Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of fasting on gastric emptying in mice. METHODS: Twenty-eight mice were distributed into three study groups: a normal group (N=4): normal standard animals; a total fasting group (N=12): subjected to food and water deprivation and a partial fasting group (N=12): subjected to food deprivation only. The fasting groups were subdivided into three subgroups of four animals each, according to the date of euthanasia: 24, 48 and 72 hours. Was analyzed: the gastric volume, degree of the gastric wall distention and the presence of food debris in gastrointestinal tract. RESULTS: The mean gastric volume was 1601 mm3in the normal group, 847 mm3in total fasting group and 997 mm3in partial fasting group. There was difference between the fasting groups in any analyzed period (p<0.05). Regarding the presence of food debris in the gastrointestinal tract and the degree of distension of the stomach, there was no difference between the groups that underwent total or partial fasting (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Total fasting or only-solids deprivation does not induce gastric emptying in mice.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate hemostatic effects of supplementary factor XIII and desmopressin (DDAVP) in resuscitation of uncontrolled bleeding. METHODS: Fifty-four rabbits were randomized in nine groups: G1: Sham; G2: FXIII and normotensive resuscitation (NBP); G3: FXIII and permissive hypotension (PH) (MAP 60% baseline); G4: FXIII/DDAVP/NBP; G5: FXIII/DDAVP/PH; G6: NBP only; G7: FXIII no hemorrhage; G8: FXIII/DDAVP no hemorrhage; G9: PH only. Thromboelastometry and intra-abdominal blood loss were assessed. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) of the clots was performed. RESULTS: Compared to Sham, only G8 (FXIII/DDAVP w/o hemorrhage) showed clotting time (CT) significantly lower (p<0.05). NBP alone (G6) resulted in significantly prolonged CT compared to G2, G3 and G5 (p<0.05). Similarly, median alpha angle was significantly larger in G3,4,5, and 9 compared to G6 (p<0.05). Area under the curve was significantly greater in G5 than G2. Intra-abdominal blood loss was lower in G5 and G9 compared to G2 and G6. FXIII/DDAVP and PH resulted in more robust fibrin mesh by EM. CONCLUSIONS: Normotensive resuscitation provokes more bleeding and worsens coagulation compared to pH, that is partially reversed by factor XIII and desmopressin. FXIII and DDAVP can synergistically improve coagulation. Permissive hypotension reduces bleeding regardless of those agents.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of exposure to cigarette and alcohol on immunohistochemical disorders caused by these attacks to respiratory system of rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats in four groups: control, cigarette smoke, alcohol and cigarette smoke + alcohol during 260 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed by researching survivin and protein P53 expressions and apoptotic index in parenchymal lung and trachea using TUNEL technique. RESULTS: There was body growth impairment in all experimental groups. Both smoker groups animals had higher trachea survivin expression and bronchial higher apoptotic index. The trachea apoptotic index was also higher in the cigarette smoke group as well as in the alveoli in the cigarette smoke + alcohol group. The three experimental groups showed negative immunoexpression for P53. CONCLUSIONS: this model resulted in immunohistochemical changes caused mainly by exposure to cigarette smoke. There was a synergistic action between alcohol and tobacco in the growth impairment in animals as well as in the cellular apoptotic index. The positive immunoexpression for tracheal survivin in animals from both groups exposed to tobacco smoke and associated with a negative P53 immunoexpression suggests that despite the aggression, carcinogenesis has not happened yet. In addition, the bronchial higher apoptotic index in smokers may be responsible for emphysema.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To compare the inflammatory reaction caused by the injection of a sugarcane biopolymer (SCB) into the vocal fold of rabbits with that caused by calcium hydroxyapatite (CaH). METHODS: CaH (Radiesse(r)) and SCB gel were injected respectively into the right and left vocal cords of thirty rabbits. The rabbits were distributed into two equal groups and sacrificed at three and twelve weeks after injection. We then evaluated the intensity of the inflammatory reaction, plus levels of neovascularization, fibrogenesis and inflammatory changes in the vocal mucosa. RESULTS: The vocal cords injected with CaH had a stronger inflammatory reaction by giant cells in both study periods. The SCB group had a more intense inflammatory involvement of polymorphonuclear cells three weeks after injection. SCB caused a higher level of neovascularization compared with CaH three weeks after the procedure. CONCLUSION: Whereas calcium hydroxyapatite triggers a more intense and lasting inflammatory reaction mediated by giant cells, sugarcane biopolymer causes a greater response from polymorphonuclear leukocytes, as well as higher levels of vneoascularization three weeks after injection.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To analyze the effectiveness of bacterial cellulose hydrogel as a barrier in preventing postoperative peritoneal adhesion in rat model. METHODS: Experimental study with 45 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were divided into three groups for the following treatments: A. Saline, B. Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose (ORC) barrier, and C Bacterial Cellulose Hydrogel (BCH) barrier. After 45 days of the surgery the adhesions were classified and graded according to the qualitative score. The histological parameters were evaluated using a modified semi-quantitative scale to rate the extent of fibrosis, inflammatory reaction and vascular proliferation. RESULTS: Compared with the saline group (A), the treatments with ORC barrier (B) and BHC barrier (C) resulted in a smaller number of adhesions (p=0.019 and p=0.003 on Fisher's exact test, respectively). Data from inflammation and neovascularization showed no statistically significant difference between the groups BHC and ORC (p=0.426 and 0.446 on chi-square test, respectively). CONCLUSION: Bacterial cellulose hydrogel is effective as a bio-re-absorbable barrier for preventing postoperative peritoneal adhesions.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of the dipeptide L-alanyl-glutamine (L-Ala-Gln) as a preconditioning agent to potentially promote reduction in the intensity of lesion or induction of resilience in rats subjected to global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: Thirty-six male Wistar rats weighing 280-300g were randomly assigned to six groups (n=6). Groups Sham 1h and 24h were treated with saline and spared of further interventions. The remaining groups were submitted to clamping of the common carotid arteries for 30 minutes (ischemia) and treated with saline (SS) or L-Ala-Gln. Brain reperfusion was allowed for 1or 24 h. L-Ala-Gln was administered intravenously (0.75g/kg) 30 minutes before sham procedure or induction of global brain I/R injury. Brain edema and red neuron counting were determined. Results were expressed as Mean±SD for normal results and Median±Percentile for non parametric data. Significance was established at p<0.05. RESULTS: Global I/R injury promoted an increase in brain edema at 24 h after reperfusion, whereas preconditioning with L-Ala-Gln induced no change in edema. On the other hand, L-Ala-Gln preconditioning decreased significantly red neurons counting both at 1h and 24h post reperfusion (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: There was a significant preconditioning effect with L-Ala-Gln decreasing cell death (red neurons counting) at early (1h) and late reperfusion (24h) in the cerebral tissue.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the morphological aspects of the healing of traumatic wounds in rats using low-power laser. METHODS: Twenty four non isogenic, young adult male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing between 200 and 300g was used. The animals were randomly distributed into two groups: Control (GC) and Laser (GL), with 12 animals each. After shaving, anesthesia was performed in the dorsal region and then a surgical procedure using a scapel was carried out to make the traumatic wound. GL received five sessions of laser therapy in consecutive days using the following laser parameters: wavelength 660 nm, power 100 mW, dose 10 J/cm2. The wounds were evaluated through measurement of the area and depth of the wound (MW) and histological analysis (HA). RESULTS: When comparing the GC with the GL in MW there was a difference in area (p<0.001) and depth (p=0.003) measurement of the wounds in GL. The laser group presented more epithelization than GC (p=0.03). The other histological parameters were similar. CONCLUSION: The healing of wounds in rats was improved with the use of the laser.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential of heterologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gel for surgical skin wound healing in rabbits METHODS: Blood from a single healthy dog was used for PRP production, with calcium gluconate added to the PRP to form the gel. Two surgical excisions, one to the right and the other to the left of the dorsal midline, were made in six rabbits. One side was randomly allocated to topical application of a physiological solution, and the other was allocated to treatment with heterologous PRP gel. Clinical assessments (weight, pain sensitivity, coloring, edema, hyperemia, exudation, crust, and granulation) and morphometric evaluations were performed 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 17 days postoperatively. Histological analysis was performed on the 17th day. RESULTS: With the exception of the presence of a crust at day 10, clinical variables did not differ significantly between the experimental groups. In both the control and PRP-treated groups, differences were identified when comparing time-points in terms of wound area reduction. Histological results indicated no significant differences between the control group and the PRP-treated group. CONCLUSION: Heterologous platelet-rich plasma gel promoted dermal wound healing in rabbits with no adverse effects.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes of contractility and reactivity in isolated lymphatics from hemorrhagic shock rats with resuscitation. METHODS: Six rats in the shock group suffered hypotension for 90 min by hemorrhage, and resuscitation with shed blood and equal ringer's solution. Then, the contractility of lymphatics, obtained from thoracic ducts in rats of the shock and sham groups, were evaluated with an isolated lymphatic perfusion system using the indices of contractile frequency (CF), tonic index (TI), contractile amplitude (CA) and fractional pump flow (FPF). The lymphatic reactivity to substance P (SP) was evaluated with the different volume of CF, CA, TI and FPF between pre- and post-treatment of SP at different concentrations. RESULTS: The CF, FPF, and TI of lymphatics obtained from the shocked rats were significantly decreased than that of the sham group. After SP stimulation, the ∆CF (1×10-8, 3×10-8, 1×10-7, 3×10-7mol/L), ∆FPF (1×10-8, 3×10-8, 1×10-7 mol/L), and ∆TI (1×10-8 mol/L) of lymphatics in the shock group were also obviously lower compared with the sham group. In addition, there were no statistical differences in CA and ∆CA between two groups. CONCLUSION: Lymphatic contractility and reactivity to substance P appears reduction following hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate cardiorespiratory effects and serum concentration of ropivacaine combined with morphine at different doses. METHODS: Sixteen healthy adult female dogs weighting 9.8±4.1 kg were included in the study. Twenty minutes after being premedicated with acepromazine and midazolam, the animals were randomly assigned to receive an epidural injection according to each group: RM0.15 = ropivacaine + morphine (0.15 mg kg-1) and RM0.2 = ropivacaine + morphine (0.2 mg kg-1). Variables recorded consisted of: heart rate and cardiac rhythm, respiratory rate, oxyhemoglobin saturation, inspired oxygen fraction, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension, systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressures, serum cortisol, plasma ropivacaine and morphine. RESULTS: SAP, MAP and DAP were significantly increased at TPR in RM0.15 but returned to normal values at the end of the procedure. Arterial pH was decreased in T30 and TESu in both groups and also returned to acceptable ranges at TR. Both PaO2 and PaCO2 were increased along the duration period of the epidural blockade (T30 and TESu) and returned to acceptable values at TR. Serum cortisol was lower at TB, T30 and TR when compared to TESu. CONCLUSION: The procedures were performed safely and minimal changes in cardiovascular and respiratory variables.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To assess comparative results of robot-assisted radical laparoscopic prostatectomy (RARP) performed by surgeons without any experience in laparoscopic prostatectomy and the open procedure performed by surgeons with large experience. METHODS: We analyzed 84 patients (50 subjected to robotic surgery) from June 2012 to September 2013. Data were prospectively collected in a customized database. Two surgeons carried out all the RARP cases. These two surgeons and six more performed the open cases. The perioperative outcomes between the two groups were analyzed with a minimum followup of 12 months. RESULTS: The corporal mass index (BMI) was higher in the open group (p=0.001). There was more operatve time, less hospitalization and blood loss, better trifecta and pentafecta and earlier continence (p=0.045) in the robotic group (p=0.001). There was no difference in positive surgical margins but with greater extraprostatic extension in the open group (p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy is a safe procedure even in the hands of surgeons with no previous experience. Besides this, better operative outcomes can be reached with this modern approach.