Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate whether topical renal hypothermia (TRH) at different levels of temperature has protective effects on lung tissue after renal I/R, through an analysis of organ histology and inflammatory markers in lung tissue. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly allocated across four groups and subjected to renal ischemia at different levels of topical renal temperature: normothermia (no cooling, 37°C), mild hypothermia (26°C), moderate hypothermia (15°C), and deep hypothermia (4°C). To induce I/R, the vessels supplying the left kidney of each animal were clamped for 40 minutes, followed by reperfusion. After four hours, another procedure was performed to harvest the tissues of interest. TNF-α, IL-1β and myeloperoxidase activity were measured in lung tissue. Histological analysis was performed in hematoxylin and eosin-stained lung specimens. RESULTS: Induction of renal I/R under deep topical hypothermia resulted in a significant decrease in lung concentrations of TNF-α compared with normothermic I/R (p<0.05). A trend toward significant correlation was found between lung IL-1β concentration and intensity of hypothermia (Spearman r=−0.37; p=0.055). No difference was found in myeloperoxidase activity or histologic injury between groups. CONCLUSION: Topical renal hypothermia reduces activation of the inflammatory cascade in the lung parenchyma. However, tissue-protective effects were not observed.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To study the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) liver injury and in the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in a rat model. METHODS: Thirty-six male rats were divided in three groups: Sham; I/R injury, a 45 minutes lobar liver ischemia and reperfusion; and RIPC, six cycles of four minutes of ischemia and four minutes of reperfusion on the right hindlimb followed by a 45 minutes lobar liver ischemia and reperfusion. Tissue and blood samples were collected after 1h and 3h of reperfusion for histopathological study, plasma cytokines and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) measurement. RESULTS: The histopathological study demonstrated a significant reduction in liver necrosis in the RIPC group (p<0,001). The ALT levels were also significant lower in the RIPC group (p<0.01). The cytokines assessment showed that IL-6 levels were increased in the RIPC group after 1h of reperfusion, in comparison to the I/R group (p<0.05). Interleukin-10 levels in RIPC groups did not differ significantly from I/R group. CONCLUSIONS: Remote ischemic preconditioning is effective in decreasing liver necrosis in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion. The IL-6 expression is up-regulated and peaked at 60 min of reperfusion. There was no difference in IL-10 expression between the groups.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the vitality of the spleen lower pole after subtotal splenectomy with suture to the stomach and after posterior peritoneal gastro-splenic membrane section, using macro and microscopic evaluations. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats were used in this study and were randomly distributed in the three groups: Group 1: (n=20), subtotal splenectomy with lower pole preservation, Group 2: (n=20) subtotal splenectomy with lower pole preservation and suture to the stomach, Group 3: subtotal splenectomy with lower pole preservation and posterior peritoneal gastrosplenic ligament section. The animals were sacrificed 45 days after the surgery and the spleen lower poles were removed for macroscopic and microscopic examination. RESULTS: All animals in this series survived. No macroscopic differences were encountered between the groups. Microscopic evaluation observed statistic difference concerning fibrosis between group 1 and 3 (p≤0.05), but the analysis for necrosis and inflammation presented no differences. CONCLUSION: Vitality of the spleen lower pole after subtotal splenectomy is minimally modified when it is fixed to the stomach or when the posterior peritoneal gastrosplenic ligament is resected.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: In the pathophysiology of sepsis tissue perfusion dysfunction is a crucial driving force. Thus the early recognition is highly important. Concerning the early hours of bacteremia, and the systemic inflammatory response reaction leading to sepsis we aimed to investigate the micro- and macrocirculatory changes. METHODS: In 20 juvenile Hungahib pigs were anesthetized and the femoral artery and external jugular vein were prepared unilaterally and cannulated. For assisted ventilation tracheostomy was performed. In Sepsis group (n=11) live E. coli was intravenously administered (increasing concentration, 9.5x10∧6 in 3h). In Control group (n=9) bacteria-free saline was administered at the same volume. Modified shock index (MSI), core and skin temperature, and skin microcirculation (laser Doppler) were measured before inducing bacteremia then hourly for 4h. RESULTS: In Control group parameters were stable, while six animals in the Sepsis group died before the 4th hour. Core and skin temperature did not show significant alterations. In Sepsis group microcirculation showed a large impairment already by the 1st hour, while in MSI only by the 3rd hour. CONCLUSION: During bacteremia and the early phase of sepsis microcirculatory impairment can be detected soon, even hours before the deterioration in hemodynamic parameters in this porcine model.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the penile morphological modifications of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with supra-physiological doses of anabolic androgenic steroids. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: two control groups, 105- and 65-day-old (C105 and C65, respectively) injected with peanut oil (vehicle); and two treated groups, 105- and 65-day-old (T105 and T65, respectively) injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg Kg-1 of body weight. The rats were injected once a week for eight weeks. The rats were then killed and their penises were processed for histomorphometric analyses. The mean of each parameter was statistically compared. RESULTS: A corpus cavernosum reduction of 12.5% and 10.9% was observed in the T105 and T65 groups, respectively, when compared with their respective control groups. The cavernosum smooth muscle surface density diminished by 5.6% and 12.9% in the T65 and T105 groups, respectively, when compared with their controls. In contrast, the sinusoidal space increased by 17% in the T105 group and decreased by 9.6% in the T65 group. CONCLUSION: The use of supra-physiological doses of AAS promotes structural changes in the rat penis, by altering the proportions of corpus cavernosum tissues, in both pubertal and adult treated animals.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To study racemic bupivacaine, non-racemic bupivacaine and ropivacaine on myocardial contractility. METHODS: Isolated Wistar papillary muscles were submitted to 50 and 100 mM racemic bupivacaine (B50 and B100), non-racemic bupivacaine (NR50 and NR100) and ropivacaine (R50 and R100) intoxication. Isometric contraction data were obtained in basal condition (0.2 Hz), after increasing the frequency of stimulation to 1.0 Hz and after 5, 10 and 15 min of local anesthetic intoxication. Data were analyzed as relative changes of variation. RESULTS: Developed tension was higher with R100 than B100 at D1 (4.3 ± 41.1 vs -57.9 ± 48.1). Resting tension was altered with B50 (-10.6 ± 23.8 vs -4.7 ± 5.0) and R50 (-14.0 ± 20.5 vs -0.5 ± 7.1) between D1 and D3. Maximum rate of tension development was lower with B100 (-56.6 ± 38.0) than R50 (-6.3 ± 37.9) and R100 (-1.9 ± 37.2) in D1. B50, B100 and NR100 modified the maximum rate of tension decline from D1 through D2. Time to peak tension was changed with NR50 between D1 and D2. CONCLUSIONS: Racemic bupivacaine depressed myocardial contractile force more than non-racemic bupivacaine and ropivacaine. Non-racemic and racemic bupivacaine caused myocardial relaxation impairment more than ropivacaine.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To extract the Melaleuca sp. oil and to assess its in vitro inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from lower limb wounds and resistant to several antibiotics. METHODS: A total of 14 test-tubes containing Mueller-Hinton broth were used to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The following concentrations of the Melaleuca sp. oil were added to the first 11 tubes: 8; 4; 2; 1; 0.5; 0.2; 0.1; 0.05; 0.025; 0.0125 and 0.00625%. The 12th and 13th tubes, with and without oil, were used as the positive and negative controls, respectively. The experimental study was carried out in triplicate at 37ºC for 18 hours. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), able of killing all the microorganisms, was also determined. Two S. aureus isolates were obtained from lower limb wounds of female patients and the identification of the microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus) and the test for susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents were carried out by automation using the apparatus MicroScan(r). After identification, the isolates were preserved in liquid Trypticase Soy medium, and inoculated for determination of the MIC and MBC. RESULTS: The MIC was 0.2% and the MBC was 0.4%. CONCLUSION: The Melaleuca sp. oil showed antimicrobial properties in vitro against strains isolated from lower limb wounds which were resistant to multiple antibiotics.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of isoxsuprine and nicotine on TRAM. METHODS: Forty eight 48 Wistar rats distributed into four Groups (n=12). All rats received medication managed daily for 20 days: saline solution (SA), nicotine solution (NI), isoxsuprine solution (IS) and nicotine solution (NI) + isoxsuprine solution (IS). On day 21st the rats were submitted to the caudally based, right unipedicled TRAM flap and after 48 hours, made the macroscopic evaluation of the surface of the flap, photographic documentation and collection of material for histology. Data from macroscopic evaluation were analyzed by ANOVA and microscopic evaluation by Kruskal-Wallis test, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: In the macroscopic evaluation of isoxsuprine Group retail presented absolute numbers: final area (p=0.001*) and viable area (p=0.006*) with the highest values; necrosis (p=0.001*) had the lowest value. Microscopic examination revealed no significant findings in the study of TRAM under the action of isoxsuprine and nicotine to the percentage of necrosis in the left and right cranial and caudal regions. CONCLUSIONS: There was significant improvement in viability of TRAM using the isoxsuprine solution alone. No influence using nicotine alone and in association with isoxsuprine.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnosis improvement of EUS-FNA when using ROSE performed by the endosonographer. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. A total of 48 pancreatic solid masses EUS-FNA were divided into two groups according to the availability of on-site cytology (ROSE) - the first 24 patients (group A-without ROSE) and the latter 24 cases (group B-with ROSE). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy, complications and inadequacy rate of EUS-FNA were determined and compared. RESULTS: Among the 48 EUS-FNA, the overall performance was: sensitivity 82%; specificity 100%; positive predictive value (PPV) 100%; negative predictive value (NPV) 70% and accuracy 87%. The sensitivity of the Group A was 71%, versus 94% in-group B (p=0.61). Moreover, the negative predictive value was 58% versus 87% (p=0.72). The accuracy rate increased from 79% to 96% (p=0.67) in the ROSE group. The number of punctures was similar between the groups. No major complications were reported. CONCLUSION: Rapid on-site cytopathological examination, even when performed by the endosonographer, may improve the diagnostic performance in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions, regardless of the slight increase in the number of punctures.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To determine the limitations of the photographs used to obtain the anthropometric measurements of the breast region. METHODS: Five women, between the ages of 18 to 60 years, were evaluated. Photographs of the frontal and left and right profile views of their breasts were taken. Based on the current literature, the most commonly used anthropometric and anatomic landmarks for breast measurement were marked in their different positions. The different points were used to evaluate if the direct anthropometry was possible in a standardized way and determine how the points and the positions can to be used in any breast measurements. RESULTS: There were some limitations to the use of defining points of the breast fold, as well as of its lower portion and lateral extension positions in both profiles. CONCLUSION: The defining points of the breast fold and the profile photographs have some limitations and we suggested how the points and positions can be used for breasts measurements.