cytoskeleton and nucleus, and low cellularity compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The burn model in vitro using the cell line NIH-3T3 was reproductive and efficient. This burn model was possible to determine significant changes in cell activity and decreased viability, with drastic change in morphology, cell lysis and death.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To characterize the anatomy of the fruit and leaf and the presence of phytocompounds. To evaluate the antitumor and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen) cultivated in southeastern Brazil. METHODS: Anatomical characterization and histochemical reactions were performed for structural identification and the presence of phytocompounds. Preparation of ethanolic extract of the fruit, leaf and resin of mangosteen. Culture B16-F10 melanoma cells for treatment with mangosteen ethanolic extract to determine cell viability by MTT and genotoxic effect by comet assay. Evaluation by antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by agar diffusion test and by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). RESULTS: Our results showed many secretory canals in resin fruit and leaf; identifying lipids, starch, lignin and phenolic compounds. The leaf extract induced genotoxicity and apoptosis in B16-F10 cells, since the fragmentation of DNA in the comet assay. The ethanolic extract of mangosteen obtained in the resin, leaf and fruit showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureusand Escherichia coli with a MIC at 0.1 mg/mL. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we have demonstrated both antimicrobial and antitumor activity of ethanol extract of mangosteen emphasizing its therapeutic potential in infectious diseases and in cancer, such as melanoma.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the experimental model for obtaining adipose tissue, isolation, characterization of mesenchymal stem cells and evaluation of their distribution in the tram flap in rats. METHODS: Five rats of Wistar were randomly assigned to two groups. In group I, three animals underwent removal of adipose tissue in the groin procedure to establish the experimental model and obtain a cell lineage. The animals of group II (n = 2) underwent surgical flap procedure, and satisfaction injection of mesenchymal stem cells pretreated with marker fluorescente. RESULTS: obtaining adipose tissue of the inguinal region of the rat proved to be possible. The isolated cells were characterized as mesenchymal stem cells and fluorescence microscopy showed the presence of multiple cells arranged around blood vessels and capillaries. CONCLUSION: It was possible to establish an experimental model for obtaining adipose tissue for isolation of mesenchymal stem cells and their distribution in the TRAM flap in rats.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the blood vessels' concentration in TRAM flap's rat model, in the presence of pentoxifylline. METHODS: 32 male, Wistar-EPM rats were divided into two groups. Control group (C): 0.5 ml of saline, intraperitoneally, once a day, for seven days before flap elevation; PTX group (P): pentoxifylline (20mg/kg/day), intraperitoneally, for seven days before flap elevation. After that, they were submitted to a caudal unipedicle TRAM flap. On the fifth postoperative day, percentages of flap necrosis were determined via the "paper template" method and Tram flap's zone IV skin biopsies were taken for histological analysis. RESULTS: the mean percentage of flap necrosis in group C was 58.7 % and in group P, 31.1 (Wilcoxon test; p = 0.003). Mean capillary vessels number in zone IV's skin in C group was 33.4 and in P group was 71.9 (p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Pentoxifylline was effective reducing the necrosis in the caudal unipedicle TRAM flap in the rat as well as increasing the number of capillaries in an ischemic zone (zone IV).
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To determine the percentage of tumoral necrosis and volume after cyanogenic chemotherapy. METHODS: Histopathological findings of 20 Swiss mice inoculated subcutaneously in the left abdominal wall with 0.05 ml of cell suspension containing 2.5 x 105 viable cells of the Ehrlich tumor were evaluated. The tumor response to cyanogenic chemotherapy was determined using a system that comprises two inhibition factors of tumor growth by calculating the percentage of necrosis in the tumor tissue and calculation of tumor volume in treated animals relative to that in control animals. The importance of this system has been validated by the correlation between tumor inhibition in the groups treated with the respective percentages of necrosis. RESULTS: While the control group presented an average of 13.48 ± 14.71% necrosis and average tumor volume of 16.18 ± 10.94, the treated group had an average of 42.02 ± 11.58 and 6.8 ± 3.57, respectively. The tumor inhibition was significantly associated with treatment (p=0.0189). The analysis of necrosis percentage showed a significant prognostic importance (p=0.0001). CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the effect of cyanogenic chemotherapy showed strong inhibitory action of tumor growth, as well as an increase in its area of necrosis.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To determine the expression of hepatic L-FABP and intestinal I-FABP in an experimental model of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonatal rats. METHODS: Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Control (C1) - exclusive breastfeeding at the first and sixth procedures (C6), NEC1 - fed formula milk and submitted to hypoxia and hypothermia at the first and sixth procedures (NEC6). The newborn pups were fed twice a day for three days, for a total of six procedures. Samples were collected for morphometric evaluation (body weight, liver weight, liver weight/body weight ratio, intestinal weight and intestinal/body weight ratio) and for immunohistochemical and Western blotting analysis. The values obtained were analyzed statistically, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Morphometric measurements showed reduction of body and liver weights in the NEC group (p<0.05). Both immunohistochemistry and western blotting revealed that L-FABP expression in the liver was decreased and I-FABP expression in the ileum was increased in the NEC group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: L-FABP and I-FABP expression changed inversely in the rat NEC model. These findings can contribute to a better diagnosis of NEC in human newborns.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To present an animal model to assess the effects of end-to-side innervation in the heterotopically transplanted model with reduced chances of neural contamination. METHODS: The medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle in wistar male rats was isolated and its pedicle dissected and performed a flap in the abdominal portion. To prevent neural contamination in the abdominal region, the muscle was wrapped with a Goretex(r) sheet. The specimens were divided into 2 groups (G). In G1 was performed an end-to-end suture between tibial nerve of the gastrocnemius and femoral motor nerve and between the saphenous sensory nerve and the motor nerve. In G2 was performed a end-to-side suture between the tibial nerve and the motor femoral and between the tibial nerve and saphenous motor nerve. The specimens were evaluated 60 days later to check the structure of the neurorraphy. Sections were obtained proximal and distal to the coaptation site. RESULTS: The medial gastrocnemius muscle had the advantage of maintaining visible mass after 60 days. No disruption of the coaptation site was found. No major injury to the donor nerve was seen in group 2. CONCLUSION: The proposed model is simple, reproduciple and prevent the neural contamination in the flap in end-to-side suture.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of alprostadil in an experimental model of ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) in rat renal tissue. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups Vehicle-treated group(Veh), Alprostadil-treated(Al), and sham(Sh) group. Veh and Al groups had suprarenal aorta occluded for 30 minutes and reperfused for 60 minutes. Saline or 20 µg/kg of Alprostadil was intravenously infused immediately before declamping. Sh group animals underwent similar procedure without aortic occlusion. Left nephrectomy and blood sampling were performed after 60 minutes of reperfusion. Renal ICAM-1 expression and histological analysis were performed to estimate inflammatory response and tissue disarrangement. Serum biochemical markers for IRI were also measured. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess differences between the groups. RESULTS: There was lower expression of ICAM-1 in groups Veh and Sh. On histologically evaluation, inflammation and necrosis in the Veh group was significantly higher (grades III/IV) than Al group (Veh>Al=Sh; p = 0.025), as well as CPK levels (Veh>Al=Sh; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Alprostadil attenuates the immunohistochemical and histological repercussions in the renal tissue of rats submitted to a post-ischemic reperfusion with supra-renal aortic clamping.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To analyze the role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as hepatic preconditioning in rats submitted to hepatic ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: SHAM, rats submitted to surgical stress without hepatic ischemia and reperfusion, I/R, rats submitted to total hepatic pedicle ischemia for 30 min, followed by 5 min of reperfusion; HBOI/R, rats submitted to 60 minutes of hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 2 atm and immediately submitted to the experimental protocol of ischemia and reperfusion. Liver function was assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, as well as mitochondrial function by determining states 3 and 4 of mitochondrial respiration, respiratory control rate and mitochondrial permeability transition (mitochondrial swelling). The results were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and all P-values <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: There were significant differences in serum aspartate aminotransferase values in groups SHAM vs. HBOI/R, I/R vs HBOI/R, alanine aminotranferase in groups SHAM and I/R; State 3 in SHAM groups vs. I/R, SHAM vs. HBOI/R, State 4 in I/R vs HBOI/R groups, respiratory control rate in SHAM vs I/R groups; mitochondrial swelling in SHAM vs. I/R groups, and SHAM vs HBOI/R. CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric preconditioning improved hepatic mitochondrial function and decreased serum markers of liver injury in the ischemia and reperfusion process.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and adenosine as strategies to protect cardiac injury caused by intestinal IR in rats, based on increasing in adenosine bioavailability and improvement of cell energy state by IPC. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to 60 minutes of intestinal ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion. Intravenous injections of saline or Adenosine (AD) was administered five minutes before ischemia, five minutes before reperfusion and after 55 minutes reperfusion. Cardiac samples were obtained, fixed in formalin solution, embedded in paraffin, and sections of 5 μm were stained by hematoxylin-eosin. Histological analysis of myocardium was performed according occurrence of necrosis signs: piknosis, band contraction, eosinophilic cytoplasm, karyorrhexis and vacuolization (score - zero to 5). RESULTS: The groups submitted to ischemia alone (I=4.0), and reperfusion (IR=4.5) showed highest level of lesion compared to the others (I+IPC=3.3, IR+IPC=3.6, I+AD=3.0, IR+AD=3.8). The most interesting result was association of IPC and AD in IR model (IR+IPC+AD=1.2, p=0.002), showing preservation of the heart tissue, with fibers showing typical cross-striations and nuclei characteristics. Rare and small areas of tissue necrosis was observed and suggestion of capillaries congestion. CONCLUSION: Intestinal ischemia reperfusion promotes cardiac tissue injury. Ischemic preconditioning in association with adenosine is an efficient strategy to protect the heart against ischemia and reperfusion injury.